Pelagic Elasmobranch Bibliography

compiled by:
George H. Burgess, Amanda J. Chunco, Wendy M. Nadik, and Sharon Johnson
Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611

This bibliography is an initial attempt at providing a listing of publications dealing with the thirteen species of elasmobranchs addressed at the International Pelagic Shark Workshop held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, California on 14-17 February 2000. While not considered inclusive, it likely includes the most frequently cited references involving the targeted species. We intend to use this document as a starting point for a more comprehensive electronic listing that will be posted aboard the home page of the Florida Museum of Natural History's Ichthyology web site (see address above). The searchable database will be updated continuously and conferees and interested users of this list are encouraged to forward copies of new and omitted publications to George H. Burgess at the above address so that they can be key-worded and entered into the database.

The acronyms utilized in designating species addressed in each citation are:

  • Pelagic thresher shark, Alopias pelagicus AP
  • Bigeye thresher shark, Alopias superciliosus AS
  • Common thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus AV
  • Eastern Pacific thresher shark, Alopias n.sp. AN
  • Shortfin mako shark, Isurus oxyrinchus IO
  • Longfin mako shark, Isurus paucus IP
  • Salmon shark, Lamna ditropis LD
  • Porbeagle shark, Lamna nasus LN
  • Silky shark, Carcharhinus falciformis CF
  • Oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus CL
  • Night shark, Carcharhinus signatus CS
  • Blue shark, Prionace glauca PG
  • Pelagic stingray, Dasyatis violacea DV

Pelagic Elasmobranch Bibliography
PelagicBiblioVer1: 21 January 2000

Aasen, O. 1964. Length and growth of the porbeagle (Lamna nasus, Bonnaterre) in the North West Atlantic. Rep. Norw. Fish. Mar. Invest. 13(6): 20-37. [LN].

Aasen, O. 1966. Blåhaiem, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758). Fisken Og Havet. 11-16. [PG].

Aflalo, F.G. 1898. A sketch of the Natural History (Vertebrates) of the British Islands. Edinburgh & London, Blackwood, xiv + 498. [PG].

Ainley, D.G., Henderson, R.P., Huber, H.R., Boekelheide, R.J., Allen, S.G. and McElroy, T.L. 1985. Dynamics of white shark/pinniped interactions in the Gulf of the Farallones. Mem. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 9: 109-122. [PG].

Ainley, D.G., Strong, C.S., Huber, H.R., Lewis, T.J. and Morrell, S.H. 1980. Predation by sharks on pinnipeds at the Farallon Islands. Fish. Bull. (U.S.). 78(4): 941-945. [PG].

Aldrovandi, U. 1613. De Piscibus libri V, et de Cetis liber unus. Bononiae; vi + 732 + 28 pl. [PG].

Allen, G. 1997. Marine Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and South-east Asia. Western Australian Museum, 292 p. [PG CF CL IO AP]

Allen, T.B. 1999. The Shark Almanac. Lyons Press, 274. p. [AP AS AV IO IP LD LN CF CL CS PG].

Amorim, AF. 1992. Estudo do biologica da pesca e reproducão do cacão-azul, Prionace glauca L. 1758, capturado no sudeste e sul do Brasil. São Paulo: UNESP, 205 pp. [PG].

Amorim, A.F. and Arfelli, C.A. 1993. Status of shark species off the Brazilian coast. Fourth Indo-Pacific Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, Programs and Abstracts of Papers. Bangkok, p. 64. [PG].

Anderson, E.D. 1980. MSY estimate of pelagic sharks in the Western North Atlantic: U.S. Dep. of Commerce, NOAA, NMFS, NEFC,Woods Hole Lab. Ref. Doc. No. 80-18, 13 pp. [IO]

Anderson, E.D. 1985. Analysis of various sources of pelagic shark catches in the Northwest and Western Central Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico with comments on catches of other large pelagics. U.S. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 31: 1-14. [PG LN IO CF].

