AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST AND BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE LAND
Fred G. Thompson
Date of On-line Pubication: June 16, 2008.
PULMONATA – The Pulmonates
ABSTRACT: The following list of non-marine gastropod fauna summarizes the known species and subspecies that are recognized from Mexico and Central America. It is an annotated list of 1789 terminal taxa presented in a hierarchical framework. These include 1491 native species plus 278 native subspecies, and 20 introduced species. The native species include 168 aquatic operculates, 84 aquatic pulmonates, 130 terrestrial operculates and 1109 terrestrial pulmonates. In most cases in order to be as objective as possible the list uncritically records the most recent assignment of terminal taxa. In a few instances some changes are deemed necessary. For higher-level changes competing schemes are treated equally. In cases of terminals and higher taxa readers are directed to the systematic works that discuss relevant taxonomy. It is anticipated that the annotated list will be a useful resource for everyone interested in non-marine gastropods and their nomenclature. In addition to clarifying some issues or points of confusion, this list should also provide an impetus for future work aimed at clarifying and resolving areas of taxonomic disagreement and/or uncertainty, and to make better known the non-marine molluscan fauna of Mexico and Central America.
The objective of this study is to list all species and
subspecies of land and freshwater gastropods reported from
The geographic area of this study is vast, and it contains many
biomes, different geological structures, complex physiographic features and a
myriad of ecological settings. Local
surveys have been published for only a small portion of this area. It is not possible on the basis of published
information to identify biotic hotspots, because the available biogeographic
information does not allow for objective comparisons of one region with another.
A disproportionate large number of
species have been recorded from central
The number of known taxa from
The purpose in publishing this as an on-line publication is to make the checklist immediately available and free to anyone who is interested. To publish it as hard-copy would be costly and beyond the affordability of very many potential users. The checklist is intended to be a summary of the literature. The user can proceed from there. It is not intended to be an identification manual. Therefore no illustrations are included, because it would take several more years to correctly identify most of the needed species. These can be added later at very little cost.
Systematic biology is made unnecessarily difficult by the tendency of authors to synonymize species or to resurrect them from synonymy without providing justification. In either case the responsibility is on authors to provide evidence supporting their actions. To do otherwise is poor science. Merely to state that a name is a synonym does not constitute a valid action.
In accordance with ICZN Article 45.6.4, and for purposes of this work, varieties and forms of species published prior to 1961 are accorded subspecific rank. No judgment is made concerning the validity of such subspecies.
The following acronyms refer to museum collections where cited specimens are located. Type specimens are cited only where this information is readily available in publication.
- Museo de Zoología, Universidad de Costa Rica,
— Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle,
Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main,
Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt
ZMH — Zoologisches Museum der Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
Liath Appleton provided information
concerning specimens in the
Jessica Bechar edited the manuscript.
John B. Burch assisted with the review of the Basommatophora
Abraham S, H. Breure reviewed the section treating the Orthalicidae.
Gregg Brewer assisted with field
work in northern
Alfonso Correa-Sandoval offered
critical assistance on the project as it dealt with northeast
Ihra Richling provided assistance in the review of the Helicinidae.
John Slapcinsky provided assistance with documentation and literature searches.
The classification of superfamilies, families and Subfamilies follows Bouchet & Rocroi (2005: 240-270).