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PHYLOGENETICS OF PLEUROTHALLIDINAE:
resolving generic limits in a large group of small orchids



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PROJECT SUMMARY

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

MANAGEMENT PLAN

PHYLOGENETICS

REFERENCES

PEOPLE

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MANAGEMENT PLAN

Assembling the phylogenetics of the subtribe Pleurothallidinae is a large-scale, cooperative project among two US institutions (Univ. of Florida and Marie Selby Botanical Gardens) in collaboration with investigators in the United Kingdom, Brazil, Ecuador, colombia, Costa Rica, Germany, and Mexico. Together, this group of researchers have a long and productive history of collaborative research projects on various aspects of the biology of Orchidaceae. The main PIs and collaborators involve most workers in orchid molecular systematics today in USA, Mexico, Central America, and Brazil. The group of investigators has been assembled to take advantage of their diversity of backgrounds, experience and expertise, and resources already assembled. Additional collaborators are welcomed. Orchidaceae is an ideal group of organisms around which to assemble educational efforts concerning the importance of conservation, systematics, phylogenetics, and biodiversity, as well as to involve students and investigators from tropical countries.

A list of the genera of Pleurothallidinae is at the end of this section with citations to the original literature and with number of species accepted by the Kew check list. In some cases we are quite sure that there are more species in a genus than the Kew list accepts, for example, Stelis.

1. Resources

1. A. Major core personnel: The major core personnel range from junior to senior faculty members who have diverse backgrounds at major research and educational institutions, from a public university to one of the premier botanical gardens in the world.

Norris H. Williams will serve as lead PI on the project. He has an extensive background in orchid biology, including orchid anatomy, palynology, pollination biology, chemical ecology, and molecular systematics. He served for nine years as Chair of the Research Department of the Florida Museum of Natural History and has administrative experience with large, complex groups. He has developed extensive contacts throughout Central and South America during the past 40 years. He has recruited students from Mexico to Brazil and has active collaborations in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. He will oversee organization and administration of the project and will supervise database and website organization and development.

W. Mark Whitten has extensive field and lab experience in orchid systematics, pollination biology, orchid chemical ecology, and molecular systematics. He will supervise DNA aliquot distribution, voucher databasing, PCR and sequencing troubleshooting, GenBank data entry, and matrix construction.

Wesley Higgins is in charge of the Orchid Identification Center at the MSBG. He has experience in orchid systematics, morphology, and nomenclature, as well as in cultivation of plants. He will lead the morphological portion of the project.

Stig Dalström is well know for his careful taxonomic work in orchids in a variety of groups. He will be responsible for some of the morphological scoring, nomenclatural work, and collecting specimens.

Lorena Endara is a current graduate student at UF who has finished her masters degree working on the genus Dracula, one of the most spectacular genera of the Pleurothallidinae. She has experience in field work in the tropics, in pollination biology, lab work, and will be an essential part of the project with her extensive first hand knowledge of the group, her contacts and experience in Ecuador, and her close working relationship with Carl Luer and Lou Jost in Ecuador.

Alec Pridgeon (Kew) has experience in both molecular systematics of Pleurothallidinae as well as in morphological work in the group. He will work closely with us on both helping with the lab work and with the morphological part of the project.

1. B. Collaborators: We have assembled a diverse group of international collaborators who have tremendous experience in various aspects of orchid biology, molecular systematics, and herbarium and field work with Orchidaceae.

Cassio van den Berg (Brazil) has worked extensively on molecular and morphological systematics of the large and horticulturally important Laeliinae and has a graduate stuendt working on a genus of Pleurothallidinae and will contribute his expertise and samples.

Germán Carnevali (Mexico) is collaborating with us on several projects; he has broad expertise in orchids of Mexico and Venezuela.

Robert Dressler (US, Costa Rica) authored two of the most influential books on orchid phylogeny and evolution and publishes frequently on orchids of Mesoamerica. He is a research associate at UF, and will assist with morphological character evaluation, choice and scoring, and with verification of voucher determinations.

Guenter Gerlach (Germany) has extensive experience with Stanhopeinae and Zygopetalinae and has made (and will make) available critical material from the Munich Botanical Garden.

