Evolution of Species and Electric Signal Diversity
in the Neotropical Electric Fish Gymnotus

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Gymmnotus bibliography

This is a complete list of papers and book chapters that deal primarily with Gymnotus, including all the primary taxonomic literature and papers on general biology, anatomy, behaviour and electrophysiology.

Aguilera, P. A., and A. A. Caputi. 2003. Electroreception in G-carapo: detection of changes in waveform of the electrosensory signals. Journal Of Experimental Biology, 206:989-998.

Aguilera, P. A., M. E. Castello, and A. A. Caputi. 2001. Electroreception in Gymnotus carapo : Differences between self-generated and conspecific-generated signal carriers. Journal Of Experimental Biology, 204:185-198.

Albert, J. S., and W. G. R. Crampton. 2001. Five new species of Gymnotus (Teleostei: Gymnotiformes) from an Upper Amazon floodplain, with descriptions of electric organ discharges and ecology. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 12:241-266.

—. 2003. Seven new species of the Neotropical electric fish Gymnotus (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes) with a redescription of G. carapo (Linnaeus). Zootaxa, 287:1-54.

—., W. G. R. Crampton, D. H. Thorsen, and N. R. Lovejoy. 2004. Phylogenetic systematics and historical biogeography of the Neotropical electric fish Gymnotus (Gymnotidae: Teleostei). Systematics and Biodiversity, in press.

—., F. M. D. Fernandes-Matioli, and L. F. de Almeida-Toledo. 1999. New species of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes, Teleostei) from southeastern Brazil: Toward the deconstruction of Gymnotus carapo . Copeia:410-421.

—., and R. R. Miller. 1995. Gymnotus maculosus, a new species of electric fish (Chordata: Teleostei: Gymnotoidei) from middle America, with a key to species of Gymnotus. Proceedings Of The Biological Society Of Washington, 108:662-678.

Ardanaz, J. L., A. Silva, and O. Macadar. 2001. Temperature sensitivity of the electric organ discharge waveform in Gymnotus carapo . Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 187:853-864.

Baffa, O., and S. L. Correa. 1992. Magnetic And Electric Characteristics Of The Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Biophysical Journal, 63:591-593.

Baillet, D. C. 1969. Regeneration Of Electric Organ Of Gymnotus carapo (Pisces). Archives D Anatomie Microscopique Et De Morphologie Experimentale, 58:387.

—. 1988. Motoneuron organization in the spinal cord of three teleost fishes, Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae), Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae) and Salmo trutta (Salmonidae). Biological Structures and Morphogenesis, 1:160-170.

Barbieri, G., and M. C. Barbieri. 1983. Growth and first sexual maturation size of Gymnotus carpo (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lobo Reservoir (State of Sao Paulo, Brazil) (Pisces, Gymnotidae). Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale , 16:195-201.

—. 1984. Crescimento de Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758) na represa do lobo, estado de São Paulo, pelo metodo da distribuição da freqüência de comprimento (Pisces, Gymnotidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 44:239-246.

—. 1984. Dinamica da repoducao de Gymnotus carapo na represa do lobo, estado de Sao Paulo. Influencia de factores abioticos (Pisces, Gymnotidae). Tropical Ecology, 24:244-259.

—. 1984. Note On Nutritional Dynamics Of Gymnotus carapo (L) From The Lobo Reservoir, Sao-Paulo State, Brazil. Journal Of Fish Biology , 24:351-355.

—., and G. Barbieri. 1984. Reproducao de Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758) na Represa do Lobo (Sp.). Morfologia e histologia de testiculo. Variacao sazonal. (Pisces, Gymnotidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 44:141-148.

—. 1985. Reproducao de Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758) na Represa do Lobo (SP). Morfologia e histologia de ovario. Variacao sazonal (Teleostei: Gymnotidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 45:3-12.

