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GOBLIN SHARK
Order - Lamniformes
Family - Mitsukurinidae
Genus - Mitsukurina
Species - owstoni
Goblin shark

Taxonomy

The goblin shark was first described in 1898, by Jordan, as Mitsukurina. This genus has been synonymized with the fossil Scapanorhynchus described by Woodward, 1889. The relationship between the two genus has been debated. Currently, the Mitsukurina family includes Mitsukurina owstoni and the fossil species of Scapanorhynchus and Anomotodon. Other synonymous names include Odontaspis nautus Branganza 1904, Scapanorhynchus jordani Hussakof 1909, and Scapanorhynchus dofleini Engelhardt 1912.


Common Names

This shark is known as the goblin shark in the Unites States, Australia, New Zealand, England, and South Africa. It also referred too as elfin shark (English ), hiisihai (Finnish), Japanese neushaai (Dutch), Japanischer nasenhai (German), kabouterhaai (Dutch and Afrikaans), karsahai (Finnish), Koboldhaai ( Dutch), koboldhai (German), lensuháfur (Icelandic), mitsukurizame ( Japanese), naesehaj (Danish), Nasenhai (German), näshaj (Swedish), nesehai (Norwegian), neushaai (Dutch), requin lutin (French), schoffelneushaai (Dutch), squalo folletto (Dutch), squalo goblin ( Italian), teguzame (Japanese), teppichhai (German), tiburón duende (Spanish), trollhaj (Swedish), tubarão-demónio (Portuguese), tubarão-gnomo (Portuguese), zoozame (Japanese), and žralok škriatok (Czech).


Geographical Distribution

The deep-water goblin shark is thought to be widely distributed. Specimens have been seen in the Atlantic off the coast of Guyana, Surinam, French Guyana, France, Madeira, Senegal, Portugal, Gulf of Guinea, and South Africa. It has also been reported in the western pacific off Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In the Indian Ocean it is found in South Africa and Mozambique. It was recently recorded in the United States near San Clemente Island off the coast of California as well as in the northern Gulf of Mexico south of Pascagoula, Mississippi. Few specimens have ever been caught making it one of the rarest species of sharks.


World distribution map for the goblin shark


Habitat

The goblin shark is a bottom-dwelling shark that is rarely seen at the surface or in shallow coastal waters. This species is found along the outer continental shelves, upper slopes, and off seamounts. Most specimens have been observed near continental slopes between 885 feet (270m) and 3149 feet (960m) deep. It has been found in waters up to 4265 feet (1,300m) deep and in waters as shallow as 311 feet (95m) to 449 feet (137m). Records indicate that the goblin could also be an oceanic species.


Biology

Goblin shark
courtesy FAO
goblin shark
· Distinctive Features
The goblin shark can be easily identified by its elongated and flattened snout. It has a distinctly long head, tiny eyes and five short gill openings. The mouth is large and parabolic in shape. Its body is soft and flabby.

Underside of goblin shark head
© George Burgess
goblin shark


This shark has a long caudal fin without a ventral lobe. The pectoral fins are short and broad and the two dorsal fins are small, rounded and equal in size. The anal fin is rounded and smaller than the dorsal fins, while the pelvic fins are larger than the dorsals. The goblin shark has a long protrusable jaw with long slender teeth. Its body characteristics suggest that it is a slow moving shark with a density close to seawater.


· Coloration
Living goblin sharks are a pinkish white color with bluish fins. Specimens fade and become brownish when preserved in alcohol.


Goblin shark jaw
© George Burgess
goblin jaw


Upper and lower teeth from left side
courtesy FAO
goblin shark dentition
· Dentition

Goblin sharks have 26 large, narrow, awl-like teeth on their upper jaw and 24 on their lower jaw. They have three rows of anterior teeth on each side of both jaws. The teeth in the anterior upper jaw are separated from the smaller upper lateral teeth by a gap.


· Denticles

The goblin shark has small and rough dermal denticles. The denticles have crowns with narrow cusps and ridges. The cusps of the lateral denticles occur perpendicular to the skin.



· Size, Age, and Growth
Mature male goblins have been found to be 8.66 feet (264cm), 10.49 feet (320cm) and 12.6 feet (384cm) in total length. Mature females have been measured to be 11 feet (335cm) and 12.2 feet (372cm). Size at birth is not known but the smallest specimen found was 3.51 feet (107cm). The maximum reported length of the goblin shark is 12.6 feet (384cm). This specimen weighed 463 pounds (210kg).


Goblin sharks feed on a variety of prey including the blackbelly rosefish (Helicolenus dactylopterus) and various crabs
courtesy NOAA
goblin shark prey
· Food Habits
The goblin shark uses a sense system known as ampullae of Lorenzini, found in its snout, for electrodetection of prey. The jaws are modified for rapid projection to aid in the capture of prey. The jaw is thrust forward by a double set of ligaments at the mandibular joints. When the jaws are retracted the ligaments are stretched and they become relaxed when the jaw is projected forward. The jaws are usually held tightly while swimming and function like a catapult when the animal wants to feed. Its slender narrow teeth suggest it mainly feeds on soft body prey including shrimps, pelagic octopus, fish, and squid. It is also thought to feed on crabs. The posterior teeth are specialized for crushing.


· Reproduction
The goblin shark is thought to be ovoviviparous; however, a pregnant female has never been captured. Records have shown that mature females visit the east coast of Honshu during the springtime, which could be related to reproduction patterns.


· Parasites
A 419 pound (190kg) male collected off Ulladulla, New South Wales, Australia was found to have four different species of tapeworms. These internal parasites were recovered from the spiral intestine. These included two new species: Litobothrium amsichensis and Marsupiobothrium gobelinus.


Importance to Humans

There is minimal commercial interest for the goblin shark. It is fished only as a bycatch of deepwater trawl, longlines and deep-set gill nets. It has been dried-salted for human consumption. Although it is thought to be a great exhibit, it has rarely been kept in captivity. One specimen survived in an aquarium for a week at Tokai University, Shimizu, Japan.


Danger to Humans

The goblin shark seldom comes in contact with humans; however, because of its large size it could be potentially dangerous.


Conservation

The goblin shark is listed as "Least Concern" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as endangered, threatened, or vulnerable. The IUCN is a global union of states, governmental agencies, and non-governmental organizations in a partnership that assesses the conservation status of species.


Prepared by:

Vanessa Jordan