INDEX | VETIGASTROPODA | PULMONTA (LYMNAEOIDEA-PUPILLOIDEA) | PULMONATA (ORTHALICOIDEA) |
PULMONATA (ACHATINOIDEA-SAGDOIDEA) | PULMONATA (GASTRODONTOIDEA-HELICOIDEA) | BIBLIOGRAPHY


 

PART 4 PULMONATA (ACHATINOIDEA-SAGDOIDEA)

 

Superfamily ACHATINOIDEA

 

Family FERUSSACIDAE Bourguignat, 1883

 

 

Genus Cecilioides Férussac, 1814

 

Cecilioides Férussac, 1814; Mem. Geologiques: 48.  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 20: 1.-  Hugh Watson, 1828; Jour. of Conch., 18: 217 (anatomy).-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 184-185.-  Zilch, 1959: 338-339.

Caecilioides Hermannsen, 1846; Ind. Gen. Malac., 1: 150 (emendation for Cecilioides).

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Bulimus acicula Bruguière (= Buccinum aciculums Müller, 1774).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Europe, Africa, southern Asia, Philippians and Oceania and the American tropics.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Zilch (1959) recognizes five subgenera.  Three occur naturally in the neotropical region.

 

 

 

Subgenus Karolus De Folin, 1870

 

Karolus De Folin, 1870; Les Fonds des Mer étude internationale sur les particularités nouvelles des regions sous-marines, 1: 182, 189.-  Pilsbry, 1916; Nautilus, 19: 119-120.

Caecilianopsis Pilsbry, 1907; Nautilus, 21: 28.-  Pilsbry, 1909; Man. Conch., 20:

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Caecilioides (Caecilianopsis) jod Pilsbry, 1907 (= Karolus primus De Folin, 1870).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Tropical America.  Introduced elsewhere.

                        

  TAXONOMY.-  The subgenus includes three species.  One species, Cecilioides consobrinus, is widespread in the American tropics, and consists of several subspecies.  The typical subspecies occurs in Cuba. Another subspecies, C. c. primus, is found in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

 

Cecilioides (Karolus) consobrinus primus (De Folin, 1870)

 

Karolus primus De Folin, 1870; Les Fonds des Mer …: 189; pl. 28, figs. 7, 8 (shell).

Caecilioides consobrinus primus (De Folin).  Pilsbry, 1916; Nautilus, 29: 119-20.-  Harry, 1950; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (524): 19.

Cecilioides consobrinus primus (De Folin).  Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4) 15: 471-  472.-  Baker, 1930: 14.-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 240.

Caecilianella veracruzensis Crosse & Fischer, 1877; Jour. de Conchyl., 25: 273.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 591; pl. 28, fig. 4 (shell).-  Martens, 1898: 324.

Caecilioides consobrinus var. veracruzensis (Crosse & Fischer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 20: 40-41; pl. 5, figs. 70, 77, 78, 79 (shell).-  Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1937:29.-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 9. 

Cecilioides consobrinus veracruzensis (Crosse & Fischer).  Correa-Sandoval, Guerrero & Reza, 1998: 15.-  Correa-Sandoval, 2000; Acta Zool.Mex., (79):: 9.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 238.

Caecilioides (Caecilianopsis) jod Pilsbry, 1907; Nautilus, 21: 28.

Cecilioides consobrinus (Orbigny).  Pérez & López, 1993: 913.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 116-118.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Karolus primus: Veracruz.  Caecilianella veracruzensis: among debris drifted out of the Rio Antigua, Veracruz.  Caecilioides jod: drift debris along the Rio Panuco, Tamaulipas.

 

   DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: Pacific versant, numerous localities (Pérez & López, 2002). GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Chama (Hinkley, 1920b).  Dept. Izabal: Quiragua; Rio Cavech Mountains; Jocolo (Hinkley, 1920b).  Dept. Petén: Tikal (Basch, 1959).  CAMPECHE: 8 mi. SW of Champotón (Thompson, 1967).   NAYARIT:  Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands; Socorro Island (Dall, 1926).  PUEBLA: Necaxa, 3000 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930). SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  TAMAULIPAS:  numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).  VERACRUZ: Rio Antigua, Veracruz; Rancho El Sol, Naranjos (21°20’00”N, 97°43’16”W); rd. from Tuxpan- Poza Rica, km 234 (20°49’11”N, 97°30’00”W); El Cedral, rd. from Poza Rica-Tajín (20°29’11”N, 97°25’23”W) (Correa-Sandoval, 1999). YUCATAN: near Chichen Itza (Harry, 1950); 0.8 mi. NE of Becanchén (Thompson, 1967).

 

  TAXONOMY.-  There is a tendency in current literature to disregard subspecies, and cite only species names, which automatically take on the name of the typical subspecies.  It is presumptive of later workers to assume which subspecies was intended.  Such is the case with the work by Pérez & López (2002).  However, I am not aware of any authentic identifications of Cecilioides consobrinus consobrinus in the study area.

 

 

 

Subgenus Caecilianopsis Pilsbry, 1907

 

Caecilianopsis Pilsbry, 1907; Nautilus, 21: 28.

 

TYPE SPECIES.-  Cecilioides (Caecilianopsis) jod Pilsbry, 1907.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Northeastern Mexico.

 

  TAXONOMY.- The subgenus contains a single species.

 

 

 

 

Cecilioides (Caecilianopis) jod Pilsbry, 1907

 

Cecilioides (Caecilianopis) jod Pilsbry, 1907; Nautilus, 21: 28-29.-  Hinkley, 1907; Nautilus, 21: 77.

 

  TYPE LOCLAITY.-  In river drift, Tampico, Tamaulipas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  TAMAULIPAS: known only from the tpe locality.

 

 

 

 

Subgenus Geostilba Crosse, 1867

 

Geostilba Crosse, 1867; Jour. de Conchyl., 15: 184.-  Pilsbry, 1909; Man. Conch., 20: 43.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Geostilba caledonica Crosse, 1867.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Tropics of both hemispheres.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Many species.  One occurs in the study area.

 

 

 

Cecilioides (Geostilba) aperta (Swainson, 1840)

 

Macrospira aperta Swainson, 1840; Treatise on Malacology: 335; fig. 97.

Geostilbs aperta (Swainson). E. A. Smith, 1895; PZS London, 1: 307.

Cecilioides aperta (Swainson).  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 187fig. 80b (shell).

Achatina gundlachi Pfeiffer, 1850; Zeitschrift für malak., 7: 80.

Cecilioides gundlachi (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1909; Man. Conch., 20: 43.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 118-120; map.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Macrospira aperta: West Indies.  Achatina gundlachi: Cuba.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  West Indies in general; introduced elsewhere.  NICARAGUA: Pacific versant in general, common (Pérez & López, 2002).

 

 

 

Family SUBULINIDAE Fischer & Crosse, 1877

 

  DISTRIBUTION.- Tropical America east through Africa and southeast Asia.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Numerous genera.

 

 

Subfamily SUBULININAE Fischer & Crosse, 1877

 

Most Middle American Subulinidae had been grouped in the genus Leptinaria. A species critical to this classification was Allopeas gracilis (Hutton, 1834), which was placed variously within Opeas and then Lamellaxis, which in turn was considered a subgenus of Leptinaria.  H. B. Baker (1927, 1935, 1945) pointed out the anatomical differences between Opeas, Beckianum, Allopeas, Leptopeas, Lamellaxis and Leptinaria.  The anatomies of only a few species among these genera were known.  Authors continued to unite most of the Middle American species within Leptinaria because of the lack of discrete shell differences between it and Lamellaxis, Leptopeas and Allopeas.  This classification recognizes Opeas, Allopeas, Leptopeas, Lamellaxis, Beckianum, as separate genera because of their known anatomies.

 

 

 

Genus Allopeas H. B. Baker, 1935

 

Allopeas H. B. Baker, 1935; Nautilus, 48: 84.-  H. B. Baker, 1945; Nautilus, 58: 88 (anatomy).

 

  TYPE SPECIES.- Bulimus gracilis Hutton, 1834.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Tropical, subtropical and many temperate regions of the paleotropical regions of the world.  Allopeas gracilis and a few closely related species are readily dispersed elsewhere through human activities.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Several species.  Conventionally, Allopeas had been treated as a subgenus of Lamellaxis.  More recently it is recognized as a separate genus because of its anatomical dissimilarity with Lamellaxis and other genera.

 

 

 

Allopeas gracilis (Hutton, 1934)

 

Bulimus gracilis Hutton, 1834; Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, 3: 93-94.

Opeas gracilis (Hutton).  Pilsbry, 1906; Manual of Conchology (2), 18: 125, 198; pl. 18, figs. 3-6 (shell).-  Gude, 1914; Fauna of British India, II (Trochomorphidae – Janellidae): 355-357.-  Morrison, 1946; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 106: 41.

Lamellaxis gracilis (Hutton). Thompson, 1967; 241.

Lamellaxis (Allopeas) gracilis (Hutton).  H. B. Baker, 1934; Nautilus, 48: 84.-  H. B. Baker, 1945; Nautilus, 58: 88-89 (anatomy).  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2 (1): 177-178; figs. 84, 8 (pallial organs), 9 (reproductive anatomy), 10 (penis); figs. 85, f, g (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998: 15.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 126-128; map.

Achatina subula Pfeiffer, 1839; Wiegmann’s Archive f. Naturg., 1: 352.

Opeas subula (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 291-29.

Bulimus octonoides Orbigny, 1841; Moll. Cuba, 1: 177; pl. 11, figs, 22-24.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh State, India. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  This is the world’s most widely distributed land snail (Pilsbry, 1946).  It is known from the following localities in the study area.  PANAMA, Pearl Islands: San Jose Island (Morrison, 1946).  Prov. Panama: Panama; Quipo (Pilsbry, 1926a); Mt. Hope (Pilsbry, 1930).  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Puerto Viejo.   NICARAGUA: numerous localities in the Pacific versant (Pérez & López, 2002).  HONDURAS, Utila Island.  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán. Dept. Petén: Tikal (Basch, 1959).  Dept. Sacatepequez: Antigua.  CAMPECHE: various localities (Thompson, 1967).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, 1998).  TABASCO: San Juan Bautista  (Pilsbry, 1906).  TAMAULIPAS: Valle de Aguayo, Cd. Victoria (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).  YUCATAN: Merida.

 

 

 

 

Genus Beckianum H. B. Baker, 1961

 

Beckianum H. B. Baker, 1961; Nautilus, 75: 64.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 120.

Synopeas  Jousseauma, 1889 (not Synopeas Forster, 1856, Hymenoptera).

Diaopeas Haas, 1962: 55.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Bulimus beckianus Pfeiffer, 1846.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Tropical America in general from Brazil and Bolivia north to Mexico, and the West Indies. 

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized.

 

 

 

Beckianum beckianum beckianum (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Bulimus beckianus Pfeiffer, 1846; Symbolae ad Historiam Heliciorum, 3: 82.

Opeas beckianum (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 189-192; pl. 27, figs. 42-46, 54, 55 (shell).-  Hinkley, 1920b: 39, 43, 48, 32.

Synopeas beckianum (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1940: 93.-  H. B. Baker, 1945; Nautilus, 58: 91 (anatomy).-  H. B. Baker, 1947; Nautilus, 61: pl,1 (reproductive anatomy).-  Thompson, 1957: 101.-  Bequaert, 1957: 216.

Beckianum beckianum (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1961; Nautilus, 75: 64.-  Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998: 15.-  Correa-Sandoval, 2000; Acta Zool.Mex., (79):: 9.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 121-122; map.

Diaopeas beckianum (Pfeiffer).  Haas, 1962: 55-56; pl. 10, figs. A-D (shell).

Bulimus curaccasensis Revve, 1849; Conch. Icon, 5: pl. 79, fig. 580.

Opeas curaccasensis (Reeve).  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 599; pl. 26, fig. 6 (shell).-  Strebel, 1882: 99; pl. 7, figs. 8, 8a (shell); pl. 17, fig. 30 (shell); pl. 18, figs. 4 (radula), figs. 10a-10c, 11, 11c (anatomy).

Opeas micra var. caraccasensis (Reeve). Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 294; pl. 17, fig. 11 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Polvón, Nicaragua (Pilsbry, 1906). 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  The same as for the genus.  The species is easily transported to new localities, and it is difficult to determine its original distribution.  PANAMA, Prov. Bocas del Toro: San San Creek; Mono Creek.  Prov. Los Santos: Tonosi.  Taboga Island (Pilsbry, 1926a).  Prov. Panama: ruins of Old Panama City. Prov. Colon: Puerto Bello; Barro Colorado Island (Pilsbry, 1930).  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Cahuita (Pilsbry, 1926b).  Prov. Guanacaste: Bahia de Salinas. Prov. Puntarenas: Savana de Guacimo, 200 m alt.; Turubanes, 500 m alt. (Von Martens, 1898).  NICARAGUA: Pacific versant, abundant (Pérez & López, 2002).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Chama (Hinkley, 1920b).  Dept. Izabal: Quirigua, Cavech Mountains; Jocolo (Hinkley, 1920b).  Dept. Petén: Tikal (Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 9).  BELIZE, Cayo Dist.:  Rio Frio Cave (Haas & Solem, 1960).  CAMPECHE.  CHIAPAS: Ocosingo, 850 m alt.; Laguna Ocotal, 950 m alt.; Monte Libano to El Censo, 600-700 m alt. (Bequaert, 1957).  PUEBLA: Necaxa (H. B. Baker, 1940).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  TABASCO:  0.5-1,0 mi. E of Teapa (Thompson, 1957).  TAMAULIPAS: Gomez Farias (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).  VERACRUZ: Atoyac to Cordoba, 1300-3000 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1940); Cordoba; Orizaba; Dos Arroyos; Barranca  de Mahuistlan, nr. Jalapa; Pacho; Mirador, 2630 ft. alt. (Von Martens, 1898); Rancho El Sol, Naranjos (21°20’00”N, 97°43’16”W); San Juan Cuajinampa (21°11’53”N, 97°30’00”W); El Bajío, Carr. Naranjos- Tuxpan (20°57’17”N, 97°25’57”W); La Ordeña, Papantla (20°29’43”N, 97°18’27”W); Ruinas El Tajín (20°26’29”N, 97°22’30”W) (Correa-Sandoval, 1998).