Anderson, E.D. 1990. Estimates of large shark catches in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, 1960-1986. U.S. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 90: 443-454. [LN].

Anderson, E.D. 1990. Fishery models as applied to elasmobranch fisheries. U.S. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 90: 473-484. [LN].

Anderson, O.F., Bagley, N.W., Hurst, R.J., Francis, M.P., Clark, M.R. and McMillan, P.J. 1998. Atlas of New Zealand fish and squid distributions from research bottom trawls. NIWA Technical Report 42, 303 p. [AV].

Anderson, R.C. 1990. Summary results of the offshore fishing survey. Rasain 10: 126-130. [CF PG].

Anderson, R.C. and Ahmed, H. 1993. The shark fisheries in the Maldives. Republic of Maldives, Ministry of Fish. Agric., 73 p. [IO CF CL PG AS AV].

Anderson, R.C., Randall, J.E. and Kuiter, R.H. 1998. New records of fishes from the Maldive Islands, with notes on other species. Serial Publications of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 67: 20-32. [AP].

Anderson, R.C. and Waheed, Z. 1999. Management of shark fisheries in the Maldives, pp. 367-401. In: Shotton, R., ed. Case studies in the management of elasmobranch fisheries. Rome: FAO 378/1. [AP, AS, AV, IO, CF, CL, PG].

Andriyashev, A.P. 1964. Fishes of the Northern Seas of the U.S.S.R. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translations. 617 p. [LN].

Anon. 1995. Scotia-Fundy Spring 1995 Stock Status Report for Pelagics, Invertebrates and Marine Mammals. DFO Atl. Fish. Scotia-Fundy Reg. SSR 95/1. [PG LN IO].

Antunes, M.T. 1970. Presence de Alopias superciliosus (Lowe) dans les mers du Portugal remarques sur les Alopias (Selachii) recents et fossiles. Arq. Mus.Bocage 2(19): 363-378. [AS].

Applegate, S.P. 1966. A possible record-sized bonito shark, Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, from southern California. Calif. Fish Game 52(3): 204-207. [IO].

Applegate, S.P. 1977. A new record-sized bonito shark, Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, from southern California. Calif. Fish Game 63(2): 126-129. [IO].

Applegate, S.P., Soltelo-Macias, F. and Espinosa-Arrubarrena, L. 1993. An overview of Mexican shark fisheries, with suggestions for shark conservation in Mexico. U.S. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 115: 31-37. [LD IO IP AP AV AS CS CF CL].

Arfelli, C.A. and Amorim, A.F. 1994. Shark fishery from Santos sp. longliners off south and southeast of Brazil. In:Proceedings Fourth Indo-Pacific Fish Conference; Nov 28- Dec 4, 1993; Bangkok, Thailand. Kasetart Univ. 173-186. 502 p. [PG].

Arfelli, C.A., Amorim, A.F. and Maia, A.L.R. 1985. Analise biologico - pesqueira de carao - azul, Prionace glauca L., desembarcado en Santos (1971-85). Assoc. Brasil. Oceanol., 2nd Encontro Brasileiro de Oceanoligos. Programa e Resumos 53. [PG].

Au, D W. 1998. Protecting the reproductive value of swordfish and other billfishes, pp. 219-225. In: Barrett, I., Sosa-Nishizaki, O. and Bartoo, N. eds. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Pacific Swordfish. Dec. 11-14, 1994, Ensenada, Mexico. U.S Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 142, 276 p.

Backus, R.H. 1957. Distributional records of fishes from waters off New England and the Middle Atlantic states. Copeia 1957(3): 242-248. [CS].

Backus, R.H. 1957. Notes on Western North Atlantic Sharks. Copeia 1957: 246-248. [PG IO].

Backus, R.H. 1960. Notes on western north Atlantic sharks, No. 2. Copeia 1960(3): 243-245. [LN].