Barrio, L. C., A. Caputi, L. Crispino, and W. Buno. 1991. Electric Organ Discharge Frequency-Modulation Evoked By Water Vibration In Gymnotus carapo. Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology A-Physiology, 100:555-562.

Bennett, M. V. L., and H. Grundfest. 1958. Electric Organ Electrogenesis In Gymnotus. Federation Proceedings, 17:13-13.

—. 1959. Electrophysiology Of Electric Organ In Gymnotus-carapo. Journal Of General Physiology, 42:1067-1104.

—. 1962. Responses Due To Regenerative Resistance Increase During Constant Current Stimulation Of Normal And K+-Depolarized Electroplaques Of Gymnotus carapo . Federation Proceedings, 21:357.

Black-Cleworth, P. 1970. The role of electrical discharges in the non-reproductive social behavior of Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae, Pisces). Animal Behav. Monog, 3:1-77.

Borde, M., S. Curti, V. Comas, and C. Rivero. 2004. Central modulation of a sensory system by a motor command. One intention with two results. Revista De Neurologia, 38:253-260.

—., A. E. Pereda, and F. R. Morales. 1991. Electrophysiological Characteristics Of The Mauthner Cell Of The Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo .Brain Research, 567:145-148.

Box, H. O., and G. W. M. Westby. 1970. Behavior Of Electric Fish (Gymnotus carapo ) In A Group Membership Experiment. Psychonomic Science , 21:27-28.

Braganca, M. A. L., E. Menin, and I. R. dos Santos Costa. 1992. Estudo histologico do tubo digestivo de Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (Siluriformes, Gymnotoidei, Gymnotidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 52:15-25.

Brind, W. L. 1935. Hunting the "Tiger Knife Fish" in the Amazon. Aquarium News, 2:8-10.

Campos-da-Paz, R. 1996. Redescription of the Central American electric fish Gymnotus cylindricus (Ostariophysi:Gymnotiformes:Gymnotidae), with comments on character ambiguity within the ostariophysan clade. Journal Of Zoology, 240:371-382.

—. 2000. Taxonomic status of Rhamphichthys cingulatus brind and a more precise assignment of the type-locality of Gymnotus coatesi LaMonte (Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes). Copeia:1114-1117.

—. 2002. Gymnotus diamantinensis, a new species of electric knifefish from upper rio Arinos basin, Brazil (Ostariophysi Gymnotidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 13:185-192.

—. 2003. Checklist of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

—., and W. J. E. M. Costa. 1996. Gymnotusbahianus sp. nov., a new gymnotid fish from eastern Brazil (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Gymnotiformes), with evidence for the monophyly of the genus. Copeia, 1996:937-944.

Capurro, A., A. Longtin, E. Bagarinao, S. Sato, O. Macadar, and K. Pakdaman. 2001. Variability of the electric organ discharge interval duration in resting Gymnotus carapo . Biological Cybernetics, 84:309-321.

Capurro, A., O. Macadar, R. Perrone, and K. Pakdaman. 1998. Computational model of the jamming avoidance response in the electric fish Gymnotus carapo . Biosystems, 48:21-27.

—., and C. P. Malta. 2004. Noise autocorrelation and jamming avoidance performance in pulse type electric fish. Bulletin Of Mathematical Biology, 66:885-905.

—., K. Pakdaman, R. Perrone, and O. Macadar. 1999. Analysis of the jamming avoidance response in the electric fish Gymnotus carapo . Biological Cybernetics , 80:269-283.

—., M. Reyesparada, J. L. Ardanaz, R. Silveira, and O. Macadar. 1994. Serotonergic Control Of Electric Organ Discharge In Gymnotus carapo - Role Of 5-Ht2a/2c Receptor Subtypes. Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology A-Physiology, 109:583-591.

—., M. ReyesParada, D. Olazabal, R. Perrone, R. Silveira, and O. Macadar. 1997. Aggressive behavior and jamming avoidance response in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo : Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology A-Physiology, 118:831-840.