 

 

 

Beckianus beckianum var. gabbianum (Angas, 1879)

 

Stenogyrus gabbiana Angas, 1879; PZS: 484; pl.40, fig. 17 (shell).

Opeas beckianum var gabbianum(Angus).  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 192; pl. 27, figs. 52, 53 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Beckianum sinistrum (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria sinistra Von Martens, 1898; Biologia Centrali-Americana; 319; pl. 18, fig. 11.-  Pilsbry, 1906: 311; pl.42, fig. 32.

Beckianum sinistrum (Von Martens).-  Pérez and Lopez, 1995; Malacological Review, 28: 127-130; figs. 1, 3-4 (shell), 2 (map).-  Pérez & López, 2002: 122-125; map.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Central Nicaragua: Acoyapa on the north shore of Lake Nicaragua.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Guanacaste:  Palo Verde.  NICARAGUA, region of the two great lakes, Dept. Boaco: Rio Santa Rita, Tustepec; Tecolostote; El Boqueron, Teustepe.  Dept. Carazo:  Chacocente Biological Station.  Dept. Léon:  Asososca; Laguna Asososca; Laguna Monte Galan.  Dept. Managua: Laguna Xiloa.  Dept. Masaya: Laguna Apoyo, Villa Carmen (Pérez & López, 1995).

 

 

 

 

Genus Lamellaxis Strebel & Pfeffer, 1882

 

Lamellaxis Strebel & Pfeffer, 1882: 109.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch.; 18: 287.-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 17.-  H. B. Baker, 1945: 85, 88.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 175.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Spiraxis mexicanus Pfeiffer, 1866.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  This is a tropical American genus which is distributed from Mexico south to Bolivia.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Twenty-one species and five subspecies occur in the study area.  Other species occur in South America.  The arrangement of species given below follows Von Martens (1898) and Pilsbry (1907).  Formerly most of the species were placed in Leptinaria, subgenus Lamellaxis.  Data provided by H. B. Baker (1927c. 1945) necessitate the recognition of Lamellaxis as a separate genus.  These non-lamellate Mexican and Central American species form a cohesive group of similar appearing species.  Lamellaxis lacks a parietal lamella, and the outer lateral teeth of the radula are tri-cuspid, where-as Leptinaria has a parietal lamella at some stage of development, and the outer laterals are bi-cuspid. 

 

 

 

Lamellaxis tamaulipensis (Pilsbry, 1903)

 

Leptinaria tamaulipensis Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 776; pl. 50, fig. 8.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 306; pl. 50, fig. 26 (shell).-  Jacobson, 1952: 113.-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998: 15.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 237.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 139-140.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A cañon about 4 miles west of [Ciudad] Victoria, Tamaulipas; about 3000 ft. alt.  Syntypes ANSP 85909.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA, Dept. Chinandega (Pérez & López, 2002). SAN LUIS POTOSI: road from San Martin to Tamazunchale (21º26’05”N, 98º42’06”W), 400 m alt. (Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998).  TAMAULIPAS: between km 652-653, between Santa Inez-Santa Llera (Jacobson, 1952); numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 202).

 

 

 

Lamellaxis  martensi martensi (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Bulimus martensi Pfeiffer, 1856: 318.

Spiraxis martensi (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1878: 619; pl. 25, fig. 9 (shell).

Leptinaria martensi (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 316.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Manual, 18: 308; pl. 41, figs. 6-8 (shell).-  Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4) 15: 472; pl. 35, fig. 5 (shell).-  Bequaert & Clench, 1933; Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash., (431): 536.-  Bequaert & Clench, 1936; Pub. Canegie Inst. Wash., (457): 65.-  Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1937: 29.-  Richards, 1937; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 77: 254.-  Rehder, 1966; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 79: 283).

Lamellaxis (Lamellaxis) martensi (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1940; Nautilus, 53: 93.-  H. B. Baker, 1945: 91.-  Harry, 1950; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (524): 18.-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 9.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordoba, Veracruz. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Petén: Tikal (Basch, 1959).  NAYARIT: Tres Marias Islands, Maria Madre Island; Maria Magdalena Island, (Dall, 1926).    VERACRUZ: Antigua (Pilsbry, 1907); Atoyac, 1400 ft. alt.; Atoyac to Cordoba, 1300-3000 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1940).  QUINTANA ROO: San Miguel; San Gerbacio, Cozumel Island (Richards, 1937; Rehder, 1966).  YUCATAN: Chichen Itza; Balam-Canche Cave, 4.8 km E of Chichen Itza (Bequaert &Clench, 1933, 1936); 8 mi. NW of Chichen Itza, nr. road to Merida (Harry, 1950).

 

 

Lamellaxis martensi modestus Strebel, 1882

 

Lamellaxis modestus Strebel, 1882: 111-112; pl. 7, fig. 15; pl. 17, figs. 5a-h, 7b, 31 (shell).

Leptinaria martensi var. modesta (Strebel).  Pilsbry, 1907: 308; pl. 41, fig. 7 (shell).

Lamellaxis (Lamellaxis) martensi form modestus (Strebel).  H. B. Baker, 1940: 93.- H. B. Baker, 1945; Nautilus, 58: 91.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Misantla, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Misantla; Atoyac to Cordoba, 1300-3000 ft. alt.; Atoyac (H. B. Baker, 1945).

 

 

 

Lamellaxis mexicanus mexicanus (Pfeiffer, 1866)

 

Spiraxis mexicanus Pfeiffer, 1866; Malak. Blätt., 13: 84.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 617.

Lamellaxis mexicanus (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1882: 109; pl. 7, fig. 14; pl. 17., figs. 3, 6b, 6d, 7a, 38 (shell).

Leptinaria (Lamellaxis) mexicana (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 316.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 306-307; pl. 41, figs. 2-5 9 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998:15.-  Correa-Sandoval, 2000; Acta Zool.Mex., (79):: 9.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 237.

Lamellaxis (Lamellaxis) mexicanus (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1940; Nautilus, 53: 93.-  Richards, 1938: 173.- Richards, 1939; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 81: 34.-  H. B. Baker, 1946; Nautilus, 59: pl. 9, figs. 1 (pallial organs), fig. 2 (penis), fig. 3 (radula), fig. 4 (reproductive system).-  Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998: 15.-  Correa-Sandoval, 1999: 9.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.

Leptinaria mexicana var. turrita Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 316.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Spiraxis mexicanus:  Mirador, Veracruz.  Leptinaria mexicana var. turreta: Agua Caliente [nr. Misatla], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: Quin BlFLMNHf, S end of Great Corn Island; Ometepe Island (Richards, 1939).  HONDURAS, Bay Islands: Between Coxen Hole and French Harbor; West End, Roatan Island (Richards, 1938).  PUEBLA:  Necaxa, 2215-5500 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1940).  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: numerous localities in eastern part of state (Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998).  TAMAULIPAS: Gomez Farias; Valle de los Ovnis, San José; Rio Frio (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).  VERACRUZ: Misantla; Cañada de Coatepec, nr. Jalapa (Pilsbry, 1907); northern part of state, numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, 1999).

 

 

 

Lamellaxis mexicanus abbreviatus (Von Martens)

 

Leptinaria mexicanus var. abbreviatus Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 316.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 307; pl. 41, fig. 5 (shell).

Lamellaxis (Lamellaxis) mexicanus form abbreviatus (Von Martens).  H. B. Baker, 1940: 93.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mirador, Veeracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: Necaxa, 2215-5500 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1940).  VERACRUZ: Mirador; Agua Caliente, nr. Misantla (Von Martens, 1898); Texola (Pilsbry, 1907).

 

 

Lamellaxis mexicanus utilensis (Pilsbry, 1907)

 

Leptinaria mexicanus utilensis Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 307-308; pl. 41, figs. 9, 10 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Utila Island, Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Lamellaxis pittieri pittieri (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria pittieri Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 317; pl. 18, fig. 7.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 308-309; pl. 41, fig. 13 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not specified.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Alahuela: Alahuela; Santa Clara;  Prov. Limon: Juquin Valley, nr. Talamanca; Bruschik, Alta Tararia.  Prov. Puntarenas: middle course of the Rio Pacuare del Sur.  Prov. San José: San Francisco de Guadalupe; La Ueruca, 1100 m alt.; La Palma (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

 

Lamellaxis pittieri obliquatus (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria pittieri Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 317; pl. 18, fig. 8.-  Pilsbry, 1907: Man. Conch., 18: 309; pl. 41, fig. 14 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tarbaca, [San José Prov.], Costa Rica; 1700 m alt.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Lamellaxis hyalinus (Tate, 1870)

 

Tornatellina hyalina Tate, 1870; American Journal of Conchology, 5: 157.

Leptinaria hyaline (Tate).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 317. -  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 309.  (Not figured).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Toro Rapids on the Rio San Juan; Dept. Rio San Juan, Nicaragua.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA:  known only from the type locality.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Von Martens (1898) states that Lamellaxis pittieri may be a synonym of L. hyaline.

 

 

 

Lamellaxis exiguus (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria exigua Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 318; pl. 18, fig. 10.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 309-310; pl. 42, fig. 30 (shell).

Lamellaxis exiguous (Von Martens).  Bequaert, 1957: 216.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Teapa, Tabasco.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: Laguna Ocotal, 950 m alt.; Ocosingo, 1000 m alt. (Bequaert, 1957).  TABASCO: Teapa.

 

 

 

Lamellaxis interstriatus (Tate, 1870)

 

Tornatellina interstriata Tate, 1870; American Journal of Conchology,5: 959; pl. 16, fig. 5 (shell).

Leptinaria interstriata (Tate).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 318.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 310-311; pl. 41, fig. 12 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 89-90; text-fig. 19 L.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 134-136.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- On an island in the lagoon of Boca del Toro, Panama.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: known only from the type locality.  COSTA RICA, Prov. Puntarenas: plains of the Rio Grande de Terraba (Von Martens, 1898).  NICARAGUA: Pacific versant, abundant (Pérez & López, 2002).

 

 

Lamellaxis crenulatus (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria crenulata Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 318; pl. 18, fig. 12 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 311; pl. 41, fig. 21 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Uren, near Talamanca, Limon Prov., Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Lamellaxis guatemalensis guatemalensis (Crosse & Fischer, 1877)

 

Spiraxis guatemalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1877; Jour. De Conchyl., 25: 271.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 618; pl. 25, fig. 10 (shell).

Leptinaria guatemalensis (Crosse & Fischer).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 319.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 312; pl. 41, fig. 11 (shell).-  Hinkley, 1920b: 39, 44, 48.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 131-12.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cobán, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-GUATEMALA, Dept. Izabal: Quirigua; Cavech Mountains; Jocolo (Hinkley, 1920b).  Dept. Retalhueleu: Retalhueleu (Von Martens, 1898).  NICARAGUA: various localities in the Pacific versant (map).

 

 

 

Lamellaxis guatemalensis majusculus (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria guatemalensis var. majuscule Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 319; pl. 18, fig. 13 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 312-313; pl. 41, fig. 15 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  None selected.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Guanacaste: Guanacaste.  Prov. Puntarenas: valley of the Rio Grande de Terraba, Palmar, 30 m alt.;  Golfo Dulce.  Prov. San José: San José (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

 

Lamellaxis filicostatus Strebel, 1882

 

Lamellaxis filicostatus Strebel, 1882: 113; pl. 17, fig. 10 (shell).

Leptinaria filicostata (Strebel).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 319.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 313; pl. 41, figs. 16, 17 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 90; pl. 19, text-figs. D, E, K.-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 343.-  Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1937: 29.   

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San Miguel Jucume, Guatemala [probably San Miguel Turucu in the Polochic Valley, fide Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 319].

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Prov. Colon:  between Tabernilla and San Pedro; Los Cascades; Barro Colorado Island; road SE of Empire.  (Pilsbry, 1926a).  Prov. Panama: ruins of Old Panama City (Pilsbry, 1930).  Taboga Island (Pilsbry, 1926a); San Jose Island, Pearl Islands (Morrison, 1946).  HONDURAS, Dept. Copán: Copán (Von Martens, 1898).  GUATEMALA: recorded only from the type locality. 

 

 

Lamellaxis strebelianus (Pilsbry, 1907)

 

Leptinaria strebeliana Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 313-314; pl. 42, fig. 25 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Polvón, Dept. León, Nicaragua.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Lamellaxis simpsoni (Ancey, 1886)

 

Nothus simpsoni Ancey, 1886; Annales de Malacologie, 2: 245.

Leptinaria simpsoni (Ancey).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 314; pl. 42, fig. 23 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Utila Island, Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Lamellaxis fordianus (Ancey, 1886)

 

Nothus fordianus Ancey, 1886; Annales de Malacologie, 2: 248.

Leptinaria fordiana (Ancey).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 34-315; pl. 42, fig. 24 (shell).-  Haas & Solem, 1960; Nautilus, 73: 130.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Utila Island, Honduras.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BELIZE, Cayo Dist.: Rio Frio Cave (Haas & Solem, 1960).  HONDURAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Lamellaxis yucatanensis (Pilsbry, 1907)

 

Leptinaria yucatanensis Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 315-316; pl. 42, figs. 27, 29 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Labna, Yucatan.  Syntypes in the ANSP.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  YUCATAN: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Lamellaxis biolleyi (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria biolleyi Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 319; pl. 18, fig. 14 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 316; pl. 41, fig. 18 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Near San José, Costa Rica.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.- COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Talamanca.

 

 

Lamellaxis costaricanus (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria costaricana Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 320, 639; pl. 18, fig. 15 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 316-317; pl. 41, fig. 19 (shell).-   Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 90-91; text-fig. 19 F; text-fig. 20 B (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not specified.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Puntarenas: Terraba; El Pital; Rio Naranjo valley; plains of the Rio Corredor; Golfo Dulce region; Quebrada de Java; Djiri; Durania; San Blas valley; Rio Diquis valley.  Prov. San Jose: San Jose (Von Martens, 1898).  PANAMA, Prov. Los Santos: Tonosi (Pilsbry, 1926a).

 

 

 

Lamellaxis panamensis panamensis (Pilsbry, 1910)

 

Leptinaria panamensis Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 62: 508; text-fig. 4 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 91-92; text-figs. 19, H, I,J; text-figs. 20 A (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 343.-  Morrison, 1946; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 106: 41.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- between San Pedro and Tabernilla, [Colon Prov.], Panama.  Syntypes in the ANSP.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, San Jose Island, Pearly Islands (Morrison, 1946).  Prov. Colon: type locality.  Road E of Empire, Canal Zone.  Prov. Panama: ruins of old Panama City (Pilsbry, 1930).

