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Biological Profiles




DARK SHYSHARK
Order - Carcharhiniformes
Family - Scyliorhinidae
Genus - Haploblepharus
Species - pictus
dark shyshark

Taxonomy

Müller & Henle originally described the dark shyshark as Scyllium pictum in 1838. This name was later changed to the currently valid scientific name of Haploblepharus pictus Müller & Henle 1838. Johannes Peter Müller (1801-1858) was a German physiologist and comparative anatomist with a keen interest in fishes and marine invertebrates. Friedrich G. J. Henle (1807-1885) was also a German physiologist as well as a pathologist and histologist.

The genus name Haploblepharus is derived from the Greek "haploos" meaning single and "blepharos" meaning eyelash. Scyliorhinidae is the largest shark family with at least 15 genera and over 110 species. They are known as catsharks due to their elongated cat-like eyes, although a few species are referred to as dogfish.


Common Names

English language common names are dark shyshark, dark shy shark, and shyshark. Other common names include alitán obscuro (Spanish), donker skaamoog (Afrikaans), donkere schaamhaai (Dutch), mácka tmavá (Czech), roussette sombre (French), skaamhaai (Afrikaans), and tmavý žralok stydlivý (Czech).


Geographical Distribution

The dark shyshark resides in the waters of the southeast Atlantic Ocean from Namibia to southwestern Cape Province, South Africa.

World distribution map for the dark shyshark


Habitat

This small demersal shark inhabits inshore waters of the continental shelf and is most commonly observed in shallow sandy-bottom habitats.


Biology

Dark shyshark
© Doug Perrine


ˇ Distinctive Features
The dark shyshark has a stout body and broad head. This species, as with all members of Scyliorhinidae, possess rudimentary nictitating lower eyelids. The anterior nasal flaps are subtrianbular and do not overlap the mouth posteriorly. The gills slits are located dorsolaterally on each side of the body. The origin of the first dorsal fin is located in front of the pelvic fin insertions.


ˇ Coloration
The body of this shyshark is yellowish-brown with dark markings and a few larger lighter colored spots lacking black margins. There are seven dark brown to black dorsal saddles. The fins are yellowish-brown in color.


ˇDentition
The mouth is positioned ventrally, possessing several rows of multi-cuspid teeth.


ˇSize, Age, and Growth
The maximum reported length of the dark shyshark is 22.4 inches (57cm) total length (TL).


ˇ Food Habits
Dark shysharks feed on small bottom-dwelling fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods.


ˇ Reproduction
The dark shyshark is oviparous with one egg released per oviduct. The egg cases are 2.4 inches (6cm) in length and 1.2 inches (3cm) wide. In captivity, one egg case hatched in approximately 3.5 months.


ˇ Predators
Potential predators include large fish including sharks as well as marine mammals.


ˇ Parasites
A parasite found in the blood of the dark shyshark (and its close relative the puffadder shyshark) is the trypanosome Trypanosoma haploblephari. It is the first species of trypanosome described from sharks residing in South African waters.


Importance to Humans

Although not important commercially, this shark is captured in local subsistence fisheries. This species is often caught with rod and reel by recreational surf anglers. However, it is considered a little-utilized species due to its small size. It is probably discarded from bottom trawlers in the region as bycatch while recreational fishers often discard the dark shyshark (among other catsharks) as bycatch due to its reputation as a minor pest species.


Dark shyshark
© Doug Perrine


Danger to Humans

The dark shyshark poses little threat to humans due to its small size and feeding habits.


Conservation

The dark shyshark is not listed as endangered or vulnerable with the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The IUCN is a global union of states, governmental agencies, and non-governmental organizations in a partnership that assesses the conservation status of species. This small catshark resides in a very limited range off the coast of southern Africa. This region is heavily fished and has potentially degraded inshore water quality. If fishing increases in inshore waters or habitat is further degraded, the population of this endemic species could be greatly impacted.




Prepared by:

Cathleen Bester