Caputi, A., and P. Aguilera. 1996. A field potential analysis of the electromotor system in Gymnotus carapo . Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 179:827-835.

—., and R. Budelli. 1995. The Electric Image In Weakly Electric Fish.1. A Data-Based Model Of Wave-Form Generation In Gymnotus carapo . Journal Of Computational Neuroscience, 2:131-147.

—., O. Macadar, and O. Trujillo-Cenoz. 1989. Waveform Generation Of The Electric Organ Discharge In Gymnotus carapo.3. Analysis Of The Fish Body As An Electric Source. Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 165:361-370.

—., A. Silva, and O. Macadar. 1993. Electric Organ Activation In Gymnotus carapo - Spinal Origin And Peripheral Mechanisms. Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 173:227-232.

—., and O. Trujillo-Cenoz. 1994. The Spinal-Cord Of Gymnotus carapo - The Electromotoneurons And Their Projection Patterns. Brain Behavior And Evolution, 44:166-174.

—., P. A. Aguilera, and M. E. Castello. 2003. Probability and amplitude of novelty responses as a function of the change in contrast of the reafferent image in G. carapo. Journal Of Experimental Biology, 206:999-1010.

Castello, M. E., P. A. Aguilera, O. Trujillo-Cenoz, and A. A. Caputi. 2000. Electroreception in Gymnotus carapo : Pre-receptor processing and the distribution of electroreceptor types. Journal Of Experimental Biology, 203:3279-3287.

—., A. Caputi, and O. Trujillo-Cenoz. 1998. Structural and functional aspects of the fast electrosensory pathway in the electrosensory lateral line lobe of the pulse fish Gymnotus carapo . Journal Of Comparative Neurology, 401:549-563.

Correa, S. A. L., F. M. A. Correa, and A. Hoffmann. 1998. Stereotaxic atlas of the telencephalon of the weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo . Journal Of Neuroscience Methods, 84:93-100.

—., K. Grant, and A. Hoffmann. 1998. Afferent and efferent connections of the dorsocentral telencephalon in an electrosensory teleost, Gymnotus carapo . Brain Behavior And Evolution, 52:81-98.

—., and A. Hoffmann. 1998. Novelty response in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo : Seasonal differences and the participation of the telencephalon in its modulation. Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology A-Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 119:255-262.

—. 1999. Effect of drugs that alter alertness and emotionality on the novelty response of a weak electric fish, Gymnotus carapo . Physiology & Behavior, 65:863-869.

—. 1999. Reciprocal connections between the preglomerular complex and the dorsolateral telencephalon in the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus carapo . Neuroscience Letters, 261:131-134.

Crampton, W. G. R., and J. S. Albert. 2003. Redescription of Gymnotuscoropinae (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae), an often misidentified species of Neotropical electric fish, with notes on natural history and electric signals. Zootaxa, 348:1-20.

—. 2004. Redescription of Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae), a rare species of electric fish from the lowland Amazon Basin, with descriptions of osteology, electric sgnals and ecology. Copeia, 2004:525-533.

—., D.H. Thorsen, et al. 2004. Three new species from a diverse and sympatric assemblage of electric fish Gymnotus (Ostariophysi: Gymnotidae) in the lowland Amazon Basin, with notes on ecology. Copeia, in press.

—., and C. D. Hopkins. 2004. Nesting and paternal care in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) with descriptions of larval and adult electric organ discharges of two species. Copeia, in press.

—., N. R. Lovejoy, and J. S. Albert. 2003. Gymnotusucamara: a new species of Neotropical electric fish from the Peruvian Amazon (Ostariophysi: Gymnotidae), with notes on ecology and electric organ discharges. Zootaxa , 277:1-18.

Curti, S., A. Falconi, F. R. Morales, and M. Borde. 1999. Mauthner Cell-initiated electromotor behavior is mediated via NMDA and metabotropic glutamatergic receptors on medullary pacemaker neurons in a gymnotid fish. Journal Of Neuroscience, 19:9133-9140.