 

 

 

Lamellaxis panamensis tabogensis (Pilsbry, 1930)

 

Leptinaria pananensis Pilsbry. Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 92, text-fig. 20C (shell).

Leptinaria panamensis tabogensis Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 343.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Taboga Island, Panama.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Lamellaxis imperforatus Strebel, 1882

 

Lamellaxis imperforatus Strebel, 1882: 113; pl. 7, figs. 7, 14c; pl. 17, fig. 2 (shell). 

Leptinaria imperforata (Strebel).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 317; pl. 42, fig. 28 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Lamellaxis hapaloides (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria hapaloides Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 321; pl. 18, fig. 16 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 317-318; pl. 41, fig. 20 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Plains of the Rio Grande de Terraba, Puntarenas Prov., Costa Rica; 20 m alt.

 

  DISTRIBUTON RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA; known only from the type locality.

 

 

Lamellaxis ambiguus (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Leptinaria ambigua Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 321; pl. 18, fig. 17 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18:  318; pl. 42, fig. 22 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not specified.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Puerto Viejo.  Prov. San Jose: La Palma (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

 

Genus Leptopeas H. B. Baker, 1927

 

Leptopeas H. B. Baker, 1927c: 17.-  H. B. Baker, 1945; Nautilus, 58: 85.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Leptinaria bequaerti Pilsbry, 1926a.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Brazil, Venezuela, and British Guayana, north to Mexico; Known from Cuba and Hispaniola in the West Indies.  Introduced elsewhere.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Eight species occur in the study area.

 

 

 

Leptopeas argutus (Pilsbry, 1906)

 

 

Opeas argutum Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 211-22; pl. 28, fig. 68; pl. 40, fig. 9 (shell).

Lamellaxis (Leptopeas) argutus (Pilsbry).  H. B. Baker, 1940; Nautilus, 53: 92.-  H. B. Baker, 1945; Nautilus, 58: 90.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz; 500 ft. alt. above the city.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDDS.-  PUEBLA: Necaxa (H. B. Baker, 1940).   VERACRUZ:  Cordoba, 2625-3000 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1940); Texolo (Pilsbry, 1906).

 

 

Leptopeas bocourtianum bocourtianum (Crosse & Fischer, 1869)

 

Stenogyra bocourtiana Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Journ. de Conchyl., 17: 424.

Opeas bocourtianum (Crosse & Fischer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 602; pl. 26, fig. 8 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 292.-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 213; pl. 29, figs. 87, 88 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; in the stomach of Euglandina plicatula.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Leptopeas bocourtianum pittieri (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Opeas bocourtianum var. pittieri Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 292; pl. 17, fig. 6 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 213; pl. 29, fig. 90 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  La Palma, Costa Rica, 1500 m alt.  There are at least three places named La Palma in Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Leptopeas gladiolus (Crosse & Fischer, 1877)

 

Opeas gladiolus Crosse & Fischer, 1877; Jour. de Conchyl., 25: 272.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 604; pl.26, figs. 10 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 293; pl. 17, fig. 8.-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 214-215; pl. 29, fig. 93 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUAEMALA: known only from the type locality.   YUCATAN: Merida (Martine, 1898).

 

 

Leptopeas colimense (Crosse & Fischer, 1869)

 

Stenogyra colimensis Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl, 17: 424.

Opeas colimense (Crosse & Fischer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 603; pl. 26, fig. 9 (shell).- Von Martens,1898: 293.-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 215; pl. 29, figs. 92, 93 (shell).- Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 343.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Colima.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Prov. Colon: Puerto Bello (Pilsbry, 1930). COLIMA: type locality.  VERACRUZ: Cordoba (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

 

Leptopeas guatemalense guatemalense (Strebel, 1882)

 

Opeas guatemalensis Strebel, 1882: 105; pl. 7, fig. 2a.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 203. 

Opeas guatemalense Strebel. Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 213-214; pl. 29, fig. 91 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cobán, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Puntarenas: along the Rio Coto, Golfo Dulce.  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán.  Dept. Sacatepequez: Antigua (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

 

 

Leptopeas guatemalense majus Von Martens, 1898

 

Opeas guatemalense var. majus Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 283; pl. 17, fig. 7 (shell). -  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 214; pl. 29, fig. 89 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Miramar, near San Francisco, Dept. Escuintla, Guatemala.

 

  DISRTIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Leptopeas micra (Orbigny, 1835)

 

Helix micra Orbigny, 1835; Magazin de Zool.: 9.

Opeas micra (Orbigny).  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 193.-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 10 (radula).-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 93; text-fig. 21 C (shell).- Pilsbry,1926b: 127.

Lamellaxis micra (Orbigny).  Richards, 1937; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 77: 254.-  Richards, 1938: 173.-  Richards, 1939; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 81: 34.- Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 9.-  Correa-Sandoval, Guerrero & Ruiz, 1998: 15.-  Correa-Sandoval, 1999: 9.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.

Lamellaxis (Leptopeas) micra (Orbigny).  H. B. Baker, 1945; Nautilus, 58: 90.-  Thompson, 1957: 101.

Lamellaxis (Allopeas) micra (Orbigny).-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 178-179; figs. 85, a, b, c (shell).-  Haas, 1962: 57-58.-  Jacobson, 1968: 117.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 128-130, map.

Bulimus octonoides C. B. Adams, 1845; Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History: 12.

Opeas octonoides of authory.

Bulimus tryonianus Tate, 1870; American Journal of Conchology, 5: 157; pl. 16, fig. 4.

Opeas micra var. tryonianum (Tate).  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 196-197; pl. 28, fig. 63.-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila.. 78: 93.

Opeas tryonianum var. subovale Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 293; pl. 17, fig. 12 (shell). 

Opeas octonoides var. subovale Von Martens Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 197; pl. 28, fig. 5 (shell).

 

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix micra: Eastern-most foothills of the Andes, not far from Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.  Bulimus octonoides: Jamaica.  Bulimus tryonianus: island in the lagoon of Bocas del Toro, Panama.  Opeas micra var. tryonianum: Turubanes [Turrucares], Alahuela Prov., Costa Rica. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Bolivia to Mexico and the West Indies (Pilsbry, 1946).  PANAMA, Prov. Bocas del Toro: island in he logoon.  Prov. Colon: between Tabernillo and San Pablo; nr. Darien (Pilsbry, 1926a); Puerto Bello; Barro Colorado Island (Pilsbry, 1930).  Prov. Panama: ruins of Old Panama City. COSTA RICA, Prov. Alahuela: Turrucares.  Prov. Limon: Cahuita (Pilsbry, 1926b).  NICARAGUA, numerous localities along the Pacific versant, abundant (Pérez & López, 2002). Dept. Leon: Polvón (Pilsbry, 1906).  Quin BlFLMNHf, S end of Great Corn Island (Richards, 1939).  Dept. Managua:  Managua (Jacobson, 1968).  HONDURAS: Utila Island; Roatan Island (Richards, 1938).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Izabal: Quirigua; Esmeralda; Jocolo (Hinkley, 1920b).  Dept. Petén: Tikál (Basch, 1959).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, et al. 1998).   TABASCO: San Juan Bautista (Pilsbry, 1906); 0.5-1.0 mi. E of Teapa (Thompson, 1957).  TAMAULIPAS:  Tampico (Hinkley, 1907).  VERACRUZ: San Rafael Jicaltepec; Antigua; Texolo; Veracruz (Pilsbry, 1906); Rancho El Sol, Naranjos (21°20’00”N, 97°43’16” W); San Juan Cuajinampa (21°11’53”N, 97°30’00”W); rd. from Tuxpan-Poza Rica, km 234 (20°49’11”N, 97°30’00”W); Río Cazones, Cazones (20°37’17”N, 97°24’13”W); 2 km N of Barra de Cazones (20°44’51”N, 97°12’06”W); El Cedral, rd. from Poza Rica-Tajín (20°29’11”N, 97°25’23”W); Ruinas El Tajín (20°26’29”N, 97°22’30”W) (Correa-Sandoval, 1999).  YUCATAN: Izamal; Progreso; Tekanto; Ticul; Tunkas (Pilsbry, 1906).

 

 

Leptopeas semistriatum (Morelet, 1851)

 

Bulimus semistriatus Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 10.

Bulimulus semistriatus (Morelet).  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 555; pl. 20, figs. 14, 15 (shell).

Opeas semistriatum (Morelet).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 296,-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 212-213; pl. 29, figs. 84, 85 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Forests of Palenque, Chiapas.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Leptopeas yucatanense (Pilsbry, 1906)

 

Opeas yucatanense Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 212; pl. 28, fig. 69 (shell).-  Bequaert & Clench, 1933; Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash., (431): 536.-  Bequaert & Clench, 1938; Pub. Canegie Inst. Wash., (491): 258.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Ticul, Yucatan.  Syntypes in the ANSP.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  YUCATAN: Balaam Canche Cave, Chichen Itza; Chac Mol Cave, Tohil (Bequaert & Clench, 1938).

 

 

 

Genus Leptinaria Beck, 1839

 

Leptinaria Beck, 1837; Index Molluscorum: 79.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 622.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 284-287.-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 22.-  H. B. Baker, 1945: 88. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix unilamellata Orbigny, 1835.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  South America, north to Mexico and the West Indies.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  About a dozen species are included in Leptinaria.  Nine occur in the study area.  See Lamellaxis, TAXONOMY.

 

 

Leptinaria lamellata lamellata (Potiez & Michaud, 1838)

 

Achatina lamellata Portiez & Michaud, 1838; Galerie des Mollusques, 1: 128; pl. 11, figs. 7, 8 (shell).

Leptinaria lamellata (Potiez & Michaud).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 288-290; pl. 42, figs. 39, 40 (shell); pl. 43, Fig. 50 (anatomy).-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 22; pl. 20, figs. 100-101 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 102 (pallial organs).-  Haas & Solem, 1960; Nautilus, 73: 130.-  Haas, 1962: 52-53.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 136-138.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Achatina lamellata: not given.  Bulimus unilamellata: last foothills of the Andes in Bolivia, at Petaca, near the Rio Piray, 20 leagues from Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  The species is widely distributed in South America north though the West Indies and Central America. NICARAGUA: Pacific versant, common (Pérez & López, 2002).  BELIZE, Stan Creek Dist.: Stan Creek (Haas & Solem, 1960).

 

 

Leptinaria lamellata concentrica (Reeve, 1849)

 

Achatina concentrica Reeve, 1849; Conch. Icon., 5: pl. 19, fig. 106.

Leptinaria lamellata var. concentrica (Reeve).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 290-291; pl. 46, figs. 1-4 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 89; text-fig. 19, a-c (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 343.-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 22-23; pl. 21, fig. 8 (radula).-  Morrison, 1946; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 106: 40.-  Haas, 1962: 53, pl. 7, figs. H, I (shell).

Achatina lamellosa Moricand, in Reeve, 1849; Conch. Con., 5: pl.19, fig. 106 (shell).

Leptinaria valenzuela Jousseaume 1887; Bull. Soc. Zool. De rance, 12: 170; pl. 19, fig. 107 (shell).

 

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Achatina concentrica: Bolivia.  Achatina lamellose: unknown.  Leptinaria valenzuela: Coca, Ecuador.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Widely distributed in South America, the West Indies and Central America.  PANAMA, Taboga island; Pacheco Island (Pilsbry, 1930); San Jose Island, Pearl Islands (Morrison, 1946; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 106: 40).  Prov. Colon: Gatun; Puerto Cabello; between Tabernillo and San Pedro; Barro Colorado Island.  Prov. Los Santos: Tonosi.  Prov. Panama: Panama; ruins of Old Panama City; near Darien (Pilsbry, 1926).

 

 

Leptinaria unilamellata (Orbigny, 1842)

 

Bulimus unilamellata Orbigny, 1842; Voyage dans l’Amèrique Mèridionale: 257.

Leptinaria lamellate (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 290.

Leptinaria unilamellata (Orbigny).  H. B. Baker, 1945; Nautilus, 58: 91.-  H. B. Baker, 1947; Nautilus, 61: pl. 1 (reproductive system).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Last foothills of the Andes, at Petaca, near the Rio Piray, 20 leagues from Santa Cruz de la Sierra.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Widely distributed in South America.

 

 

 

Leptinaria ambigua Von Martens, 1898

 

Leptinaria ambigua Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 321; pl. 18, fig. 17 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 318; pl. 42, fig. 22 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not selected.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-   COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Puerto Viejo; La Palma (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

Leptinaria convoluta Von Martens, 1898

 

Leptinaria convoluta Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 322; pl. 18, fig. 20 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 320-321; pl. 42, figs. 33, 34 (shell). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not specified.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- COSTA RICA, Prov. Puntarenas: Santa Clara; Golfo Dulce; Turubares (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

 

Leptinaria elisae Tristram, 1863

 

Leptinaria elisae Tristram, 1863; PZS: 231.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 625.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 322; pl. 18, fig. 19 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 319-320; pl. 42, fig. 38 (shell).-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 52.-  Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1937: 29.-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 9.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cobán, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán; Chama, 950 ft. alt.  Dept. Izabal: Maya Farms, Quirigua, Cavech Mountains (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Petén: Tikal (Basch, 1959).

 

 

Leptinaria emmelinae Tristram, 1861

 

Leptinaria emmelinae Tristram, 1861; PZS: 231.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 323; pl. 18, fig. 21 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 321-322; pl. 42, figs. 35, 36 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cobán, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Leptinaria solida Von Martens, 1898

 

Leptinaria solida Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 321; pl. 18, fig. 18 (shell).-   Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 318-319; pl. 42, fig. 37 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not selected.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Puerto Viejo.  Prov. Puntarenas: Alta de Mano Tigre, near Terraba (Von Martens, 1898).

 

Leptinaria stolli Von Martens, 1898

 

Leptinaria stolli Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 316; pl. 19, figs. 9, 9a.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 320; pl. 42, figs. 26, 31 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Retalhuleu, Dept. Retalhuleu, Guatemala. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Leptinaria livingstonensis Hinkley, 1920

 

Leptinaria livingstonensis Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 33: 80.-  Hinkley, 1920b: 39, 44, 48.-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 23; pl. 24, fig. 27 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Livingston, Dept. Izabal, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Izabal: Cavech Mountains; Maya Farms, Quirigua; Jocolo (Hinkley, 1920b).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Genus Ochrodermella Pilsbry, 1907

 

Ochrodermella Pilsbry, 1907; Manual of Conchology, (2): 18: 327.-  Zilch, 1959: 351.-  H. B. Baker, 1945: 87.