Eric Hágsater (Mexico) is the authority on Epidendrum (1100+ sp), and has extensive living, herbarium, and DNA accessions of this group and of additional Mexican taxa.

Franco Pupulin (Costa Rica) contributes extensive knowledge on systematics and especially of morphology of Central American taxa.

Gustavo Romero (USA) is curator of the Ames orchid herbarium, with its excellent collection of types and rich library. Gustavo has broad expertise in neotropical taxa.

Jason Keel is currently webmaster for Anthropology at UF. He has long interest and expertise in web and database design, and will supervise and advise on this portion of the project.

Together, the group represents a diverse, world-wide assembly of some of the most active and productive researchers on Orchidaceae.

1. C. Collection resources: A project of this magnitude requires vast collection resources of both herbarium and DNA materials. Field collecting will be required since although an enormous collection of vouchered orchid DNA has already been amassed by the PIs and their international collaborators, there are a large number of species and subgeneric groups for which we need DNA. These specimens and their banked DNAs will be collected in compliance with national and international regulations such as CITES; the transfer of DNA samples among institutions will comply with CITES and with Materials Transfer Agreements (MTAs) regulating any specimens. The herbarium collections available at the CITES-registered institutions involved encompass the vast majority of the species and genera to be sampled. The Kew Orchid Checklist of all currently recognized genera and species (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2004) gives us an excellent alpha-taxonomic resource for the taxon sampling strategy. This is a complete list of all described species and genera with included synonymy and forms the basis of our sampling strategy.

1. D. Laboratory facilities: Sequencing will be done at UF, which has a well-equipped lab and sequencing facilities. Based on our extensive experience, we are confident that the amount of sequencing we propose is realistic and can be accomplished in the time period and budget of the project. Details of facilities are given in the appropriate place in the proposal.

1. E. Computational facilities: The size of the data matrix, while large, is still within the size limits of the major programs we use. Computation times are actually decreased by the use of additional genes, as multi-gene combined analyses have been shown to run faster than single gene data sets for large taxon data sets.

2. Database: Collaborator Jason Keel will ensure compliance with Taxonomic Databases Working Group standards (e.g., Structure of Descriptive Data (SDD), Darwin Core, and Access to Biological Collections Data (ABCD)), as well as standards and specifications that affect the broader community, e.g., eXtensible Markup Language (XML), and OpenGIS Consortium specifications, (Geographic Markup Language (GML) and Web Mapping Service (WMS)). The database will include links to original descriptions, illustrations, photographs, scanned images, morphological characters and states, herbarium data, etc. and will be made available on our web site as the project is in progress in order that all information will be available to collaborators for comment and any necessary corrections. We will have a dedicated server for the project and all sequences, both as raw data and as edited sequences and as incorporated into data matrices, will be posted on a weekly basis to the collaborator web site. Daily backups will be made to an external set of hard drives, as well as to the University of Florida central computer back-up facility. All data remain the property of the researchers until they are satisfied with the quality and editing of the data. Once the researchers are satisfied that the data can be released, sequence data will be sent to GenBank on a monthly basis. Explicit voucher information (collector number, sheet number, and herbarium) will accompany all GenBank entries. Images in the database (herbarium specimens, diagnostic line drawings, photographs) will be stored and served over the internet as high resolution zoomable images using JPEG 2000 formats (please see images on our herbarium website http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/cat/digitalimagingprojects.htm.) We will purchase dedicated servers for serving these images. The database data and images will be presented in the form of a hyperbolic tree (see below).

3. Website: This project will generate a large (1500 taxon), complex phylogenetic tree with associated images and data. Presenting this tree to other researchers and the public is difficult due to its sheer size; even printing the tree is difficult. The best solution we have found is the hyperbolic tree (not supertree) concept as implemented in the StarTree Studio software from Inxight, which we have already purchased. A demonstration version of this orchid hyperbolic tree is available at http://florida.flmnh.ufl.edu/demo/newatol.html (Please check it out!) This software allows trees to be presented in a zoomable and searchable format that allows users to easily navigate and manipulate large trees. The nodes and terminals can include images and links to databases. Unlike a static journal publication, this tree will be easily revised when new taxa and new data are added. We feel this method of data presentation is superior to those currently utilized for displaying large phylogenies and is much more easily edited and revised. In addition to our own website, data and resulting trees will be deposited in TreeBase (http://www.treebase.org/treebase/) and on the Tree of Life site.