Davis, E. A., and C. D. Hopkins. 1988. Behavioral-Analysis Of Electric Signal Localization In The Electric Fish, Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotiformes). Animal Behaviour , 36:1658-1671.

de Menezes, R. S. 1965. Ocorrencia de Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces, Osteichythes, Gymnotidae) no estado do Para. Atas. Soc. Biol. Rio de Janeiro, 9:56-57.

de Pertierra, A. A. G. 2003. Two new species of Nomimoscolex (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea, Monticelliidae) from Gymnotus carapo (Pisces: Gymnotiformes) in Argentina. Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 98:345-351.

de Souza, J. R., and D. R. de Andrade. 1984. Producao de sarapo (Gymnotus carapo ) (Pisces: Gymnotidae) em cativeiro. Revista Ceres , 31:308-309.

Denizot, J. P. 1970. Comparative Histochemical Study Of Mucopolysaccharids In Ampullary Sense Organs Of Weakly Electric Fish – Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae), Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae) And Gymnarchus-Niloticus (Gymnarchidae). Histochemie, 23:82.

—., and D. C. Baillet. 1969. Regeneration Of Specific Cutaneous Organs Of Lateral Line System In Weakly Electric Fish, Gymnotus carapo. Archives D Anatomie Microscopique Et De Morphologie Experimentale, 58:249.

Derbin, C., and J. P. Denizot. 1971. Ultrastructure Of Ampullary Organ Of Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae) Nature And Origin Of Its Polysaccharids. Zeitschrift Fur Zellforschung Und Mikroskopische Anatomie, 113:531.

Echague, A., and O. Trujillo-Cenoz. 1981. Innervation patterns in the tuberous organs of Gymnotus carapo . Advances in Physiological Sciences, 31:29-40.

Eclancher, B., and K. Liem. 1981. Study Of The Aerial Respiration Of Gymnotus. Journal De Physiologie, 77:A64-A64.

Falconi, A., M. Borde, A. Henandezcruz, and F. R. Morales. 1995. Mauthner Cell-Initiated Abrupt Increase Of The Electric Organ Discharge In The Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 176:679-689.

—., Lorenzo, S. Curti, F. R. Morales, and M. Borde. 1997. Mauthner cell-evoked synaptic actions on pacemaker medullary neurons of a weakly electric fish. Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 181:143-151.

—., and L. F. Almeida-Toledo. 2001. A molecular phylogenetic analysis in Gymnotus species (Pisces: Gymnotiformes) with inferences on chromosome evolution. Caryologia , 54:23-30.

—., L. F. Almeida-Toledo, and S. A. Toledo. 1997. Extensive nucleolus organizer region polymorphism in Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotoidei, Gymnotidae). Cytogenetics And Cell Genetics, 78:236-239.

—., L. F. Almeida-Toledo, and S. A. Toledo. 1998. Natural triploidy in the Neotropical species Gymnotus carapo (Pisces: Gymnotiformes). Caryologia , 51:319-322.

—., M. C. N. Marchetto, L. F. Almeida-Toledo, and S. A. Toledo. 1998. High intraspecific karyological conservation in four species of Gymnotus (Pisces: Gymnotiformes) from Southeastern Brazilian basins. Caryologia , 51:221-234.

—., S. R. Matioli, and L. F. Almeida-Toledo. 2000. Species diversity and geographic distribution of Gymnotus (Pisces: Gymnotiformes) by nuclear (GGAC)(n) microsatellite analysis. Genetics And Molecular Biology, 23:803-807.

—., J. S. Albert, M. F. Z. Daniel-Silva, C. E. Lopes, W. G. R. Crampton, and L. F. Almeida-Toledo. 2004. A new Gymnotus (Teleostei: Gymnotidae) from the Pantanal wetlands and adjacent drainages, with descriptions of chromosomal structure and inter-microsatellite DNA sequences. Zootaxa, In press.