  

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Leptinaria (Neosubulina) Von Martensi Dall, 1900.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Central America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three species are recognized.

 

 

Ochrodermella cumingiana (Pfeiffer, 1849)

 

Tornatellina cumingiana Pfeiffer, 1849; PZS: 134.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 324. 

Ochroderma cumingiana (Pfeiffer).  Ancey, 1903; Jor. de Conchyl., 51: 102.

Ochroderma (Ochrodermella) cumingiana (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry 1907; Manual of Conchology, 18: 327-328; pl. 47, fig. 20 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.—  Real Llejos, Nicaragua.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: Cocos Island. 

 

 

Ochrodermella Von Martensi (Dall, 1900)

 

Leptinaria (Neosubulina) Von Martensi Dall, 1900; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 52: 97; pl. 8, fig. 10 (shell).

Ochroderma (Ochrodermella) Von Martensi (Dall, 1900).  Pilsbry, 1907: 329-330; pl. 47, figs. 22, 23, 24 (shell).-  Zilch, 1959: fig. 1290.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Cocos Island [Isla de Coco], Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Ochrodermella pittieri (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Tornatellina pittieri Von Martens, 1898; Gesel. Nat. Freunds zu Berlin, 198: 157.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 640; pl. 44, fig. 10 (shell).

Ochroderma (Ochrodermella) pittieri (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1907: 328-329; pl. 47, figs. 15, 16 (shell). 

Ochrodermella pittieri (Von Martens).  H. B. Baker, 1945: 87.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cocos Island [Isla de Coco], Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Opeas Albers, 1850

 

Opeas Albers, 1850; Die Heliceen: 175.-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 123.-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 8.  H. B. Baker, 1945: 85.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix goodalli Müller, 1822 (= Bulimus pumilus Pfeiffer, 1940).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Worldwide in tropical, subtropical and many temperate regions of the world.  Some species are readily transported through human activities, which account for much of the distribution of the genus.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Numerous species.  The exact number is uncertain because many included species are known only from shells, and no doubt anatomical investigations will change their classification.  Three species are known from the study area.

 

 

Opeas adamsi Pilsbry, 1906

 

Opeas panamensise (Pilsbry). Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 62: 503.

Opeas adamsi Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 216; pl. 50, fig. 18 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 93.-  Thompson, 1968; Nautilus, 81: 105.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Panama.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Prov. Darien: 2.5 mi.SW of El Real (Thompson, 1968).

 

 

Opeas pumilum (Pfeiffer, 1840)

 

Helix goodalli Müller, 1822, Ann. Philos., n. s. 3: 381. (Not Helix goodalli Fèrussac, 1821).

Opeas goodalli (Müller).  Pilsbry, 1906; Manual of Conchology (2), 18: 200; pl. 28, figs. 72-74 (shell).

Bulimus clavulus Turton, 1831; Manual of he land and freshwater shells of the British Islands: 79; fig. 61. (Not Bulimus clavulus Lamarck, 1822).

Bulimus pumilus Pfeiffer, 1840; Archiv. Naturg.: 252.

Opeas pumilum (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1910; Nautilus, 24: 31.-  Hinkley, 1920b: 43, 45, 48.-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 92; text-fig. 21 B.-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 8; pl. 21, fig. 3 (radula).-  H. B. Baker, 1940: Nautilus, 58: 86.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2 (1): 181-18; fig. 87 (radula), fig. 88 (4) (shell).-  Morrison, 1946; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 106: 41.-  Pérez & López, 2002; 141-143.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Bristol, England (introduced).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Worldwide in tropical, subtropical and many temperate regions, as for the genus.  PANAMA, Prov. Bocas del Torro: Bocas del Torro (Pilsbry, 1906). Prov. Colon: Los Cascades.  Prov. Panama: Panama (Pilsbry, 1926a); ruins of Old Panama City (Pilsbry, 1930).  San Jose Island, Pearl Islands (Morrison, 1946).  NICARAGUA: Pacific versant in general (Pérez & López, 2002).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Izabal: Cavech Mountains; Esmeralda; Jocolo (Hinkley, 1920b).  TABASCO: San Juan Bautista (Pilsbry, 1906).

 

 

Opeas rarum Miller, 1879

 

Opeas rarum Miller, 1879: 125: pl. 14, fig. 2 (shell).-  Strebel, 1882: 103; pl. 17, figs. 8, 17; pl. 7, fig. 4 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 208; pl. 29, figs. 82-83 (shell).-  Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4) 15: 471

 

    TYPE LOCALITY.-  Guayaquil, Ecuador.

 

    DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Guatemala and eastern Mexico (Strebel, 1882).  NAYARIT:  Maria Magdalena Island, Tres Marias Islands (Dall, 1926).

 

 

Genus Subulina Beck, 1837

 

Subulina Beck, 1837; Index; Index Molluscorum...: 76.-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 71, 220.-  H. B. Baker, 1927c: 2 (anatomy).-  Zilch, 1959: 342.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix octona Bruguière, 1789.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Tropical South America.  One species, Subulina octona, has been introduced throughout most of the world through human agency.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Only two or three species are recognized.  One occurs in the study area.

 

 

Subulina octona (Bruguière, 1789)

 

Helix octona Bruguière, 1789; Encyclopèdie Methodique…: 325.

Subulina octona (Bruguière).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 298-300.-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 222-224.-   Pilsbry, 1926a: Proc. Aacd. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 89.-  Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1937: 29.-  Richards, 1938: 173.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 173-174; fig. 83a (radula), figs. b, c, d, e, g (shell), fig. f (egg), fig. h (reproductive system), fig. i (jaw).-  Branson & McCoy, 1963; Nautilus, 76: 107.-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 241.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 143-144; map. 

Achatina trochlea Pfeifer, 1842; Symbolae ad Historiam Heliceorum, 2: 59.

Subulia octona var. strebeli Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 299.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix octona: probably South America.  The species was already widely disseminated by humans long before it was studied by naturalists.  Achatina trochlea: Mexico.  Subulina octona var. strebeli: Cd. Campeche, Campeche. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  The species is nearly ubiquitous in the study area at lower elevations.   PANAMA, San Jose Island, Pearl Islands (Morrison, 1946; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 106: 40).  Prov. Bocas de Toro: Bocas del Toro; San San Creek.  Prov. Los Santos: Tonosi; Anon;  Cd. Panama (Pilsbry, 1926a).   COSTA RICA, Prov. Cartago: Turrialba, 500 m. alt. (Pilsbry, 1920).  Prov. Limon:  Cahuita (Pilsbry, 1926b) Talamanca.  Prov. Puntarenas: Puerto Lagarto, 70 m. alt.; Palmar, Rio Grande de Terraba valley; Golfo Dulce; Santo Domingo; Coto (Von Martens, 1898).  NICARAGUA: numerous localities in the Pacific verdant (Pérez & López, 2002).  Reg. Atlantico Sur.: Bluefields (Fluck, 1905).  HONDURAS: Roatan Island (Richards, 1938).  El SALVDOR.  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán.  Dept. Huehuetenango: Hacienda Helvetia, in upper Cholhuitz; Costa Cuco.  Dept. Izabal: Cavech Mountains, 1 mi. back of Cavech Village (Hinkley, 1920b); Puerto Barrios (Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1937).  BELIZE: Belize City.  CAMPECHE: Cd. Campeche; Cd. Carmen (Branson & McCoy, 1963).  CHIAPAS.  TABASCO: Teapa; San Juan Bautista; Villahermosa (Branson & McCoy, 1963).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: Río Moctezuma, Tamazunchale (21°15’21”N, 98°48’56”W); Tamazunchale (21°15’21”N, 98°48’09”W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  VERACRUZ: Veracruz; Ruinas El Tajín (20°26’ 29”N, 97°22’30”W) (Correa-Sandoval, 1999).  YUCATAN: Izamal; Merida.  

 

 

 

Subfamily OBELISCINAE Thiele, 1931

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Tropical America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Five genera are recognized (Zilch, 1959).  One genus occurs in the study area.

 

 

 

Genus Obeliscus Beck, 1837

 

Obeliscus Beck, 1837; Index molluscorum. . . : 61.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 18: 240-244.-  Zilch, 1959: 357-359.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix (Cochlicella) obeliscus Moricand, 1833.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  South America from Brazil and Bolivia north to Panama; Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico.

 

  TAXIONOMY.  Eight subgenera are recognized.  One subgenus occurs in the study area.

 

 

 

Subgenus Ischnocion Pilsbry, 1908

 

Ischnocion Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 18: 324.-  H. B. Baker, 1927; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (182): 6.-  Zilch, 1959: 358-359.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Neosubulina (Ischnocion) triptyx Pilsbry, 1908.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Colombia and southern Panama.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized.

 

 

 

Obeliscus (Ischnocion) triptyx (Pilsbry, 1908)

 

Neosubulina (Ischnocion) triptyx Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 18: 324; pl. 47, figs. 21, 25, 26 (shell).-  Zilch, 1959: 359; fig. 1323.-  Thompson, 1968; Nautilus, 81: 105.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Colombia.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Prov. Darien: 2.5 mi. SW of El Real (Thompson, 1968).

 

 

 

 

Subfamily RUMININAE Wenz, 1923

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Africa and Mediterranean Europe, east to India.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The subfamily includes only a few genera.

 

 

Genus Rumina Risso, 1828

 

Rumina Risso, 1826; Histoire naturele . . .  L’Europe meridionale . . . , 4: 79.-  Pilsbry, 1905; Man. Conch., 17: 211.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix decollata Linnaeus, 1758.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mediterranean region of Europe, Africa and Asia.  Introduced elsewhere. 

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized. 

 

 

Rumina decollata (Linnaeus, 1758)

 

Helix decollata Linnaeus, 1758; Systema Naturae (10): 773.

Rumina decollata (Linnaeus).  Pilsbry, 1905; Man. Conch., 17: 212-213, 215; pl. 53, fig. 70 (shell); pl. 55, fig. 99 (animal).-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 170-172; figs. 81 (anatomy); figs. 82a, 82b, 82c (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998: 15.-  Correa-Sandoval, 1999: 9.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.-  Correa-Sandoval & Rodriguez, 2005: 60.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Southern Europe.

 

  DISTRIBUION RECORDS.-  This species is common through-out the arid regions of northern Mexico, although it is ignored frequently by collectors because of its introduced status.  COAHUILA:  Parras de La Fuente (UMMZ).  NUEVO LEON: Laguna de Sanchéz (25°19’58” N, 100º15’18” W); km 52 on rd. Iturbide-San Roberto (24º44’56” N, 99º57’14” W); Dr. Arroyo (23°45’05” N, 100°06’35” W) (Correa-Sandoval & Rodriguez, 2005).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: Las Cascadaa, Tamasopo (21°56’05” N, 99°25’00” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al. 1998).  TAMAULIPAS: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).

 

 

Superfamily TESTACELLOIDEA

 

Family SPIRAXIDAE H. B. Baker, 1939

 

    The classification of the family follows H. B. Baker, 1939b, 1941a, 1941b and 1943a.  Three subfamilies, representing 258 species an an additional 40 subspecies, are recognized in Mexico and Central America.  Most species are very restricted in their distributions, reflecting a high degree of local endemism.  The majority of the species are known from only a few regions of the study area.  This is a reflection of its early colonial history with limited accessibility into many o the regions, and the very small number of malacologists who have worked there.  Large areas of the study area remain very poorly surveyed, and undoubtedly the number of spiraxid species will be vastly increased with further biodiversity surveys of the many biotic provinces that comprise Mexico and Central America.  Even areas that are relatively well known, such as central Veracruz, yield new taxa with each additional investigation.

 

 

Subfamily EUGLANDININAE H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Euglandinarum H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 54.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southeastern United States south through Mexico and Central America to Peru, Bolivia and French Guyana.  The subfamily is absent from the West Indies except for coastal islands such as Cozumel, Utila, Corn Island, etc.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The subfamily Euglandininae includes five genera.  Currently 110 species are recognized in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

Genus Euglandina Crosse and Fischer, 1870

 

Euglandina Crosse & Fischer, in Fischer and Crosse, 1870: 97.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 175.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 54-55.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 7-11.

Glandina Strebel, 1875: 1.-  Von Martens, 1891: 49. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Achatina lignaria Reeve, 1849 (= Glandina aurata Morelet, 1849).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southeastern United States and Texas south to Brazil, Peru and Bolivia.  The central radiation of the genus is in Mexico and northern Central America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Euglandina includes three subgenera.  Forty-four  species are recognized in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

Subgenus Euglandina Crosse and Fischer, 1870

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southeastern United States south to Bolivia, Brazil and Peru.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Twenty-two species and six subspecies occur in the study area.

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) aurata (Morelet, 1849)

 

Glandina aurata Morelet 1849: 12.-  Fischer and Crosse, 1870: 106; pl. 3, figs. 7, 7a.-  Von Martens, 1890: 57.

Oleacina aurata (Morelet).  Gray, 1855: 33.-  Pfeiffer, 1859: 642.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 36; pl. 6, fig. 83.

Euglandina aurata (Morelet).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 188.-  Thompson, 1987; Bull. Fla. Stat. Mus., 30:  40-41.

Achatina lignaria Reeve, 1849; Conch. Icon., 6, Achatina: pl. 8, fig. 27 (shell).

Oleacina lignaria (Reeve).  Gray, 1855: 34.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Glandina aurata: "Woods of Vera Paz", Guatemala.  Achatina lignaria: not given. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: Dept. Alta Verapaz. Recorded from Cobán, and from mountain forests between Tepán (Tecpán?) and Totonicapan, 8,000-9,000 ft. alt.  Dept. Chimaltenango: Santa Elena, nr. Tecpán (Thompson, 1987). 

 

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) bailyi M. Smith, 1950

 

Euglandina bailyi Smith, 1950; Nautilus, 64: 60; pl. 4, fig. 11 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Close to highway, three miles east of Chilpancingo, Guerrero.  Holotype FLMNH 105927.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUERRERO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) binneyana (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Achatina (Oleacina) fusiformis Pfeiffer, 1845; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 75. (not Achatina lubrica var. fusiforme Picard. 1840).