Backus, R.H., Springer, S. and Arnold, E.L. 1956. A contribution to the natural history of the white-tip shark, Pterolamiops longimanus (Poey). Deep-Sea Research 3: 178-188. [CL].

Bagley, N.W., Anderson, O.F., Hurst, R.J., Francis, M.P. Taylor, P.R., Clark, M.R. and Paul, L.J. 2000. Atlas of New Zealand fish and squid distributions from midwater trawls, tuna longline sets, and aerial sightings, NIWA Technical Report 72. [AV, IO, LN, PG, DV].

Bane, G.W. 1966. Observations on the silky shark, Carcharhinus falciformis, in the Gulf of Guinea. Copeia 1966(2): 354-356. [CF].

Barcellos, B.N. 1957. Ictiofauna de Rio Grande do Sul. II. Sobre "Alopias vulpinus" (Bonnaterre, 1788). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 17(4): 531-536. [AV].

Bass, A.J. 1970. Shark distribution and movements along the eastern coast of South Africa. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. (Durban). Paper G5. 13 pp.

Bass, A.J. 1973. Analysis and description of variation in the proportional dimensions of scyliorhinid, carcharhinid, and sphyrnid sharks. S. Afr. Assoc. Mar. Biol. Res. Invest. Rep. 32. 28 p. [CL].

Bass, A.J., D'Aubrey, J.D. and Kistnasamy, N. 1973. Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. I. The genus Carcharhinus(Carcharhinidae). Invest. Rep. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. 33: 1-168. [CF CL].

Bass, A.J., D'Aubrey, J.D. and Kistnasamy, N. 1975. Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. III. The families Carcharhinidae (excluding Mustelus and Carcharhinus) and Sphyrnidae. Invest. Rep. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. 38: 1-100. [PG].

Bass, A.J., D'Aubrey, J.D. and Kistnasamy, N. 1975. Sharks of the east coast of southern Africa. IV. The families Odontaspididae, Scapanorhynchidae, Isuridae, Cetorhinidae, Alopiidae, Orectolobidae and Rhiniodontidae. Invest. Rep. Oceanogr. Res. Inst. 39: 1-102. [LN IO IP AP AV AS].

Baughman, J.L. and Springer, S. 1950. Biological and economic notes on the sharks of the western Gulf of Mexico, with especial reference to those of Texas, and with a key for their identification. Am. Midl. Nat. 44(1): 96-152. [PG].

Beckett, J.S. 1970. Swordfish, sharks, and tuna tagging 1961-69. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, Bull. Tech. Rep. 193. 13 p. [IO LN CF PG].

Bedford, D.W. 1985. Pelagic shark/swordfish drift gill net fishery. Management Information Document. Calif. Dept. Fish and Game 74 pp. [AV]

Bedford, D.W. 1987. Shark management: A case history--the California pelagic shark and swordfish fishery, pp. 161-171. In:Cook, S., Sharks: An inquiry into biology, behavior, fisheries, and use. Portland, Oregon State University. EM 8330. [AV].

Bedford, D.W. 1992. Shortfin mako, pp 51-53. In: Leet, W.S., Dewees, C.M. and Haugen, C.W. eds. California's living marine resources and their utilization. Cal. Sea Grant Extension, UCSGEP-92-12. [IO].

Bedford, D.W. 1992. Thresher shark, pp. 49-51. In: Leet, W.S., Dewees, C.M. and Haugen, C.W., eds. California's living marine resources and their utilization. Cal. Sea Grant Extension; UCSGEP-92-12. [IO].

Bedford, D.W. and Hagerman, F.B. 1983. The billfish fishery resource of the California Current: California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations. Report XXIV. 70-78. [IO].

Beebe, W. 1932. Nonsuch: Land of Water. N.Y.: Brewer, Warren & Putman, 259 p. [PG].

Beebe, W. and Tee-Van, J. 1941. Eastern Pacific expeditions of the New York Zoological Society. 25. Fishes from the tropical eastern Pacific. Part 2. Sharks. Zoologica (N.Y.). 26: 93-122. [AV LN IO PG].