The ˝ time IT technician will work to develop the StarTree Orchid phylogeny and to integrate it with linked databases.



4

4. Tasks for each team member and time scheduling:

 

Year1-2006

Year 2-2007

Year 3-2008

Year 4-2009

Williams

Exchange DNAs; begin seq. & database

Matrix construction; analysis; imaging

Matrix construction; analysis; imaging;

Coordinate website and publications for Botany 2010 symposium;GenBank submissions; coordinate publications for Monocots IV symposium.

Whitten

receive loans; verify voucher identifications

Sequencing & databasing

Sequencing & databasing

Sequencing & databasing; cooridinate website

Pridgeon

Sequencing

Sequencing and matrix construction

Sequencing and matrix construction

Publishing; outreach materials, manuscript writing

UF graduate student

Phylogeny based project

Phylogeny based project; Sequencing, morphological analyses; databasing

Phylogeny based project; Sequencing, morphological analyses; databasing

Phylogeny based project; Sequencing, morphological analyses; databasing

UF undergraduate student

Phylogeny based project

Phylogeny based project

Phylogeny based project

Phylogeny based project

Higgins

Morphological char. selection/refinement; receive specimens; verify vouchers; train biologist and intern

Morphological data coll.; verif vouchers; work with interns

Morphological data coll.; verif vouchers; work with interns

Combined DNA+morphological analyses; publish outreach materials

MSBG Biologist

Start morphological table; fieldwork Colombia, Ecuador, Peru

Morphological data coll.; fieldwork Brazil and Bolivia

Morphological data coll. and analyses; fieldwrok Costa Rica

Construct and post Lucid3 key; develop educational materials

Holst

Process vouchers

Sequencing & databasing

Sequencing & databasing

Sequencing & databasing

UF Bioinformatics Tech (1/2 time)

Construct database

Database implementation & refining

Database implementation & refining

Database implementation and refining; database finalization; web hyperbolic tree finalization

5. Communication among team members: We plan to give regular presentations at national and international scientific meetings at all stages of the project. These meetings will include the annual Botanical Society of America meetings, the International Monocot Symposium ("Monocots IV" in Copenhagen, 2008), and the World Orchid Conference in Miami in 2008. To minimize travel costs, we will plan annual coordination meetings in conjunction with the annual BSA meetings. furthermore, the MSBG is only about three hours drive from UF, which allows for fairly easy meetings of the project team.

6. Annual milestones for progress: Year 1: Recruit grad students, bioinformatics tech; begin sequencing; initiate independent and combined molecular data matrices; Year 2: sequencing; complete database design and implementation; Year 3: sequencing; focus on morphological matrix; Year 4: Final sequencing, final analyses, publications; symposium; education/outreach module distribution; website completion.

7. Curatorial, sequencing, computational and informatic facilities: UF has a molecular systematics laboratory equipped for routine PCR; sequencing runs are performed by on-campus sequencing core facilities for a per-lane cost. The scope of this project does not justify purchase and maintenance of dedicated sequencing machines. We have dedicated computers and software (Sequencher, PAUP*, MacClade, Nona, MrBayes, Lucid, etc.) for sequence acquisition, editing, data matrix construction, and routine analyses.

8. Coordination with foreign-based projects on same or related organisms: Collectively, the PIs and collaborators are working with or are communicating with nearly all workers in orchid phylogenetics. We are actively seeking additional collaborators, who will be encouraged to participate in the project.

9. Training and outreach: Educational and outreach materials will be developed by the Florida Museum of Natural History (co-PIs Williams & Whitten) in conjunction with the staff at MSBG. FLMNH also has a large exhibit program and exhibit hall (Powell Hall; http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/); its staff has a successful track record of grant funding for exhibit design and construction, education, and outreach through traveling exhibits.