Glandina fusiformis (Pfeiffer).  Morelet, 1852; Jour. de Conchyl., 3: 33.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 103; pl. 3, fig. 2a.-  Strebel, 1875: 26; pl. 9, figs. 14-14a.

Achatina (Oleacina) binneyana Pfeiffer, 1855; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 117.-  Pfeiffer, 1859; Monog. Hel. Viv., 4: 638-639.

Glandina fusiformis var.? binneana (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1891: 58.

Euglandina binneyana (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 188, 320.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Not known.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán. Baja Verapaz: Purula, upper part of the Polochíc Valley (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) cognata (Strebel, 1875)

 

Glandina cognata Strebel, 1875: 12; pl. 4, fig. 7-7b (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 38; pl. 8, fig. 9 (shell).

Euglandina cognata (Strebel).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 195.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tehuantepec, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) cuneus (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina cuneus Von Martens, 1891: 56; pl. 3, figs. 1-2 (shell).

Euglandina cuneus Pislbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 187; pl. 22, figs. 18-21 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Omilteme, Guerrero.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUERRERO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) dactylus (Broderip, 1832)

 

Achatina dactylus Broderip, 1831; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 32. 

Euglandina  dactylus (Broderip).  Pilsbry, 1926a: 93-95; pl. 10, figs. 1-2 (shell).

Glandina striata of Authors, 1832-1930.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tumaco Island, near the Ecuador–Colombia border.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Prov. Panama: Rio Puerco.  Prov. Colon: nr. Lagarto; between Tabernilla and San Pablo.  COLOMBIA: nr. Cartago (all Pilsbry, 1926).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) daudebarti dardebarti (Deshayes, 1850)

 

Achatina dardebarti Deshayes, 1850; in Ferussac’s Hist. Nat. Moll. Terr., ii: 183.

Glandina audebarti (Deshayes).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 118.-  Strebel, 1875: 30-33. pl. 11, figs. 19c-19d.-  Von Martens, 1891; 62-63; pl. 3, figs. 5-8.

Oleacina audebarti (Deshayes).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 41; pl. 9, fig. 27.

Euglandina daudebarti (Deshayes).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 195.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not stated.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLIMA: Colima (Von Martens, 1901).  GUERRERO: Venta de Zopilote.  OAXACA: Tehuantepec.  PUEBLA: Chietla.  VERACRUZ: environs of Veracruz; Chiquihuitl (all records from Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) daudebarti amoena (Von Martens, 1865)

 

Glandina amoena Von Martens, 1865, Malak. Blätt., 12: 12; pl. 1, figs. 8-9 (shell).-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 114.-  Strebel, 1878: 34, pl. 11, fig. 4 (radula); pl. 13, fig. 9 (animal).

Glandina audebarti form A.  Strebel, 1975: 30; pl. 11, figs. 19-19a-b. e-h, m-n (shell).

Glandina audebarti var. amoena Von Martens, 1891: 63; pl. 3, figs. 7-7a (shell).

Euglandina daudebarti var. amoena (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 195.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- VERACRUZ: environs of Veracruz (Strebel, 1875).

 

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) daudebarti jalapana (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina longula var. jalapana Von Martens, 1891: 64; pl. 3, figs. 9, 10.

Euglandina daudebarti var. jalapana (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 195; pl. 22, figs. 13-15.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Misantla (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) daudebarti miradorensis (Strebel, 1878)

 

Glandina audebarti form B.  Strebel, 1875: 33; pl. 11, figs. 20-20b (shell).

Glandina miradorensis Strebel, 1878: 7, 33: pl. 9, fig. 14.

Glandina audebaerti var. miradorensis (Strebel).  Von Martens, 1891: 63.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mirador, Veracruz; 2630 ft. alt.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) gigantea Pilsbry, 1926

 

Euglandina sowerbyana form B, Strebel, 1875: 16; pl. 5A, figs. 10.

Euglandina gigantea Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 78:  128; pl. 11, figs. 5-7; pl. 10, fig. 8.-  Bull. Fla. Stat. Mus., 30: 36-38; figs. 25-26 (shell).

Euglandina gigantea gabbi Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 78: pl. 11, figs. 1, 2.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Euglandina gigantea: "Salinas Bay, in southwestern Costa Rica."  Amended to Bahia de Salinas, near La Cruz, Guancaste Prov., Costa Rica (Thompson, 1987).  Euglandina gigantea gabbi: no locality given.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Widely distributed in Costa Rica from near sea-level to 2600 m alt.  Also known from Chiriqui Province, Panama.  COSTA RICA, Alahuela Prov.: Rio Frio; San Carlos; Turubares, 250 m alt. (Turrucares?).  Cartago Prov.:  Estrella, nr. Cartago, 1500 m alt.; Tapantí, 1300 m alt.; Nicoya; Tilaran; Cache (Cache).  Guanacasta Prov.: Rio Jesus Maria.  Heredia Prov.: Sarapiqui (on Sarapiqui); Puerto Viejo.  Limón Prov.: Reventazón, 500 m alt. (on Rio Reventazon).  Puntarenas Prov.: Coto, 10 m. alt.; Rincon; 2.5 km NE of Monte Verde; Terraba, 700 m alt.  San Jose Prov.: San Jose, 116 m alt.  PANAMA, Chiriqui Prov.: Boquete; Chiriqui; Volcan de Chiriqui, 3000 ft. alt.

 

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) huingensis (Pilsbry, 1903)

 

Glandina huingensis Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 770; pl. 47, figs. 2-2b (shell).

Euglandina huingensis Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 185; pl. 23 figs. 25-27 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Huingo, Michoacán.  Syntypes ANSP 77179.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Michoacán: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) immemorata Pilsbry, 1907

 

Euglandina immemorata Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 192; pl. 24, figs. 46-47 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., II: 197: fig. 95d (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, 1993; Rev. Biol. Trop., 41: 685.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Texas.  Holotype: ANSP 11777.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Northeastern Mexico.  Reported from Texas, but without localized information.  NUEVO LEÓN: Santiago (Correa-Sandoval, 1993).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) indusiata (Pfeiffer)

 

Oleacina indusiata Pfeiffer, 1860; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 138.

Glandina indusiata (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1879: 121; pl. 6, fig. 1 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 54; pl. 2., fig. 1-1a (shell). 

Euglandina indusiata (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1907, Man. Conch., 19: 185.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  La Parada, in Oaxaca, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  MICHOACÁN: Angangüeo.  OAXACA: Oaxaca (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) lamyi (Fischer & Chatelet, 1903)

 

Glandina lamyi Fischer & Chatelet 1903; Jour. de Conchyl., 51: 321; pl. 13, fig. 10 (shell).-  Fischer, 1907; Jour. de Conch., 54: 270.

Euglandina lamyi (Fischer & Chatelet).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 196; pl. 23, fig. 28 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Guttierez & Reza, 1998; Acta Zool. Mex., (73): 16.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cardenas, San Luis Potosí.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: 2 km above Presa de Guadalupe, 1220 m alt. (22°49’01” N, 100°08’25” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) liebmanni (Pfeiffer)

 

Achatina liebmanni Pfeiffer, 1846; Zeit. für Malak.: 159.

Glandina liebmanni (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 119.-  Strebel, 1875: 9-10; pl. 4, figs. 5-5f (shell).-  Strebel, 1878: 7, 46; pl. 12, fig. 2 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 63-64.

Euglandina liebmanni (Pfeiffer).-  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 195.-  Pilsbry, 1909; Nautilus, 22: 114.

Glandina nympha Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 115; pl. 6, fig. 9 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Achatina liebmanni: Mexico.  Glandina nympha: Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLIMA (Rolle, 1895).  GUERRERO: Chilpancingo (Von Martens, 1892); Balsas, in limestone crevices above the river, 2000-3000 ft. alt. (Pilsbry, 1909).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) livida Dall, 1908

 

Euglandina livida Dall, 1908; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 35: 180; pl. 29, fig. 7 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Between Bolanos and Guadalajara, Jalisco.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) michoacanensis (Pilsbry, 1899)

 

Glandina michoacanensis Pilsbry, 1899: 397.-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 770; pl. 47, figs. 1-1b (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 610.

Euglandina michoacanensis (Pilsbry).  Pilsbry, 1907, Man. Conch., 19: 185-186; pl. 22, figs. 16-17 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Uruapan, Michoacán.  Holotype ANSP 77181a.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  MICHOACÁN: known only from the type locality. 

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) pan Thompson, 1987

 

Euglandina pan Bull. Fla. Stat. Mus., 30: 38-40; figs. 28-29 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Finca Las Delicia, near Barillas, Dept. Guatemala, Guatemala.  Holotype USNM 487385.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from moderate elevations in central and southern Dept. Guatemala, Guatemala.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglendina) pilsbryi Bartsch, 1909

 

Euglandina pilsbryi Bartsch, 1909; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 37: 322; pl. 33, fig. 5 (shell).-  Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1925; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 307.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Bolanos, Jalisco.  Holotype USNM 207776.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) pinicola (Fischer & Crosse, 1870)

 

Glandina plicatula var. pinicola Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 95; pl. 2, fig. 12.-  Strebel, 1875: 20.  

Glandina pinicola (Fischer & Crosse).  Von Martens, 1891: 64.

Euglandina pinicola Pilsbry, 1908: 196.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Totonicapam [Totonicapán, Dept. Totonicapán], Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) radula (Strebel, 1875)

 

Glandina radula Strebel, 1975: 13; pl. 3, figs. 8-8b (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tehuantepec, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) sowerbyana sowerbyana (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Achatina sowerbyana Pfeiffer, 1846: 32.

Glandina sowerbyana (Pfeiffer).  Albers, 1850: 198.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 98.-  Strebel, 1875: 15; pl. 5, figs. 10a-11;  Strebel, 1878: 34-44; pls. 15-21 (anatomy).-  Von Martens, 1890: 55.

Oleacina sowerbyana (Pfeiffer).  Gray, 1855: 33.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 36; pl. 6, fig. 86.

Euglandina sowerbyana.  Pilsbry, 1907, Man. Conch., 19: 186.

Glandina lignaria (Reeve).  Fischer and Crosse, 1870: 97; pl. 3, fig. 1.

Euglandina sowerbyana sowerbyana (Pfeiffer).  Thompson, 1987; Bull. Fla. Stat. Mus., 30: 34-36; figs. 17-20 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Totontepéc, Oaxaca, México.  Syntype in BMNH.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Known from eastern México in the states of Veracruz and immediately adjacent areas of Oaxaca and Puebla.  OAXACA: Tontontepéc.  PUEBLA: Puerto Morales, nr. Acultzingo, 2770 m alt.  VERACRUZ: Catamaco; Cerro Mano Blanco, nr. Catamaco; Cerro Chicahuaxtla nr. Cuantlapan; Jalpan; pine forest nr. Veracruz; Volcan San Martín; Volcan Tuxla (Volcan San Martín), 1475 m alt.; Misantla; San José; San Juan Miachutlán; Pacho; Jalapa; Mirador; Cerro Necoxtla between Jalapa and Orizaba, 3000-5000 ft.; Orizaba. (Thompson, 1987).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) sowerbyana estephaniae (Strebel, 1875)

 

Glandina sowerbyana form D, Strebel, 1875: 17-18; pl. 3, figs. 3, 3a (shell).

Glandina estephaniae Strebel, 1878: 45; pl. 16, figs. 1-8 (anatomy).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 36; pl. 8, fig. 5.

Euglandina sowerbyana estephaniae (Strebel).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 186.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 51.-  Thompson, 1987; Bull. Fla. Stat. Mus., 30: 36-38; figs. 21-22 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Miahuatlán, between Jalapa and Misantla, Veracruz, México.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the vicinity of the type locality; Córdoba to Sumidero, 2625-3400 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) striata (Müller, 1774)

 

Buccinum striatum O. F. Müller, 1774; Hist. Verm.: 149.

Glandina striata (Müller).  Von Martens, 1891: 79-80.

Euglandina (Euglandina) striata (Müller).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 176.-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 344; text-fig. 1 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Unknown.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-   Widely distributed in South America in Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil (Von Martens, 1891). PANAMA: Barro Colorado Island (Pilsbry, 1930).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) texasiana texasiana (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Achatina texasiana Pfeiffer, 1856; Novitates Conchologicae, 1: 82; pl. 22, figs. 11, 12 (shell).

Glandina texasiana.-  W. G. Binney, 1859; Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., 7: 140; pl. 61, fig. 2.-  Strebel, 1977: 7; figs. 4, 4a, 4b (shell).

Oleacina texasiana.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 34; pl. 6. fig. 82 (shell).

Euglandina texasiana.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 190-191; pl. 24, figs. 52-54 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., II: 195-196; fig. 95c (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, 1993; Rev. Biol. Trop., 41: 685.-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998: 16.-  Correa-Sandoval, 2000; Acta Zool.Mex., (79):: 9.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 237.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Texas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Northeastern Mexico and extreme southern Texas.  NUEVO LEÓN: Santiago (Correa-Sandoval, 1993).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: El Abra, Valles (Pilsbry, 1907); numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  VERACRUZ: Isla Juan A. Ramirez (21°46’29” N, 97°39’13” W); Rancho El Sol, Naranjos (21°20’00” N, 97°43’16” W); San Juan Cuajinampa (21°11’53” N, 97°30’00” W); El Bajío, hwy. Naranjos- Tuxpan (20°57’17” N, 97°25’57” W); 1 km E of Poza Rica, km 234 (20°49’11” N, 97°30’00” W); Rancho Altos y Bajos, 2 km NW of Barra de Cazones (20°45’24” N, 97°15’00” W); El Cedral (20°29’11” N, 97°25’23” W); La Ordeña, Papantla (20°29’43” N, 97°18’27” W); La Guadalupe, (20°22’42” N, 96°55’23” W) (Correa-Sandoval, 2000). TAMAULIPAS: Tampico; numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) texasiana angustior Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1936

 

Euglandina texasiana angustior Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1936: 97; pl. 7, fig. 4d (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Gonzalez, Tamaulipas.  Holotype ANSP 162640.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Southeastern TAMAULIPAS and adjacent SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) titan Thompson, 1987

 

Euglandina titan Thompson, 1987; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 30: 42-43; figs. 23-24 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Montañas del Mico, 4 km WSW of Puerto Santo Tomás at 800 m elevation in a tropical rainforest, Dept. Izabel, Guatemala.  Holotype FLMNH 35307.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Euglandina) vanuxemensis (Lea, 1834)

 

Achatina vanuxemensis Lea, 1832; Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., 5: 84.