Berdegué A. 1956. Peces de importancia comercial en la costa nor-occidental de México. Secretaria de Marina, Direccion General de Pesca e Industrias Conexas, Fom. Rural, Sria. de Marina, 345 p. [LD AV PG].

Berkeley, S.A. and Campos, W.L. 1988. Relative abundance and fishery potential of pelagic sharks along Florida's east coast. Mar. Fish. Rev. 50(1): 9-16. [CS CF IO AS].

Berkson, J.M. 1985. A population analysis of the common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus). Calif. Dept. Fish and Game, 16 pp. [AV].

Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C. 1927. Notes on northwest Atlantic sharks and skates. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll. 68(5): 239-251. [IO LN].

Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C. 1948. Sharks, pp. 59-546. In: Tee-Van, J. et al. (eds.), Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Mem. Sears Found. Mar. Res. 1(1). [AS AV LN IO PG CF CL].

Bigelow, H.B., Schroeder, W.C. and Springer, S. 1943. A new species of Carcharhinus from the western Atlantic. Proc. New England Zool. Club. 22: 69-74. [CF].

Bini, G. 1967. Atlante dei Pesci delle Coste Italiane. Vol. I. Leptocardi-Ciclostomi-Selaci: Mondo Sommerso Editrice; 206 p. [LN AV PG].

Blacker, R.W. 1969. English observations on rare fish in 1968. Cons. Explor. Mer, Ann. Biol. 25: 257-259. [LN].

Blacker, R.W. 1972. English observations on rare fish in 1972. Cons. Explor. Mer, Ann. Biol. 27: 193-195. [LN].

Blacker, R.W. 1973. English observations on rare fish in 1971. Cons. Explor. Mer, Ann. Biol. 28: 221-222. [AV].

Blagoderov, A.I. 1994. Seasonal distribution and some notes on the biology of salmon shark (Lamna ditropis) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. J. Ichthyol. 34(2): 115-121. [LD].

Blasco, M. and Munoz-Chapuli, R. 1981. Presencia de Alopias superciliosus en las costas Ibericas y datos sobre su morfologia. Auq. Mus. Boc. (Ser. B). 1(6): 53-64. [AS].

Boeckmann, C.E.; Hazin, F.H.; Lucena, F.M., and Menni, R.C. 1993. Descricao morfométrica, distribuicao e abundancia do tubarão tuninha , Carcharhinus signatus, no Atlántico sudoeste equatorial. Anais 45 Reuniao Soc. Bras. Progr. Cienca. G 1.8, Zool. 923. [CS].

Boeckman, C.E., Menni, R.C. and Hazin, F.H.V. 1993. Aspectos da populacao de Carcharhinus signatus (Poey, 1868) do Atlantico Sudoeste Equatorial, p. 11. In: Resumos VI Reuniao do Grupo de Trabalho sobre Pesca e Pesquisa de Tubaroes e Raias no Brasil. Recife, Brazil. [CS].

Boeckman, C.E., Menni, R.C. and Hazin, F.H.C. 1993. Observacoes sobres a biologia de Carcharhinus signatus (Poey, 1868), no Atlantico Sudoeste Equatorial, p. 25. In. Resumos VI Reuniao do Grupo de Trabalho sobre Pesca e Pesquisa de Tubaroes e Raias no Brasil. Recife, Brazil. [CS].

Bone, Q. and Roberts, B.L. 1969. The density of elasmobranchs. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 1969(49): 913-937. [LN PG].

Bonfil, R. 1994. Overview of world elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. Paper 341, 119 pp. [CL].

Bonfil, R. 1996. Status of shark resources in the Southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean: implications for management. Fisheries Res. 29: 101-117. [AS AV IO CF CL CS].