10. Relation to currently funded projects: Williams and Whitten are currently funded by NSF for work on the large Neotropical Maxillariinae. The Maxillariinae project and this proposal complement each other, with this proposal providing greater detail for the Pleurothallidinae and thus finishing the generic realigments for another of the large Neotropical groups of Orchidaceae.

Pleurothallid Generic Names in Current Use with citations to original literature.

Aberrantia (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 253. 2004 [Feb 2004]; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 253. Feb 2004.

Acianthera Scheidw. -- Otto & Dietr. Allgem. Gartenz. x. (1842) 292. (IK)

Acostaea Schltr. -- Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 19: 283. 1923 (GCI)

Anathallis Barb.Rodr. -- Gen. Sp. Orchid. i. 23 (1877). (IK)

Ancipitia (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 254. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 254. Feb 2004.

Andinia (Luer) Luer -- Ic. Pleurothallid. XX (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 79): 5 (2000):. (IK)

Andreettaea Luer -- Selbyana 2(2-3): 183 (1978). (IK)

Anthereon Pridgeon & M.W.Chase -- Lindleyana 16(4): 252 (2001). (IK)

Antilla (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 255. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 255. Feb 2004.

Apoda-prorepentia (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 255. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 255. Feb 2004.

Apatostelis Garay -- Bot. Mus. Leafl. 27: 185. 1980 (GCI)

Areldia Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 255. 2004 [Feb 2004]; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 255. Feb 2004.

Atopoglossum Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 255. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 255. Feb 2004.

Barbosella Schltr. -- Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 15: 259. 1918 (GCI)

Barbrodria Luer -- Selbyana 5: 386. 1981 (GCI)

Brachionidium Lindl. -- Fol. Orch. (1859). (IK)

Brenesia Schltr. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 19: 199. 1923

Chamelophyton Garay -- Orquideologia 9(2): 115. 1974 (GCI)

Colombiana Ospina Orquideologia 8(3): 230. 1973

Condylago Luer -- Orquideologia, 15(2-3): 118 (1982). (IK)

Crocodeilanthe Rchb.f. & Warcz. in Bonplandia, ii. (1854) 113.

Cryptophoranthus Barb.Rodr. Gen. Sp. Orchid. ii. (1881) p. 79.

Cucumeria Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 257. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 257. Feb 2004.

Didactylus (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 257. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 257. Feb 2004.

Dilomilis Raf. -- Fl. Tellur. iv. 43 (1836). (IK)

Diodonopsis Pridgeon & M.W.Chase -- Lindleyana 16(4): 252 (2001). (IK)

Draconanthes (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 61: 2. 1996 (GCI)

Dracontia (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 257. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 257. Feb 2004.

Dracula Luer -- Selbyana 2(2-3): 190 (1978). (IK)

× Dracuvallia Luer -- Selbyana 2(2-3): 191 (1978). (IK)

Dresslerella Luer -- Selbyana 3(1-2): 1 (1976). (IK)

Dryadella Luer -- Selbyana 2: 207. 1978 (GCI)

Echinella Pridgeon & M.W.Chase -- Lindleyana 16(4): 253 (2001). (IK)

Echinosepala Pridgeon & M.W.Chase -- Lindleyana 17(2): 100 (2002). (IK)

Elongatia (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 257. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 257. Feb 2004.

Empusella (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 258. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 258. Feb 2004.

Epibator Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 201. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 201. Feb 2004.

Frondaria Luer -- Ic. Pleurothallid. I-Syst. Pleurothallidinae (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 15): 29 (1986). (IK)

Gyalanthos Szlach. & Marg. -- Polish Bot. J. 46(2): 116 (2001 publ. 20 Feb. 2002). (IK)

Jostia Luer -- Ic. Pleurothallid. XX (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 79): 2 (2000). (IK)

Kraenzlinella Kuntze -- Lex. Gen. Phan. 310. 1904 authors= Post & O. Kuntze (GCI)

Lepanthes Sw. -- Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. 6: 85. 1799 (IK)

Lepanthopsis Ames -- Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. i. No. 9, 3 (1933). (IK)

Lindleyalis Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 258. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 258. Feb 2004.