Achatina coronata Pfeiffer, 1846; Zeit. für Malak., 158: 158.

Glandina coulteri Gray, in Pfeiffer, Monogr. Helic. Viv. 1: 642.

Glandina uhdeana Gray.  Von Martens, 1863; in Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berl., 26: 540.

Glandina guttata Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 250.

Glandina vanuxemii Tryon, 1866; Amer. Jour. Conch., 2: 226, pl. 16, fig. 6 (name amendment for vanuxemensis).

Glandina vanuxemi (Lea).  Von Martens, 1891: 54-55; pl. 2, fig. 2-2c.

Euglandina vanuxemensis (Lea).  Pilsbry, 1907, Man. Conch., 19: 185.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 10-11; pl. 3, fig. 24 (reproductive system).-  Thompson, 1987; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 30: 32-34; figs. 7-9 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Achatina vanuxemensis: México.  Glandina coulteri: no locality given.  Achatina coronata: México.  Glandina uhdeana: Veracruz, México.  Glandina guttata: México, near Puebla.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Confined to south-central México. GUERRERO: Omilteme.  HIDALGO: Zimapán.  MÉXICO: Volcán de Mexicalcingo; Pirámides; Teotihuacán; Guajimalpa.  OAXACA: El Punto; Cuicatlán; Huajuapán de León; 8.3 mi. SE of Nochistlán; Hwy. 131, 3.2 mi. E of turnoff to Nacaltepéc; 0.7 mi. W of Tlapacoyán, 5000 ft. alt.; Oaxaca; Juquila.  PUEBLA: 3.6 mi. SW of Chapulco; 8.1 mi. SW Izucar de Matamoros,4800 ft. alt; Hwy. 150, 1.5 mi. SW of Veracruz-Puebla border; Cd. Puebla; Tecamachalco, 7500 m alt.; 1.1 mi. N of Tecamachalco; Tehuacán; Tepeaca.  Adjacent area at altitudes of 1285-2375 m.  VERACRUZ: Guajimalpa; Teotihuacan; Jalapa (all records from Thompson, 1987).

 

 

Subgenus Singleya H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Singleya H. B. Baker, 1941: 54.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  By original designation: Glandina singleyana W. G. Binney, 1878).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Texas south to Panama.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Twenty-one species and four subspecies are recognized.  Cosmomenus, which is treated as a separate subgenus, was described at a section of Singleya on the basis of the origin of the penis retractor muscle.  In Singleya the penis retractor originates on the inner wall of the lung.  In Cosmomenus the penis retractor originates on the left side of the columellar retractor muscle.  The assignment of species to either subgenus on the basis of shell characters is arbitrary.  Most of the following species are known only on the basis of the shell.   They are place in Singleya because it is the senior name.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) anomala anomala (Angas, 1879)

 

Glandina (Oleacina) anomala Angas, 1879; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 481; pl. 40, fig. 9 (shell).

Euglandina anomala anomala (Angas).  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 344.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Hilly region of Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA Rica: no specific locality record.

 

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) anomala barrocoloradensis Pilsbry, 1930

 

Euglandina anomala barrocoloradensis Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 343-344; pl. 30, fig. 7 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Barro Colorado Island, Panama.  Holotype ANSP 151391.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) balesi Pilsbry, 1938

 

Euglandina balesi Pilsbry, 1938; Nautilus, 52: 16; Nautilus, 53: pl. 2, fig. 10.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Puerto Marques, south of Acapulco, [Sinaloa], Mexico.  Holotype ANSP 170440.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SINALOA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) candida candida (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Achatina (Polyphema) candida Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 2002; pl. 12: fig. 1.

Euglandina candida (Shuttleworth).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conh., 19: 197; pl. 28, figs. 55-57 (shell).-  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contr. Nat. Hist., 1: 16; pl. 11, fig. 1.

Euglandina (Singleya) candida (Shuttleworth).   B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.

Glandina simplex Strebel, 1875: 35; pl. 10., figs. 25-25c (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 66; pl. 4, figs.5-6 (shell).

 

    TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Achatina candida: Mexico.  Syntype Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18951/1 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).  Glandina simplex: Oaxaca.

 

    DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.—  OAXACA.  VERACRUZ: Atoyac, 1300-1450 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) candida conularis (Pfeiffer, 1855)

 

Achatina (Glandina) conularis Pfeiffer, 1955; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 100.

Glandina conularis (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1891: 66; pl. 4, fig. 8 (shell).

Euglandina conularis (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 197-198; pl. 24, fig. 55 (shell).

Euglandina (Singleya) condida  var. conularia (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Potrero to Córdoba, 2150-3000 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) carminensis (Morelet, 1849)

 

Glandina carminensis Morelet, 1849; Test Noviss., I: 14.-  Morelet, 1852, Jour. de Conchyl., 3: 42; pl. 1, figs. 1-4 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 61.-  Fiscer & Crosse, 1870: 109.-  Strebel, 1875: 37; pl. 9, figs. 23-23d, h, i shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 61.

Euglandina carmenensis (Morelet).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 195.-  Bequaert & Clench, 1933; Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash., (431): 528.-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 232-233.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Isla de Carmen Campeche.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CAMPECHE: 7.1 mi. SW of Campeche; 2.2 mi. S of Pixtún (Thompson, 1967).  YUCATAN: Chankom (Bequaert & Clench, 1933).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Quetzaltenango: Cerro Zunil, nr. Quetzaltenango (Von Martens, 1891).  HONDURAS: Utila Island (Von Martens, 1901). 

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) corneola (W. G. Binney, 1857)

 

Glandina corneola W. G. Binney, 1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 189.

Euglandina corneolaa (Binney).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 188-189; pl. 24, figs. 23-25 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998: 16.-  Correa-Sandoval, 2000; Acta Zool.Mex., (79):: 9.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not stated.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: Valles (Pilsbry, 1908); numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  VERACRUZ: Rancho El Sol, Naranjos (21°20’00” N, 97°43’16” W); Ruinas El Tajín (20°26’29” N, 97°22’30” W); La Guadalupe, hwy. Papantla- Nautla, km 60 (20°22’42” N, 96°55’23” W) (Correa-Sandoval, 2000).

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) decussata (Deshayes, 1840)

 

Achatina decussata Deshayes, 1840, in Ferussac’s His. Nat. Moll. Terr. Fluv., II: 182; pl. 123, figs. 3-4; pl. 134, figs. 33-35 (shell).

Glandina decussata (Deshayes).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 112.-  Strebel, 1875: 34; pl. 10, figs. 22-22f (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 58-58

Euglandina decussata (Deshayes).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 188.- Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 39, 43, 48, 51.-  H. B. Baker, 1923; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (135): 8.

Euglandina (Singleya) decussata (Deshayes).  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 9; pl. 2, fig. (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not stated.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán; Chama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Baja Verapaz: Senahu; Panzos (Von Martens, 1891).  Dept. Izabal: mountains of Cavech, back of Cavech Village; Jocolo (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Quirigua: Maya Farms (Hinkley, 1920).  VERACRUZ: Cuatotolapam (H. B. Baker, 1923).

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) excavata (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina excavata Von Martens, 1891: 67; pl. 4, figs. 9-9a (shell).

Euglandina excavata (Von Martens).-  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 198; pl. 23, figs. 42-43.-  Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1925; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 307.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mazatlán, Sinaloa (?).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  SINALOA (?).

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) ghiesbreghti (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Oleacina ghiesbreghti Pfeiffer, 1856; Malak. Blãtt, 3: 235.

Glandina ghiesbreghti (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1875:39-40; pl. 10, figs 31-31d (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 58.

Euglandina ghiesbreghti (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 188.-  Bequaert, 1957: 218.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: Laguna Ocotal, 950 m alt.; El Censo to Laguna Ocotal, 700 m alt. (Bequaert, 1957).  TABASCO: San Juan Bautista (Von Martens, 1901).

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) hererrae (Contreras, 1923)

 

Glandina hererrae Contreras, 1923; Boletin Soc. Estud. Biol., 1: 13.

Euglandina hererrae (Contreras).-  Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1925;  Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 307.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chapala, Jalisco.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  JALISCO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) insignis (Pfeiffer, 1855)

 

Achatina insignis Pfeiffer, 1855; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 100; pl. 31, figs. 11-12 (shell).

Glandina insignis (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 110; pl. 6, figs. 2-2a (shell).-  Strebel, 1875: 11.-  Tryon, 1885, Man. Conch., 1: 39; pl. 7, fig. 1 (shell).

Oleacina insignis (Pfeiffer).  Tryon, 1885, Man. Conch., 1: 35; pl. 7, fig. 1 (shell).

Glandina liebamnni var. insignis (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1891: 62.

Euglandina insignis (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 195.-  Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1925; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 307.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Unknown.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: San Blas; Tepíc (Von Martens, 1891); Tres Marias Islands (Pilsbry & Cockerell, 1925). 

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) jacksoni Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1936

 

Euglandina jacksoni Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1936, Nautilus, 49: 97; pl. 7, fig. 4.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Gonzalez, Tamaulipas.  Holotype: ANSP 162639.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  TAMAULIPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) longula (Fischer & Crosse, 1870)

 

Glandina longula Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 111; pl. 6, figs. 6-6a (shell).-  Strebel, 1875: 11.-  Von Martens, 1891: 64.

Euglandina longula (Fischer & Crosse).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 196.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Rio San Juan, northeast Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.- Unknown.  The type locality cannot be localized.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) lowei Pilsbry, 1931

 

Euglandina lowei Pilsbry, 1931; Nautilus, 44: 83-84; pl. 5, fig. 5 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands, Nayarit.  Holotype ANSP 151320.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) mazatlanica mazatlanica (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina mazatlánica Von Martens, 1891: 65; pl. 4, figs. 2-2a (shell).

Euglandina mazatlánica (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 196-197; pl. 23, figs. 39-40 (shell).-  Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1925; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 307.-  Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 15: 470.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mazatlán, Sinaloa.  Syntype Berlin Museum 35386.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  NAYARIT: Tres Marias Islands (Dall, 1926).  SINALOA: Mazatlán.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) mazatlanica abbreviata (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina mazatlanica var. abbreviata Von Martens, 1891: 65; pl. 4, fig. 3 (shell).

Euglandina mazatlanica abbreviata (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908: Man. Conch., 19: 197; pl. 23, fig. 41 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tres Marias Islands, Nayarit.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) pseudoturris (Strebel, 1875)

 

Glandina pseudoturris Strebel, 1875: 47; pl. 6a, figs. 41-41b.-  Von Martens, 1891: 65-66; pl. 4, figs. 4-4a. 

Euglandina pseudoturris (Strebel).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 197.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Juquila, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUERRERO: Tiera Colorada.  OAXACA: Juquila.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) singleyana (W. G. Binney, 1878)

 

Glandina decussata Deshayes W. G. Binney, 1878: 86.

Glandina singleyana W. G. Binney, 1892; 4th Suppl. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 22: 163; pl. 1, fig. 4.

Euglandina singleyana.  Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 58: 143.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 189; pl. 24, figs. 48-51 (shell).-  Strecker, 1929; Contr. Baylor Univ. Mus., (18): 12 (eggs).-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 9; pl. 2, figs. 21, 22 (reproductive system).-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., II: 197-199; fig. 95a (shell), fig. 96a (genitalia), fig. 96b (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Texas and adjacent Tamaulipas, Mexico.  TAMAULIPAS.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) tenella (Strebel, 1875)

 

Glandina tenella Strebel, 1875: 35; pl. 10, figs. 24-24d (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 59.

Euglandina tenella (Strebel).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 188.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  First woods 0.5-1 hour from Veracruz [City}, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the vicinity of Cd. Veracruz.

 

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) turris turris (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Achatina (Glandina) turris Pfeiffer, 1846; Symb. Hist. Helic., 3: 91.

Glandina turris (Pfeiffer).  W. G. Binney, 1869; Land and Freshw. Shell of N. Amer., 1: 19; text-fig. (shell).-  Strebel, 1875: 46; pl. 12, fig. 4.-  Von Martens, 1891: 65.

Euglandina turris (Pfeiffer).-  Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 308.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SINALOA: Mazatlán (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) turris longurio Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1926

 

Euglandina turris longurio Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 308; text-figs. 2, 3, 3a, 5, 5a (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mazatlán, Sinaloa.  Holotype ANSP 24797.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: Guadalajara.  NAYARIT: Tres Marias Islands.  SINALOA: Mazatlán.

 

 

Euglandina (Singleya) wani (Jacobson, 1968)

 

Streptostyla (Chersomitra) wani Jacobson, 1968; Nautilus, 81: 118; pl. 120, upper two figures.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Near Wani (Huani), Nicaragua.  Holotype USNM 426028.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Subgenus Cosmomenus H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Cosmomenus H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 54.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Glandina cumingi Beck, 1837.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Yucatán to Venezuela.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized as belonging to Cosmomenus on the basis of the origin of the penis retractor muscle.

 

 

Euglandina (Cosmomenus) cumingi (Beck, 1827)

 

Glandina cumingi Beck, 1837; Index Moll.: 78.-  Von Martens, 1891: 59-61, pl. 4, figs. 7, var. (shell)

Euglandina cumingi (Beck).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 195.-  Richards, 1938: 172.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 8-9; pl. 2, figs. 17 (reproductive anatomy), 18 (radula).-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 8.-  Jacobson, 1968; Amer. Mus. Novit., (1899): 117.-  Pérez & Lopéz, 2002: 151-152. 

Glandina petiti (Deshayes).  Strebel, 1875: 40-43.

Glandina rosea (Férussac).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 107 (in part).-  Strebel, 1875: 42; pl. 8, figs. 28-28b; pl. 12, figs. 27 f-h, figs. 28 f-h (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not stated.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  TABASCO: Teapa (Von Martens, 1891).  COSTA RICA: San José (Von Martens, 1891); Alto de Mano Tigre, near Terraba, 600 m alt. (Von Martens, 1901).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Retalhuleu: Retahluleu; El Reposo, 800 ft. alt.; Costa Cuca, 2500 ft. alt.; Cholluitz, on the slope of Volcán de Santa Maria (Von Martens, 1891).  Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).  HONDURAS: between Coxen Hole and French Harbout, Roatán Island (Richards, 1938).  NICARAGUA: numerous localities along the Pacific Versant (Pérez & Lopéz, 2002); Dept. Zelaya: Bonanza, Moravian Mission (Jacobson, 1968).  PANAMA, Chiriqui Prov.: Chiriqui.  Panama Prov.: Panama City; between Tabernilla and San Pablo.  Los Santos Prov.:  Tonosí (Pilsbry, 1926).  Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (Pilsbry, 1930). VENEZUELA: La Fria (H. B. Baker, 1943).