Foresti, F., L. F. D. Toledo, and S. D. Toledo. 1984. Chromosome-Studies In Gymnotus carapo And Gymnotus Sp (Pisces, Gymnotidae). Caryologia, 37:141-146.

Gohner, M., and W. Pfeiffer. 1996. The distribution of the Mauthner axons in fish and amphibians and its relation to the fright reaction in Ostariophysi and Anura. Revue Suisse De Zoologie , 103:859-891.

Gouvea Junior, F., R. M. Stopa, H. M. G. de Paula, and K. Hoshino. 2002. Suspensao das descargas de eletrolocacao-comunicacao e tamanho corporal no peixe eletrico Gymnotus carapo Miller, 1966 (Osteichtyes, Gymnotidae). Electrolocation-communication discharges arrest and body size in the electric-fish Gymnotus carapo Miller, 1966 (Osteichtyes, Gymnotidae). Revista Brasileira de Zoociencias , 4:203-214.

Grassi, L. E. A., and J. C. Hofling. 1992. Regime alimentar de Gymnotus"aff." carapo em uma lagoa do ribeirao Pinhal. [The feeding regime of Gymnotus aff. carapo in a lagoon of the Pinhal stream.] . Bioikos, 6:18-35.

Hoedeman, J. J. 1962. Notes on the ichthyology of Surinam and other Guianas. 9. New records of gymnotid fishes. Bull. Aquatic Biol. Amsterdam, 3:53-60.

—. 1962. Notes on the ichthyology of Surinam and other Guianas. 11. New gymnotiform fishes from Surinam and French Guiana, with additional records and a key to the groups and species from Guiana. Bull. Aquatic Biol. Amsterdam, 3:97-107.

Holmstedt, B., W. Krivoy, and D. Kroeger. 1964. Electric Fish (Gymnotus carapo) As Tool For Bioassay Of Methylphenidate + Chlorpromazine. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 61:177.

Kirschbaum, F., and C. Schugardt. 2002. Reproductive strategies and developmental aspects in mormyrid and gymnotiform fishes. Journal Of Physiology-Paris, 96:557-566.

—., and L. Wieczorek. 2002. Entdeckung einer neuen Fortpflanzungs-strategie bei südamerikainischen Messerfischen (Teleostei: Gymnotiforme: Gymnotidae): Maulbrüten bei Gymnotus carapo . Verhalten der Aquarienfische, 2:99-107.

LaMonte, F. 1935. Two new species of Gymnotus. Amer. Mus. Novitates No., 781:1-3.

Lautner, R., M. Schettinosouza, V. T. Schall, N. Fernandessouza, and F. Pimentelsouza. 1980. Behavior Of The Weak Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo In A Horizontal Light Gradient. Acta Physiologica Latinoamericana, 30:58-59.

Liem, K. F., B. Eclancher, and W. L. Fink. 1984. Aerial Respiration In The Banded Knife Fish Gymnotus carapo (Teleostei, Gymnotoidei). Physiological Zoology, 57:185-195.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae. Holmiae.

Lorenzo, D., F. Sierra, A. Silva, and O. Macadar. 1990. Spinal Mechanisms Of Electric Organ Discharge Synchronization In Gymnotus carapo. Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 167:447-452.

—. 1993. Spatial-Distribution Of The Medullary Command Signal Within The Electric Organ Of Gymnotus carapo. Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 173:221-226.

—., J. C. Velluti, and O. Macadar. 1988. Electrophysiological Properties Of Abdominal Electrocytes In The Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 162:141-144.

Macadar, O. 1993. Motor control of waveform generation in Gymnotus carapo . Journal of Comparative Physiology A Sensory Neural and Behavioral Physiology, 173:728-729.