Lueranthos Szlach. & Marg. -- Polish Bot. J. 46(2): 117 (2001 publ. 20 Feb. 2002). (IK)

Luerella Braas -- Orchidee (Hamburg) 30: 108. 1979 (GCI)

Madisonia Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 258. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 258. Feb 2004.

Masdevallia Ruiz & Pav. -- Prod. 122. t. 27 (1794). (IK)

Masdevalliantha (Luer) Szlach. & Marg. -- Polish Bot. J. 46(2): 117 (2001 publ. 20 Feb. 2002). (IK)

Mirandopsis Szlach. & Marg. -- Polish Bot. J. 46(2): 117 (2001 publ. 20 Feb. 2002). (IK)

Mixis Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 258. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 258. Feb 2004.

Myoxanthus Poepp. & Endl. -- Nov. Gen. et Sp. i. 50. t. 88 (1835). (IK)

Mystacorchis Szlach. & Marg. -- Polish Bot. J. 46(2): 117 (2001 publ. 20 Feb. 2002). (IK)

Neocogniauxia Schltr. -- Symb. Antill. 7: 495. 1913 (GCI)

Octomeria R.Br. -- Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. II. v. 211 (1813). (IK)

Ophidion Luer -- Selbyana 7: 79. 1982 (GCI)

Pabstiella Brieger & Senghas -- Orchidee (Hamburg) 27(5): 195. 1976 invalid; Latin diagnosis not provided (GCI)

Phloeophila Hoehne & Schltr. -- Arch. Bot. Sao Paulo 1: 199. 1926 (GCI)

Physosiphon Lindl. -- Bot. Reg. sub t. 1797 (1835). (IK)

Physothallis Garay -- Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 47: 199. 1953 (GCI)

Platystele Schltr. -- Fedde. Repert. Nov. Sp. viii. 565 (1910). (IK)

Pleurothallis R.Br. in W.T.Aiton -- Hortus Kew., ed. 2 5: 211. 1813 [Nov 1813] (GCI)

Pleurothallopsis Porto & Brade -- Arq. Inst. Biol. Veg. 3: 133. 1937 (GCI)

Porroglossum Schltr. -- Fedde, Repert. Beih. vii. 82 (1920). (IK)

Proctoria Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 258. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 258. Feb 2004.

Pseudolepanthes (Luer) Archila -- Revista Guatemal. 3(1): 76. 2000 [Jun 2000] (GCI)

Restrepia H.B. & K. -- Nov. Gen. et Sp. i. 366. t. 94 (1815). (IK)

Restrepiella Garay & Dunst. -- Venez. Orchid. Ill. 4: 266. 1966 (GCI)

Restrepiopsis Luer -- Selbyana 2(23): 199 (1978). (IK)

Rhynchopera Klotzsch -- Link. Klotzsch & Otto, Ic. Pl. Rar. 103. t. 41 (1850). (IK)

Rodrigoa L.A.Braas -- Orchidee, 30(5): 203 (1979). (IK)

Rubellia (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 258. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 258. Feb 2004.

Salpistele Dressler -- Orquideologia 14: 6. 1979 (GCI)

Sarracenella Luer -- Selbyana 5(3-4): 388 (1981). (IK)

Scaphosepalum Pfitzer -- Engl. & Prantl, Naturl. Pflanzenfam. ii. 7 (1888) 139. (IK)

Specklinia Lindl. -- Gen. et Sp. Orch. 8 (1830). (IK)

Stelis Sw. -- J. Bot. (Schrader) 2(4): 239. 1799 (GCI)

Talpinaria Karst. -- Fl. Columb. i. 153. t. 76 (1859 ?). (IK)

Teagueia (Luer) Luer -- Ic. Pleurothallid. VIII (Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 39): 140 (1991):. (IK)

Tomzanonia Nir -- Lindleyana 12: 186. 1997 (GCI)

Triaristella (Rchb.f.) F.G.Brieger ex Luer -- Selbyana 2(2-3): 205 (1978). (IK)

Tribulago Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 265. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 265. Feb 2004.