Bonfil, R., Mena, R. and de Anda, D. 1993. Biological parameters of commercially exploited silky sharks, Carcharhinus falciformis, from Campeche Bank, Mexico. U.S. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS. 115: 73-86. [CF].

Boschung, H.T. 1979. The sharks of the Gulf of Mexico. Nature Notebook. Ala. Mus. Nat. Hist., 416 pp. [IO AV AS PG CF CL].

Bozhkov, A.T. 1975. An instance of attack by a swordfish (Xiphias gladius) on a mako shark (Isurus glaucus). J. Ichthyol. 15(5): 842-843. [IO].

Branstetter, S. 1981. Biological notes on the sharks of the north central Gulf of Mexico. Contr. Mar. Sci. Univ. Texas. vol. 24: 13-34. [CF CS IO AS AV].

Branstetter, S. 1981. Shark fishery potential for the northern Gulf of Mexico. Dauphin Isl. Sea. Lab. (Ala.) Tech. Rep. 81-001, 21 pp. [AS].

Branstetter, S. 1986. Biological parameters of the sharks of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico in relation to their potential as a commercial fishery resource. College Station: Texas A&M Univ., 138 pp. [AS].

Branstetter, S. 1987. Age, growth, and reproductive biology of the silky shark, Carcharhinus falciformis, and the scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Env. Biol. Fishes. 19(3): 161-173. [CF].

Branstetter, S. 1990. Early life-history implications of selected carcharhinoid and lamnoid sharks of the Northwest Atlantic. U.S. Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS. 90: 17-28. [CL CF CS IO IP LN AS AV AP PG].

Branstetter, S. 1999. The management of the United States Atlantic shark fishery, 109-148. In: Shotton, R., ed. Case studies in the management of elasmobranch fisheries. Rome: FAO 378/1. [CF, IO, IP, LN, AV AS, PG, CL].

Branstetter, S. and G.H. Burgess. 1996. Commercial Shark Fishery Observer Program. Characterization and comparisons of the directed commercial shark fishery in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and off North Carolina through an observer program. Final Report, MARFIN Award NA47FF0008, 33 p. + 11 tables + 20 figs. [CF CS AS IO].

Branstetter, S. and G.H. Burgess. 1997. Commercial Shark Fishery Observer Program. Continuation of an observer program to characterize and compare the directed commercial shark fishery in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and south Atlantic. Final Report, MARFIN Award NA57FD0286, 45 p. +10 tables + 28 figs. [CF CS IO AS AV].

Branstetter, S. and G.H. Burgess. 1998. Commercial Shark Fishery Observer Program 1997-1998. Continuation of an observer program to characterize and compare the directed commercial shark fishery in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and south Atlantic. Final Report, Saltonstall-Kennedy Award NA77FD0068, 17 p. + 5 tables + 5 figures. [CF CS AV AS IO PG].

Branstetter, S. and McEachran, J.D. 1983. A first record of the bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus, the blue shark,Prionace glauca, and the pelagic stingray, Dasyatis violacea, from the Gulf of Mexico. Northeast Gulf Sci. 6(1): 59-61. [AS PG DV].

Branstetter, S. and McEachran, J.D. 1986. Age and growth of four carcharhinid sharks common to the Gulf of Mexico: a summary paper, pp. 361-371. In: Uyeno, T. et al, eds. Indo-Pacific Fish Biology, Proc. Sec. Internatl. Conf, Indo-Pacific Fisheries; Tokyo. [CF].

Branstetter, S. and McEachran, J.D. 1986. A first record of Odontaspis noronhai (Lamniformes: Odontaspididae) for the Western North Atlantic, with notes on two uncommon sharks from the Gulf of Mexico. Northeast Gulf Sci. 8(2):153-160. [CS].

Branstetter, S. and Musick, J.A. 1994. Comparisons of shark catch rates on longlines using rope/ steel (Yankee) and monofilament gangions. Mar. Fish. Rev. 55(3): 4-9. [IO CF PG AS].

