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This study expands our previous work on subtribes Maxillariinae, Oncidiinae, Zygopetalinae, and Stanhopeinae.


Phylogenetic trees for tribe Maxillarieae (= synonym Cymbidieae) and subtribes Maxillariinae, Oncidiinae, and Zygopetalinae are available here along with a non-phylogenetic visualization of the genera of Orchidaceae arranged by subtribe. The generic visualization is presented with Freeplane software, which has specific hardware and software requirements. Freeplane has worked on all of the Windows machines we have tried it on running Windows 7 with Internet Explorer and Firefox, on Macintosh running Safari and Chrome, but not with Internet Explorer (Apple stopped supporting Internet Explorer some time ago), and on Linux machines running Ubuntu. Freeplane is available free for download from the Freeplane web site. If it does not run on your computer, please let me know, stating the browser and operating system you are using. The links to the subfamilies do not work on some mac's. I am trying to fix these things.

This is a taxonomically, not phylogenetically, arranged visualization of all the genera of the Orchidaceae, following Genera Orchidacearum, published by Oxford University Press [except for tribe Vandeae (subtribes Adrorhizinae, Aeridinae, Agrostophyllinae, Angraecinae, and Polystachyinae) and tribe Dendrobieae (Bulbophyllum, Dendrobium), which is now out.]. For the present, I follow Dressler(1993) in listing the genera of tribes Vandeae and Dendrobieae and their subtribes. If you click on the red arrow to the left or right of the generic name, it should (slowly, it takes a few seconds for the window to open) show a photo of a representative species of that genus, or a link to a specimen, at least for most Oncidiinae, most Maxillariinae, most Stanhopeinae, all Coeliopsidinae, some Zygopetalinae, as well as scattered genera from other groups.

Genera Orchidacearum uses tribe Cymbidieae to include Maxillarieae and they make a good case for it - it was already used in the key to tribes.


FreePlane Visualization of Genera of Orchidaceae. This does not incorporate the latest treatment of Vandeae from Genera Orchidacearum 6.



This will take you to the Freeplane depiction of the family, where you can click to expand any group. It takes a few seconds for the image to download, be patient. Some of the links to photos do not work right now, and I am trying to correct the broken links.

The vanilloids, apostasioids, and cypripedioids are shown in vanilloids, apostasioids, and cypripedioids.

The basal epidendroids are shown in basal epidendroids.

The orchidoids are shown in orchidoids. This does not load properly, but if you go to the FreePlane Visualization of Genera of Orchidaceae, the subfamily is there.

The higher epidendroids are shown in higher epidendroids.

And the unplaced tribes are shown in unplaced tribes.

The current thinking on phylogenetics of subtribe Maxillariinae is best shown on the web site MAXILLARIINAE and the best phylogenetics of subtribe Oncidiinae are given in the cladograms listed at the bottom of this page.

MAXILLARIEAE - phylogenetic chart and discussion. Click on the PHYLOGENETICS link and scroll down and see our discussion of PHYLOGENETICS OF SUBTRIBE MAXILLARIINAE.

ONCIDIINAE - phylogenetic chart and discussion. This is actually a part of the Maxillarieae page, so don't let the top header confuse you. This was developed before the current web site and is somewhat out of date now. See the cladograms listed at the bottom of this page for the latest results.

ZYGOPETALINAE - phylogenetic chart and discussion. This is actually a part of the Maxillarieae page, so don't let the top header confuse you. This was developed before the current web site and is somewhat out of date now.

More links to phylogenetic works will be added as they are ready.

FreePlane Visualization of Genera of Orchidaceae. - This does not incorporate the latest treatment of Vandeae from Genera Orchidacearum 6. This is a taxonomically, not phylogenetically, arranged visualization of all the genera of the Orchidaceae, following Genera Orchidacearum, published by Oxford University Press:Genera Orchidacearum 6 came out in May 2014. For the present, I follow Genera Orchidacearum 6 in listing the genera of tribes Vandeae and Dendrobieae and their subtribes. If you click on the red arrow to the left or right of the generic name, it should (slowly, it takes a few seconds for the window to open) show a representative species of that genus, or a link to a specimen, at least for most Oncidiinae, most Maxillariinae, most Stanhopeinae, all Coeliopsidinae, some Zygopetalinae, as well as scattered genera from other groups. Some of the links to photos do not work. I am trying to figure out the problem.



The following cladograms are taken from our publication. Fig 3, Fig 4, Fig 5, Fig 6, Fig 7, Fig 8, Fig 9, Fig 10, Fig 11, Fig 12.

Figure 3. Comparison of ML bootstrap consensus (BS) trees resulting from analyses of separate (plastid vs. nrITS) data sets for the 7-region data set for 122 taxa. Asterisks indicate 95-100% BS support.

Figure 4. Single ML tree resulting from analysis of combined (plastid + nrITS) 7-region data set for 122 taxa. Asterisks indicate 95-100% BS support.

Figures 5-12. Single ML tree resulting from analysis of combined 5-region data set for 736 individuals.

Table 1 (genera accepted here).


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Page last updated: 6 October 2014