—., D. Lorenzo, and J. C. Velluti. 1989. Waveform Generation Of The Electric Organ Discharge In Gymnotus carapo. 2. Electrophysiological Properties Of Single Electrocytes. Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 165:353-360.

Macdonal, J. A., and J. L. Larimer. 1970. Phase-Sensitivity Of Gymnotus carapo To Low-Amplitude Electrical Stimuli. Zeitschrift Fur Vergleichende Physiologie, 70:322-324.

Mago-Leccia, F. 1994. Electric fishes of the continental waters of America. Biblioteca de la Academia de Ciencias Fisicas, Matematicas y Naturales, Caracas , 29:1-206.

Maldonado-Ocampo, J. A., and J. S. Albert. 2004. Gymnotusardilai: a new species of Neotropical electric fish (Ostariophysi: Gymnotidae) from the Rio Magdalena of Colombia. Zootaxa, in press.

McGregor, P. K., and G. W. M. Westby. 1993. Individually characteristic EOD waveforms and discrimination by Gymnotus carapo . J. Comp. Physiology. A. Sensory Neural and Behavioural Physiology, 173:741.

Menin, E. 1989. Anatomia funcional da cavidade bucofaringeana de Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (Siluriformes, Gymnotoidei, Gymnotidae). Revista Ceres, 36:422-434.

—. 1989. Anatomia funcional do tubo digestivo de Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (Siluriformes, Gymnotoidei, Gymnotidae). Revista Ceres, 36:435-457.

Moraes, G., I. M. Avilez, A. E. Altran, and C. C. Barbosa. 2002. Biochemical and hematological responses of the banded knife fish Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to environmental hypoxia. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 62:633-640.

Murofushi, M., and T. H. Yosida. 1984. Cytogenetical Studies On Fishes.8. Xx-Y Sex-Chromosome Mechanism Newly Found In The Snake Eel, Muraenichthys-Gymnotus (Anguilliform, Pieces). Proceedings Of The Japan Academy Series B-Physical And Biological Sciences, 60:21-23.

Nanjappa, P., L. Brand, and M. J. Lannoo. 2000. Swimming patterns associated with foraging in phylogenetically and ecologically diverse American weakly electric teleosts (Gymnotiformes). Environmental Biology Of Fishes, 58:97-104.

Nijssen, H., and I. J. H. Isbrucker. 1968. Gymnotus carapo and G. anguillaris syn. G. coropinae, two often confused species of gymnotid fishes (Pisces, Cypriniformes). Beaufortia, 15:161-168.

Oliveira, C., and F. Foresti. 1996. Albinism in the banded knifefish, Gymnotus carapo . Tropical Fish Hobbyist, 44:94-96.

Pavanelli, G. C., and R. M. Takemoto. 1995. New Species Of Proteocephalus (Cestoda, Proteocephalidae) Parasitic In Fishes From The Parana River, Parana, Brazil. Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 90:593-596.

Pencek, T. L., and K. Kusano. 1976. Carbamylcholine Iontophoresis On Innervated Electroplaque Membrane In Gymnotus carapo And Electrophorus electricus. Federation Proceedings , 35:801-801.

Pimental-Souza, F., J. B. Pereira, and N. P. Alvarenga. 1976. Comportamento, termoregulação e aclimação em temperaturas elevadas do peixe elétrico Gymnotus. Cienc. Cult. , 28:940-944.

—., 1982. Biological Rhythms Of The Snail Biomphalaria glabrata And Of The Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Brazilian Journal Of Medical And Biological Research, 15:187-187.

—., and M. Schettino. 1986. Circadian-Rhythms Of Locomotion In A Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Brazilian Journal Of Medical And Biological Research, 19:A474-A474.

Rethelyi, M., and T. Szabo. 1971. Gap Junctions Of Mesencephalic Structures Of Gymnotus carapo Pisces. Journal De Physiologie, 63:A144-&.

—. 1972. Neuronal Structure Of Lateral Lobe In Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 41:305-305.