 

 

Euglandina (Cosmomenus) cylindracea (Phillips, 1846)

 

Glandina cylindracea Phillips, 1846; Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila., 3: 67; pl. 1, fig. 33 (shell).

Euglandina cylindracea (Phillips).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch, 19: 198.-  Bequaert & Clench, 1933; Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash., (431): 528-529.-  Richards, 1937; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 77: 251.- -  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 232.

Euglandina (Cosmomenus) cylindracea (Phillips).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 9; pl. 2, figs. 19 (radula), 20 (reproductive anatomy).

Achatina largillierti Pfeiffer, 1846; Symbolae Hist. Helic., 3: 90.

Glandina largillierti (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 116.-  Von Martens, 1891: 67; pl. 4, figs 14-14d, 15 (shell).

Achatina yucatanensis Pfeiffer, 1846; Symbolae Hist. Helic., 3: 92.

Glandina yucatanensis (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1875: 44; pl. 1, figs. 18; pl. 8, figs. 18-18f (shell).

Achatina carnea Pfeiffer, 1854; Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1852): 157.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Glandina cylindracea: Yucatan.  Achatina largillierti: Yucatan.  Achatina yucatanensis: Yucatan.  Achatina carnea: Central America.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CAMPECHE: 7.2 mi. S of Pixtún; 2.2 mi. S of Pixtún; Cd. d Carmin; 6.1 mi. SW of Sebaplaya; 6.2 mi. SE of Sebaplaya; 7.1 mi. SW of Campeche; 5.7 mi. E of Campeche; 3.6 mi. S of Hopelchen; 5.1 mi. NNW of Dzilbachén; 5.1 mi. W of Tikinmúl; 10.2 mi. E of Escarcega (Thompson, 1967).  QUINTANA ROO: San Miguel, Cozumel Island (Richards, 1937); Chetumal (Haas & Solem, 1960); 7.1 mi. NNW of Xiatil (Thompson, 1967).  YUCATAN: Chichen Itza; Chankom; Dzitas; Temax; Progreso; cave of Actun Lara, nr. Ticul; Actun Has, Hacienda Yocat (Bequaert & Clench, 1933); 0.8 mi. NE of Becanchén; Uxmal; 19.1 mi. SSE of Uxmal; 7.0 mi. SSE of Uman; Progreso (Thompson, 1967).

 

 

Genus Guillarmodia H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Guillarmodia H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 54, 57.-  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 54-56. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Euglandina pupa H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico in general with one species from Costa Rica.

 

  TAXONOMY.- Forty-one species and seven subspecies are recognized within the genus.

 

 

Subgenus Guillarmodia s. s.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico, generally from states along the Pacific coast from Colima south to Oaxaca, and north along the east coast to Nuevo León and Tamaulipas.

 

  TAXONOMY.- Fourteen species are recognized.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) arthritica (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina arthritica Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39:68-69; figs. 35-37 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  An oak-forested limestone hillside 7.5 km ENE of Ixcateopán, Guerrero; 2650 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 34666.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUERRERO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) brachystyla (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina (Guillarmodia) brachystyla Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 56-59; figs. 20-22 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A small karst limestone knoll 2 km east of Punta Troncones, Guerrero, Mexico; 60 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 193587.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  GUERRERO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) comma (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina comma Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 59-61; figs. 23-25 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Southeast side of the Rio Ixtapa, 6 km southeast of Pantla, Guerrero, Mexico (17°43' N, 101°40' W); 20 m alt.  Pantla is a small village on the coastal highway 23 km NW of Zihuatanejo.  The type locality is in a lowland mesic forest overlying a substrata consisting of lateritic soils and limestone.  Holotype FLMNH 34663.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Found along coast areas of northwestern Guerrero, México.  GUERRERO: 2 km SE of Pantla, 30 m alt.; 3.5 km NW of Zihuatanejo, 130 m alt.; 4.5 km NW of Zihatanejo, 100 m alt.; limestone hill 3 km E of Naranjillo; 2 km NE Punta Troncones (17°47'36" N, 101°42'43" W), 50 m. alt.; 1.3 km N of Playa Majahua (17°47'58" N, 101°44'11" W), 50 m alt.; 10 km N of La Unión (18°00'05" N, 101°45'20" W), 150 m alt.; 1 km SSE of La Junta (18°01'21" N, 101°44'58" W), 130 m alt.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) cymatophora (Pilsbry, 1910)

 

Euglandina cymatophora Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61 (1909): 544; text-fig. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Side of the canyon below Los Canoas, San Luis Potosí.  Holotype ANSP 98612.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) dorsalis (Thompson, 1963)

 

Euglandina (Guillarmodia) dorsalis Thompson, 1963: 97-99; figs. 3, 4.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  One mile north of Pomero, Michoacán, México, 700 ft alt.  Holotype UMMZ 213222.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  MICHOACÁN: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) elegans (Von Martens, 1895)

 

Salasiella elegans Von Martens, 1895: 613; pl. 44; figs. 1, 1a (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 174; pl. 28, figs. 58, 59 (shell).

Euglandina (Guillarmodia) elegans (Von Martens).  Thompson, 1963; Nautilus, 76: 95-99, figs. 1, 2 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  State of Colima, México.  Lectotype Berlin Museum 47661 (Thompson, 1963).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLIMA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) gracilior (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina gracilior Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 64-65; figs. 29-31 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- An open oak forest 12 km by road southwest of Xochilapa, Guererro, Mexico (17°48'41" N, 99°42'32" W); 1700 m alt. The area is an exposed limestone substrata with clusters of palms, shrubs and Agave sp. growing among the oaks.  Holotype FLMNH 194115.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUERRERO: known only from intermediate altitudes along a limestone ridge southwest of Xochilapa, Guerrero, confined to a submesic zone between 1285-2200 m altitude that is dominated by sparse growths of oaks (Quercus sp.); 10 km SW of Xochilapa, 1700 m alt.; 11.5 km SW of Xochilapa, 1750 m alt.; 12 km by rd. SW of Xochilapa, 1700 m alt.; 15 km SW of Xochilapa, 2200 m alt.; 10 km SSW of Mazcala (18°34'03" N, 97°55'39" W), 1285 m alt; 10 km SSW of Mazcala (17°50'50" N, 99°40'25" W), 1485 m alt.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) kingi (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina kingi Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 62-64; figs. 26-28 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Among boulders in an open semi-xeric scrub forest on a limestone hillside, on the west side of the Rio Tehuántepec, 25 km NW of the Presa Benito Juaréz (dam), Oaxaca, Mexico; 300 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 34691.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Confined to low and intermediate semi-xeric habitats along the Pacific coast of Oaxaca, México.  OAXACA: 30 km NW, 3 km NE of Tehuántepec, 200 m alt.; 13.5 km NW of Tehuántepec, 150 m alt.; 24 km NW, 3 km NE of Tehuántepec, 210 m alt.; 3.5 km NW of Mixtequilla, 130 m alt.; 26 km SE of El Camarón, 1100 m alt.; 10 km N of La Ventosa, 210 m alt.; limestone hill 10 km E of La Ventosa, 50 m alt.; 7.5 km N of La Ventosa, 100 m alt.; 15 km ESE of Santiago Astata, 100 m alt. (15°57'53" N; 95°32'59" W); limestone mtn. 3 km W of Santiago Astata, 100 m alt. (15°59'55" N, 95°42.45" W); 5 km E of Santiago Astata, 100 m alt. (15°58'50" N, 95°38'16" W).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) mariana (Dall, 1926)

 

Euglandina mariana Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 15: 470-471; pl. 35, fig. 4 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Maria Magdelena Island, Tres Marias Island.  Holotype CAS 2190.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) minuta (Pilsbry, 1910)

 

Streptostyla minuta Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61: 545; text-fig. 5 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mountain sides of canyon below Los Canoas, San Luis Potosí.  Holotype ANSP 98595.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: known only from the type locality.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  See Streptostyla minuta.  The general structure of the shell indicates a closer relationship with Guillarmodia than with Streptostyla.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) multispira (Pfeiffer, 1861)

 

Oleacina multispira Pfeiffer, 1861; Novitat. Conch., 2: 163; pl. 44, figs. 4-5 (shell).

Glandina multiapira (Pfeiffer).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 30; pl. 3, fig. 25 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 68.

Euglandina multispira (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 207.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Juquila, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) nelsoni (Bartsch, 1909)

 

Euglandina nelsoni Bartsch, 1909; Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus., 37: 321; pl. 33, figs. 1, 3, 4, 6.-  Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1925; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 307.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Acaponeta, Tepíc [Nayarit].  Syntypes USNM 207784.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) pupa (H. B. Baker, 1941)

 

Euglandina (Guillarmodia) pupa H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 57; pl. 5, figs. 8-9 (shell).-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 8; pl. 2, figs. 14-15 (anatomy).-  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 56; figs. 17-19.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Atoyác, Veracruz, Mexico; 1300-1415 ft. alt.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Eastern Mexico in central Veracruz and immediately adjacent Oaxaca; 100-980 m alt.  OAXACA: limestone range 1 km W of Cedral, 100 m alt.; 4 km NW of Temascal, 100 m alt.; 3 km S of Acatlán, 100 m alt.; 4 km SW of Acatlán, 100 m alt.  VERACRUZ: 3 km NE of Atoyác, 640 m alt.; 1 km NW of Atoyaquillas, ca. 7 km NNW of Paraje Nuevo, 750 m alt.; limestone knoll 4 km ESE of Córdoba, 800 m alt.; 1 km E of Berlín, ca. 4 km N of Córdoba, 980 m alt.; Cerro de Las Palmas, 1 km N of San Mateo, ca. 3 km NE of Córdoba, 910 m alt.; Comalapa, Cueva del Tunel; 4 km NE of Comalapa, 400 m alt.; 6 km NE of Comalapa, 250 m alt.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) pygmaea (Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1936)

 

Euglandina pygmaea Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1936.  Nautilus, 49: 98; pl. 7, fig. 5 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Gonzalez, Tamaulipas, Mexico.  Holotype ANSP 162641.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  TAMAULIPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Guillarmodia (Guillarmodia) stenotrema (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina stenotrema Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 66-68; figs. 32-34 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A limestone hillside 4.5 km ENE of Ixcateopán, Guererro; 2500 m alt.  The area is forested with a dense growth of junipers among limestone boulders.  Ixcateopán (18°30' N, 99°47' W) is a small village about 37 km WSW of Taxco.  Holotype FLMNH 193042.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Confined to a small area of limestone terrain in northern Guerrero, Mexico, north of the Rio Balsas from 1100-2100 m alt.  GUERRERO: ca 10 km NE of Chapa, 1420 m alt. (18°25'51" N, 99°44'31" W); 1 km ENE of Ixcateopán, 2250 m alt.; 2 km ENE of Ixcateopán, 2100 m alt (18°30'16" N, 99°46'56" W); 7.5 km ENE of Ixcateopán, 1650 m alt.; 5 km E of Teloloapán, 1850 m alt.; 25 km E of Teloloapán, 1850 m alt.; 18 km N of Tonalapa; 1100 m alt.; 9 km S of Buenavista de Cuellar, 1350 m alt.; ca. 20 km NNW of Buenavista de Cuellar 1540 m alt. (18°33'57" N, 99°27'57" W); Cerro Tuxpan, 1450 m alt. (18°23'36" N, 99°28'53" W).

 

 

Subgenus Proameria H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Subgenus Proameria H. B. Baker, 1941: 54, 57-58. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Euglandina saxitilis saxitilis H. B. Baker, 1941.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico in general south to Oaxaca and Veracruz.  One species is recorded from Costa Rica.  A species from Peru, Euglandina haasi Thompson, 1982, also appears to belong here.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Twenty-seven species and seven subspecies are recognized.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) albersi albersi (Pfeiffer, 1854)

 

Achatina (Glandina) albersi Pfeiffer, 1854; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 295.

Glandina albersi (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 127.-  Strebel, 1875: 7-9; pl. 6a, figs. 21 c, f, g; pl. 11, figs. 21-21b; pl. 12, figs. 21c, 21d, 21e (shell).-  Von Martens 1891: 75; pl. 4, figs. 10, 10a (shell).

Euglandina albersi (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201.-  Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 307.-  Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 15: 470.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Unknown.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLIMA: Sierra Madre de Colima (Von Martens, 1891).  NAYARIT: Tepíc; Tres Marias Islands (Dall, 1926).  SINALOA: Mazatlán (Von Martens).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) albersi infanta (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina albersi var. infanta Von Martens, 1891: 75; pl. 4, fig. 11 (shell).

Euglandina albersi var. infanta (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tepíc, Nayarit.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) alticola (Pilsbry, 1903)

 

Glandina victoriana alticola Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 772; pl. 48, fig. 52 (shell).

Euglandina alticola (Pilsbry).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 194-195; pl. 28, figs. 51-53 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, 1990: 685.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Diente, near Monterrey, Nuevo León.  Syntypes ANSP 77174.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: Santiago (Correa-Sandoval, 1990).

  

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) attenuata (Pfeiffer, 1851)

 

Achatina attenuata Pfeiffer, 1851; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 259.-  Pfeiffer, in Martini & Chemnitz, Syst. Conch. Cab., ed. 2: Achatina, no. 43: 322; pl. 26, figs. 10-11 (shell).

Glandina attenuata (Pfeiffer).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 22; pl. 4, fig. 42 (shell).

Euglandina attenuata (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 208.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Central America.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Unknown.  This species has not been found since its original discovery.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) bellula (Crosse & Fischer, 1869)

 

Glandina bellula Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 425.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 128, pl. 6, figs. 3, 8a (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 23; pl. 4, fig. 36 (shell).

Euglandina bellula (Crosse & Fischer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 207.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Unknown.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) chasonae Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1926

 

Euglandina chasonae Pislbry and Cockerell, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 305; text-fig. 4 (shell).