Brodeur, R.D., Lorz, H.V. and Pearcy, W.G. 1989. Food habits and dietary variability of pelagic nekton off Oregon and Washingtom, 1979-1984. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 57. 32 p. [PG].

Budker, P. 1971. The life of sharks. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 222. pp. [PG CF]

Buencuerpo, V., Ríos, S. and Morón, J. 1998. Pelagic sharks associated with the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, fishery in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the Strait of Gibraltar. Fish. Bull. 96(4): 667-685. [IO PG AS AV].

Bullis, H.R. 1961. Observations on the feeding behavior of white-tip sharks on shoaling fishes. Ecology. 42(1): 194-195. [CF].

Bullis, H.R. and Thompson, J.R. 1956. Collections by the exploratory fishing vessels Oregon, Silver Bay, Combat, and Pelicanmade during 1956-1960 in the southwestern North Atlantic: U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv.; Special Scientific Report - Fish. 510. 130 p. [IO AV PG CS CF CL].

Burgess, G.H. 1985. Biology of sharks as related to commercial shark fishing. Manual on shark fishing. Florida Sea Grant College; SGR-73. pp.4-10 . [AS CS CL IO CF AV].

Burgess, G.H. and K.M. Johns. 1999. Commercial Shark Fishery Observer Program. Analysis of the large coastal shark fishery - July and August 1998 season in the southeastern United States, with a review of the 1998 commercial shark fishery in the region. Final Report, National Marine Fisheries Service, Highly Migratory Species Management Division Award No. 40GANF800117, 19 p. + 15 tables + 7 figures. [CF CS AV AS IO PG].

Burne, Q. 1923. On the function of the two types of myotomal muscle fiber in elasmobranch fish. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. 212 B, 209-257. [LN].

Burne, R.H. 1923. Some peculiarities of the blood vascular system of the porbeagle shark (Lamna cornubica). Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B. 212: 1923-1924. [LN].

Burnett, C.D., Beckett, J.S., Dickson, C.A., Hurley, P.F.C. and Iles, T.D. 1987. A summary of releases and recaptures in the Canadian large pelagic fish tagging program 1961-86. Can. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 673. iii + 99 p. [PG].

Byers, R.D. 1940. The California shark fishery. Calif. Fish.Game 26: 23-38. [LD IO PG AV].

Cadenat, J. 1956. Notes d'ichthyologie ouest-africaine. XI. Description d'une espece nouvelle de requin appartenant au genre Hypoprion (Muller et Henle) Hypoprion bigelow sp. nov. Bulletin de I'I.F.A.N. 18 (Ser. A. 2). 539-545. [CS].

Cadenat, J. 1956. Notes d'ichthyologie ouest-africaine. XV. Sur un requin-renard nouveau pour la fauna d'Afrique Occidentale Francaise Alopias superciliosus (Lowe) 1840? Bull. Inst. Fr. Afr. Noire. 18. 1257-1266. [AS].

Cadenat, J. 1957. Notes d'ichthyologie ouest-africaine. 17. Biologie, régime alimentaire. Bulletin de I'I.F.A.N. 19(1): 274-294. [CF].

Cadenat, J. and Blache, J. 1981. Requins de Méditerranée et d'Atlantique. Faune Tropicale. ORSTOM 21, 330 p. [CS].

Cailliet, G.M. and Bedford, D.W. 1983. The biology of three pelagic sharks from California waters, and their emerging fisheries: a review. Calif. Coop. Ocean. Fish. Inv. Rep. 24: 57-69. [AV IO PG].

Cailliet, G.M., Holts, D.B. and Bedford, D. 1993. A review of the commercial fisheries for sharks on the west coast of the United States, pp. 13-29. In: Pepperell, J., West, J., Woon, P. (eds), Shark Conservation. Proceedings of an International Workshop on the Conservation of Elasmobranchs held at Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia, 24 February 1991. Zoological Parks Board of NSW. [PG AV].