Trichosalpinx Luer -- Phytologia, 54(5): 393 (1983). (IK)

Trisetella Luer -- Phytologia, 47(2): 57 (1980), nom. (IK)

Tubella (Luer) Archila -- Revista Guatemal. 3(1): 46. 2000 [Jun 2000] (GCI)

Unciferia (Luer) Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 265. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 265. Feb 2004.

Xenosia Luer -- Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 95: 265. 2004 [Feb 2004] ; Icon. Pleurothall. 26: 265. Feb 2004.

Zootrophion Luer -- Selbyana 7: 80. 1982 (GCI)

Zosterophyllanthos Szlach. & Marg. -- Polish Bot. J. 46(2): 118 (2001 publ. 20 Feb. 2002). (IK)



Pleurothallid Generic Names in Current Use, followed by number of species from Index Kewensis.

Aberrantia (Luer) Luer 1

Acianthera Scheidw. 220

Acostaea Schltr. 9

Anathallis Barb.Rodr. 118

Ancipitia (Luer) Luer 27

Andinia (Luer) Luer 12

Andreettaea Luer 1

Anthereon Pridgeon & M.W.Chase 6

Antilla (Luer) Luer 12

Apoda-prorepentia (Luer) Luer 7

Apatostelis Garay 33

Areldia Luer 1

Atopoglossum Luer 3

Barbosella Schltr. 39

Barbrodria Luer 1

Brachionidium Lindl. 72

Brenesia Schltr. 11

Chamelophyton Garay 1

Colombiana Ospina 6

Condylago Luer 1

Crocodeilanthe Rchb.f. & Warcz. 66

Cryptophoranthus Barb.Rodr. 46

Cucumeria Luer 1

Didactylus (Luer) Luer 4

Dilomilis Raf. 8

Diodonopsis Pridgeon & M.W.Chase 5

Draconanthes (Luer) Luer 2

Dracontia (Luer) Luer 17

Dracula Luer 145

× Dracuvallia Luer 2

Dresslerella Luer 11

Dryadella Luer 48

Echinella Pridgeon & M.W.Chase 9

Echinosepala Pridgeon & M.W.Chase 8

Elongatia (Luer) Luer 10

Empusella (Luer) Luer 1

Epibator Luer 3

Frondaria Luer 1

Gyalanthos Szlach. & Marg. 2

Jostia Luer 1

Kraenzlinella Kuntze 17

Lepanthes Sw. 1133

Lepanthopsis Ames 54

Lindleyalis Luer 7

Lueranthos Szlach. & Marg. 1

Luerella Braas 1

Madisonia Luer 1

Masdevallia Ruiz & Pav. 898

Masdevalliantha (Luer) Szlach. & Marg. 2

Mirandopsis Szlach. & Marg. 1

Mixis Luer 1

Myoxanthus Poepp. & Endl. 60

Mystacorchis Szlach. & Marg. 1

Neocogniauxia Schltr. 2

Octomeria R.Br. 201

Ophidion Luer 4

Pabstiella Brieger & Senghas 6

Phloeophila Hoehne & Schltr. 20

Physosiphon Lindl. 30

Physothallis Garay 3

Platystele Schltr. 110

Pleurothallis R.Br. 2083

Pleurothallopsis Porto & Brade 16

Porroglossum Schltr. 35

Proctoria Luer 1

Pseudolepanthes (Luer) Archila 10

Restrepia H.B. & K. 107

Restrepiella Garay & Dunst. 13

Restrepiopsis Luer 21

Rhynchopera Klotzsch 10

Rodrigoa L.A.Braas 9

Rubellia (Luer) Luer 1

Salpistele Dressler 6

Sarracenella Luer 2

Scaphosepalum Pfitzer 67

Specklinia Lindl. 140

Stelis Sw. 1051

Talpinaria Karst. 1

Teagueia (Luer) Luer 11

Tomzanonia Nir 1

Triaristella (Rchb.f.) F.G.Brieger ex Luer 12

Tribulago Luer 1

Trichosalpinx Luer 157

Trisetella Luer 25

Tubella (Luer) Archila 72

Unciferia (Luer) Luer 10

Xenosia Luer 2

Zootrophion Luer 20

Zosterophyllanthos Szlach. & Marg. 53

Total number of species names from Index Kewensis 7461



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