—. 1973. Neurohistological Analysis Of Lateral Lobe In A Weakly Electric Fish, Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae, Pisces). Experimental Brain Research , 18:323-339.

Santana, U. J., A. C. Roque-da-Silva, T. T. Duarte, and S. A. L. Correa. 2001. Interference with the GABAergic system in the dorsolateral telencephalon and modulation of the electric organ discharge frequency in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo . Journal Of Comparative Physiology A-Neuroethology Sensory Neural And Behavioral Physiology, 187:925-933.

Schettino, M., N. D. C. Barbosa, V. T. Schall, E. G. Paiva, and F. Pimental Souza. 1981. Effect of illumination on the motion of the electric fish G. carapo. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 14:103.

—., and F. Pimentel-Souza. 1982. Influence Of The Eyes And Pineal-Body On The Motion Of The Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Brazilian Journal Of Medical And Biological Research, 15:338-338.

Schlegel, P. 1970. Electroperception Of Objects - Electrophysiological Analysis Of Rhombencephalic Neurons In Gymnotus carapo. Journal De Physiologie, 62:445.

—. 1975. Electro-Orientation In Weakly Electric Fish - Study Of Field Distortions Caused By Objects In Gymnotus carapo And Gnathonemus-Petersii And Recordings From Afferent-Fibers In G. carapo. Biological Cybernetics, 20:197-212.

—., 1973. Perception Of Objects In Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo As Studied In Recordings From Rhombencephalic Neurons. Experimental Brain Research, 18:340-354.

—. 1977. Electroreceptive Single Units In Mesencephalic Magnocellular Nucleus Of Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Experimental Brain Research, 29:201-218.

Schuster, S. 2000. Changes in the electric organ discharge after pausing the electromotor system of Gymnotus carapo . Journal Of Experimental Biology, 203:1433-1446.

—. 2002. Behavioral evidence for post-pause reduced responsiveness in the electrosensory system of Gymnotus carapo . Journal Of Experimental Biology, 205:2525-2533.

—., and N. Otto. 2002. Sensitivity to novel feedback at different phases of a gymnotid electric organ discharge. Journal Of Experimental Biology, 205:3307-3320.

Shaffer, E. L. 1917. On the electric organs of Gymnotus carapus. Science , 45:67-69.

Shibatta, O.-A., and C.-C. Cheida. 2003. Composicao em tamanho dos peixes (Actinopterygii, Teleostei) de ribeiroes da bacia do rio Tibagi, Parana, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 20:469-473.

Shieh, K. T., W. Wilson, M. Winslow, D. W. McBride, and C. D. Hopkins. 1996. Short-range orientation in electric fish: An experimental study of passive electrolocation. Journal Of Experimental Biology, 199:2383-2393.

Sierra, F., D. Lorenzo, O. Macadar, and W. Buno. 1995. N-Type Ca2+ Channels Mediate Transmitter Release At The Electromotoneuron-Electrocyte Synapses Of The Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Brain Research, 683:215-220.

Silva, A., L. Quintana, J. L. Ardanaz, and O. Macadar. 2002. Environmental and hormonal influences upon EOD waveform in gymnotiform pulse fish. Journal Of Physiology-Paris, 96:473-484.

—., Quintana, M. Galeano, and P. Errandonea. 2003. Biogeography and breeding in Gymnotiformes from Uruguay. Environmental Biology Of Fishes, 66:329-338.

Sotelo, C., M. Rethelyi, and T. Szabo. 1975. Morphological Correlates Of Electrotonic Coupling In Magnocellular Mesencephalic Nucleus Of Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo. Journal Of Neurocytology, 4:587-607.

Steindachner, F. 1908. Brachyplatystoma -Art aus dem Rio Parnahyba un über eine ditch gefleckte und gestrichelte Varietaet von Giton fasicatus aus dem Gewassern von Santos (Staat São Paulo). Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 45:123-130.

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