Cailliet, G.M., Martin, L.K., Harvey, J.T., Kusher, D. and Welder, B.A. 1983. Preliminary studies on the age and growth of blue, Prionace glauca, common thresher, Alopias vulpinus, and shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus, sharks from California waters. Prince, E.D. and Pulos, L.M., eds. Proc. Internatl. Workshop Age Determ. Oceanic Pelagic Fishes: Tunas, Billfishes, and Sharks. NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 8. 179-188 . [PG AV IO].

Cailliet, G.M. and Mollet, H.F. Preliminary demographic analysis of the shortfin mako, Isurus oxyrinchus. Program and Abstracts of 77th Annual Meeting of American Society of Ichthyology and Herpetology. 88 pp. [IO].

Calzoni. M. 1936. Richerche sulla placenta del Carcharias glaucus. Publ. Staz. Zool. Napoli. 15: 169-174. [PG].

Camhi, M. 1998. Sharks on the line: A state-by-state analysis of sharks and their fisheries. Islip, NY: National Audubon Society, Living Oceans Program, 156 p. [CS CF AS PG CL LN IO AV].

Camhi, M. 1999. Sharks on the line II: An analysis of Pacific state shark fisheries. Islip, NY: National Audubon Society, Living Oceans Program, 114 p. [AP AS AV IO IP LD CF CL PG DV].

Camhi, M., Fowler, S., Musick, J., Bräutigam, A. and Fordham, S. 1998. Sharks and their relatives: Ecology and conservation. Occasional paper of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. Cambridge: IUCN No. 20. 39 p. [PG LN IO AV CF CL].

Capape, C. 1975. Selacieas nouveaux et rares le long des cotes tunisiennes. Premieres observations biologiques. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis. 52(1-2): 107-128. [LN].

Capape, C. 1980. Etude morphologique des pterygopodes de Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 (Pisces, Lamnidae). Bull. Off. Natn. Pech. Tunisie. 4(2): 265-270. [IO].

Capape, C. 1981. Etude morphplogique des pterygopodes de Prionace glauca (Linne, 1758) (Pisces, Carcharhinidae). Bull. Off. Natn. Pech., Tunisie. 5(1): 29-35. [PG].

Capape, C. 1982. Etude morphogique des pterygopodes de Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre, 1788) (Pisces, Alopiidae). Netherlands J. Zool. 32(1): 108-111. [AV].

Carey, F.G. Appendix III. Heat conservation in lamnid sharks. (MS) 4 p. + 3 figs. [IO].

Carey, F.G., Casey, J.G., Pratt, H.L., Urquhart, D. and McCosker, J.E. 1985. Temperature, heat production and heat exchange in lamnid sharks. Mem. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 9: 92-108. [IO LN LD].

Carey, F.G. and Scharold, J.V. 1990. Movements of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in depth and course. Mar. Biol. 106: 329-342. [PG].

Carey, F.G. and Teal, J.M. 1969. Mako and porbeagle: warm-bodied sharks. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 28: 199-204. [LN IO].

Carey, F.G., Teal, J.M. and Kanwisher, J.W. 1981. The visceral temperatures of mackerel sharks (Lamnidae). Physiol. Zool. 54(3): 334-344. [IO LN].

Carvalho, M.R. and Gomes, U.L. 1992. Reinterpretation of the clasper morphology of Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chondrichthyes, Carcharhiniformes), with notes on clasper terminology. An. Acad. Bras. Ci. 64(2): 199-206. [PG].

Casey, J.G. 1964. Angler's guide to the sharks of the northeastern United States--Maine to Chesapeake Bay. US Fish Wildl. Circ. 179. 32 pp. [AS PG].

Casey, J.G. 1976. Migrations and abundance of sharks along the Atlantic coast. Searman, W. Sharks and Man--a perspective. Fla. Sea Grant Program, Rep. 10. 12-14.

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