 

TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tepíc, Nayarit.  Holotype ANSP 139942.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) conferta conferta (Pfeiffer, 1861)

 

Oleacina conferta Pfeiffer, 1861; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 26.

Glandina conferta (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 131 (in part).-  Strebel, 1875: 50; pl. 13, figs. 44-44a (shell).-  Tryon; 1885, Man. Conch., 1: 34; pl. 8, fig. 6 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 71.

Euglandina conferta (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 210.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Juquila, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.  VERACRUZ: Huatusco; Jalapa; Mirador (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) conferta crossei (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina conferta (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 131; pl. 6, fig. 7 (shell).

Glandina conferta var. crossei Von Martens, 1891: 71.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  ? Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ (?).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) cordovana (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Achatina cordovana Pfieffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 321.

Glandina cordovana (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 87; pl. 2, figs. 11-11a (shell).-  Strebel, 1875: 51-52; pl. 13, fig. 45 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 70.

Uglandina cordovana (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 209.

Euglandina (Proameria) cordovana (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 8.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Cordoba; Mirador (Strebel, 1875); Sumidero, 3400 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) dalli (Pilsbry, 1899)

 

Glandina dalli Pilsbry, 1899; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51: 396.-  Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 772; pl. 47, figs. 5-5a (shell).

Euglandina dalli (Pilsbry). Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 207-208; pl. 26,  figs. 12-13 (shell).- Correa-Sandoval, 1993; Rev. Biol. Trop., 41: 685.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (73): 237.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Diente, near Monterrey, Nuevo León.  Syntypes ANSP 77173.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: Diente; Santiago (Correa-Sandoval, 1993).  TAMAULIPAS: numerous localities in southern part of state (Correa-Sandoal & Castro, 2002). 

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) delicata Pilsbry, 1903

 

Glandina delicata Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 771-772; pl. 48, figs. 1-1b (shell).

Euglandina delicata (Pilsbry).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 194; pl. 28, figs. 48-50 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Canyon 4 miles west of [Ciudad] Victoria, Tamaulipas.  Syntypes ANSP 85917.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  TAMAULIPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) delicatula delicatula (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Achatina (Polyphemus) delicatula Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 202.

Gandina delicatula (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 92.-  Von Martens, 1891: 70; pl. 5, figs. 4, 5, 5a (shell).

Euglandina delicatula (Shuttleworth).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 209; pl. 27, fig. 41 (shell).-  Neubert and Gosteli, 2003; Contr. Nat. Hist., 1: 21: pl. 12, fig. 1.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.—  Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.  Syntype: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18844/1 (Neubert and Gosteli, 2003).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.—  VERACRUZ: Coatepec; Córdoba; Jalapa (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) delicatula major (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina delicatula var. major Von Martens, 1891: 70-71; pl. 5, fig. 5 (shell).

Euglandina delicatula var. major (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 209; pl. 27, figs. 42-43 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Coatepec, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) delicatula montivaga H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Euglandina (Proameria) delicatula montivaga H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 58; pl. 5, figs. 6-7 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Above Necaxa, Puebla, Mexico; 4925 ft. alt.  Holotype in the UMMZ. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) filosa (Pfeiffer, 1855)

 

Achatina (Glandina) filosa Pfeiffer, 1855; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 100.

Glandina filosa (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 129; pl. 6, fig. 5.-  Von Martens, 1891: 74; pl. 5, figs. 2-2b (shell).

Euglandina filosa (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 200; pl. 23, figs. 31-33 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) fischeri (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina fischeri Von Martens, 1891: 74; pl. 5, figs. 3-3a (shell).

Euglandina fischeri (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 200; pl. 23, figs. 29-30 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Toluca, State of Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  MEXICO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) mitriformis (Angas, 1879)

 

Glandina (Oleacina) mitriformis Angas, 1879; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 481; pl. 40, fig. 10 (shell).

Oleacina mitriformis (Angas).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 35; pl. 7, fig. 94.

Glandina mitriformis Angas.  Von Martens, 1891: 75.

Euglandina mitriformis (Angas).  Pilsbry, 1908: 201.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Low hills and flat country, middle Zhorquin to Cuabre, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) oblonga (Pfeiffer, 1866)

 

Oleacina oblonga Pfeiffer, 1866; Malak. Blätt., 13: 86.

Glandina oblonga (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1891: 69; pl. 5, fig. 6 (shell).

Euglandina oblonga (Pfeiffer, 1866).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 205-206; pl. 26, fig. 11 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mirador, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: Tehuacán (Von Martens, 1891).  VERACRUZ: Mirador.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) orizabae (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Achatina (Varicella) orizabae Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 320; pl. 35, fig. 6 (shell).

Glandina orizabae (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 85; pl. 2, figs. 8-8a (shell).-  Strebel, 1975: 52.-  Von Martens, 1891: 73.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Volcán de Orizaba, at a height of 3000 meters, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Las Vigas, on the edge of the plateau NW of Jalapa, 7900 ft. alt. (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) polita (Strebel, 1975)

 

Glandina polita Strebel, 1875: 48-49; pl. 22, figs. 1q, 1r (shell); 1-1g (anatomy).

Euglandina (Proameria) polita (Strebel).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 57.-   H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 8.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A short distance in the Barranca Mihuistlan, near Coatepec, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) potosiana potosiana Pilsbry, 1908

 

Euglandina oblonga var. potosiana Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 207; pl. 26, fig. 14 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1996; Acta Zool. Mex., (73): 16.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Valles, San Luis Potosí. Syntypes in the ANSP.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: Cascadas Micos (Sierra Colmena) (22°06’35” N, 99°09’44” W, 240 m alt.); 1 km E of Platanito, 1320 m alt. (22°28’02” N, 99°28’25” W); hwy. Cd. del Maíz-El Naranjo, km 10 (22°30’00” N, 99°22’06” W); hwy. Cd. del Maíz-El Naranjo, km 35 (22°30’00” N, 99°22’06” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) potosíana tamaulipensis (Pilsbry, 1908)

 

Glandina oblonga tamaulipensis Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 772; pl. 47, fig. 6 (shell).

Euglandina oblonga var. tamaulipensis Pilsbry.  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 206-207; pl. 26, figs. 15-17 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mx., (86): 237.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- A canyon about 4 miles west of [Ciudad] Victoria, Tamaulipas.  Syntypes ANSP 85901.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  TAMAULIPAS: numerous localities in southern part of state (Corrrea-Sandoval & Catsro, 2002).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) pulcherrima (Strebel, 1883)

 

Glandina monilifera form B, Strebel, 1875: 49; pl. 13, figs. 43-43a (shell).

Glandina pulcherrima Strebel, 1883: 104.

Euglandina pulcherrima (Strebel).-  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 208-209; pl. 27, figs. 25-27 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Quautlatitlan, Veracruz.  Syntype Berlin Museum 30738.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Cuatepec, above Jalapa (Strebel, 1883).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) rhoadsi (Pilsbry, 1899)

 

Glandina rhoadsi Pilsbry, 1899; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51: 395.-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 771; pl. 47, figs. 3-3b (shell).

Euglandina rhoadsi (Pilsbry).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 192-193; pl. 26, figs. 2-24 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, 1993; Rev. Biol. Tropic., 41: 685.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Diente, near Monterrey, Nuevo León.  Syntypes ANSP 77173.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: Diente; Santiago (Correa Sandoval, 1993).   

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) saxitilit saxitilis H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Euglandina (Proameria) saxitilit saxitilis H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 57-58, 60; pl. 5, figs. 2-3 (shell).-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 8; pl. 2, fig. 16 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Below Necaxa, Puebla, Mexico; 3000 ft. alt.. Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) saxitilis convallis H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Euglandina (Proameria) saxitilis convallis H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 58, 60; pl. 5, fig. 1.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tepexic, below Necaxa, Puebla, Mexico; 2215 ft. alt..  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) saxitilis montivaga H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Euglandina (Proameria) saxitilis montivaga H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 58; pl. 5, figs. 6-7 (shell). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Above Necaxa, Puebla.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) sayula (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina  turgida var. sayula Von Martens, 1891: 73; pl. 4, figs. 16-20a (shell). 

Euglandina turgida var. sayula (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 200; pl. 24, figs. 57-59.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sayula, Jalisco.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: Sayula.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) speciosa (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Achatina (Varicella) speciosa Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 321; pl. 35, fig. 7 (shell).

Glandina speciosa (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 86; pl. 2, figs. 10-10a (shell).-  Strebel, 1875: 51; pl. 13, figs. 46-46a (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 71-72.

Euglandina speciosa (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 210.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Huatusca; Orizaba (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) sulcifera (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina sulcifera Von Martens, 1891: 74; pl. 5, figs. 1-1b (shell).

Euglandina sulcifera (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201; pl. 23, figs. 34-36 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Jalisco.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) tepicensis Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1926

 

Euglandina tepicensis Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 306-307; text-figs. 1-1a (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tepíc, Nayarit.  Holotype ANSP 139943.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) tortillana (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Achatina (Glandina) tortillana Pfeiffer, 1846; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 32.

Achatina tortillana Pfeiffer.  Reeve, 1850: pl. 15, fig. 66. 
Glandina tortillana (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1875: 50.-  Von Martens, 1891: 72.
Oleacina tortillana (Pfeiffer).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 35; pl. 6, fig. 79.

Euglandina tortillana (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Tortilla, Central America”.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Unknown.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) turgida (Pfeiffer, 1861)

 

Oleacina turgida Pfeiffer, 1861; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 26.

Glandina turgida (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 130.-  Von Martens, 1891: 73; pl. 4, fig. 16 (shell).

Euglandina turgida (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 199; pl. 24, fig. 56 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Juquila, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Guillarmodia (Proameria) victoriana (Pilsbry, 1903)

 

Glandina victoriana Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55:  771; pl. 47, figs. 4-4b (shell).

Euglandina victoriana (Pilsbry).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 193-194; pl. 26, figs. 18-20 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 237.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Canyon 4 miles west of [Ciudad] Victoria, Tamaulipas.  Lectotype ANSP 85918a (H. B. Baker, 1963: 219).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  TAMAULIPAS: numerous localities in southern part of state (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).

 

 

Genus Varicoglandina Pilsbry, 1908

 

Varicoglandina Pilsbry, 1908: 201. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Glandina monilifera Pfeiffer, 1845.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Veracruz and adjacent Oaxaca, Chiapas and Guatemala.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Five species and one subspecies are recognized.

 

 

Varicoglandina constricta (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina constricta Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 71-73, figs. 41-43 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A limestone ridge 3 km WNW of Mazín Grande,  Oaxaca, Mexico; 200 m alt. (18°08'01" N, 96°21'48" W).  Holotype FLMNH 190175.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Varicoglandina monilifera monilifera (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Glandina monilifera Pfeiffer, 1845; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 75.-  Von Martens, 1891: 75-76.

Glandina monilifera form A.  Strebel, 1875: 48; pl. 13, fig. 42 (shell).

Euglandina monilifera (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 210; pl. 27, figs. 26-29 (shell).-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 43, 51.-  Bequaert, 1957: 217.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Cobán, [Dept. Alta Verapaz], Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: Monte Alban, 950 m. alt.; El Censo to Laguma Ocotal, 1000 m alt. (Bequaert, 1937).  GUERRERO: Omilteme.  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: mountains of Cobán; Cobán; Cahabón (Von Martens, 1891); blFLMNHf on the mountain north of Chama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Izabal: mountains of Cavech, above Cavech Village; Jocalo (Hinkley, 1920).

 

 

Varicoglandina monilifera rubella (Morelet, 1849)

 

Glandina rubella Morelet, 1849; Test Noviss., I: 14.

Euglandina monilifera var. rubella (Morelet, 1849).  Pilsbry, 1908: 210; pl. 27, figs. 30-34 (shell).

Glandina iheringi Pilsbry, 1900; Nautilus, 14: 4.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 612.

Euglandina iheringi (Pilsbry).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 211; pl. 27, figs. 30-32.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Glandina rubella: Province of Vera Paz, Guatemala.  Glandina iheringi: Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type localities.

 

 

Varicoglandina nana (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Achatina (Polyphemus) nana Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 202.

Glandina nana (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 133; pl. 2, figs. 7-7b. (shell).-  Strebel, 1875: 39.-  Von Martens, 1891: 77; pl. 5, fig. 7 (shell).

Euglandina nana (Shuttleworth).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201.

Vericoglandina nana (Shuttleworth).  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions to Natural History, 1: 38; pl. 12, fig. 2.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.—  Veracruz.  Syntype Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18845/1 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.—  VERACRUZ: Córdoba; Misantla (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Varicoglandina rubiginosa (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina (Varicoglandina) rubiginosa Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 69-71; figs. 38-40 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A limestone knoll 11 km S of Cobán, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala; 1350 m alt. (15°24'57" N, 90°24'09" W).  Holotype FLMNH 190175.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- Known only from a small area in the Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.  GUATEMALA; Dept. Alta Verapaz: 15 km by road N of Cobán, 1050 m alt. (15°37'14" N, 90°19'10" W); limestone knoll 17.5 km NW of Tactíc, 1330 m alt. (15°21'29" N, 90°25'25" W); 2 km ESE of Cajaj, 1250 m alt. (15°33'25" N, 90°06'56" W).

 

 

Varicoglandina stigmatica (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Achatina (Polyphema) stigmatica Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 2002. 

Glandina stigmatica (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 91; pl. 2, figs. 9-9a (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 77.

Euglandina stigmatica (Shuttleworth).  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions to Natural History, 1: 50; pl. 12, fig. 3.

Euglandina (Varicoglandina) stigmatica (Shuttleworth).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 7-8; pl. 2, figs. 12 (reproductive anatomy), 13 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.—  Cordova [Cordóba], Veracruz.  Syntype: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18846/1 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Córdoba; Orizaba; Atoyac (Von Martens, 1891); Peñuela to Sumidero, 2625-3400 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

Genus Varicoturris Pilsbry, 1907

 

Vericoturris Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 161.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 56.-  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 47-48. 

Ghiesbreghtia H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 52, 54.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two subgenera and five species are recognized.

 

 

Subgenus Vericoturris Pilsbry, 1907

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Vericoturris: Spiraxis dubia Pfeiffer, 1856.  Ghiesbreghtia: Euglandina (Ghiesbreghtia) flammulata H. B. Baker.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The subgenus contains four species.

 

 

 

Varicoturris (Varicoturris) dubia (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Spiraxis dubia Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 378.-  Pfeiffer, 1859. Monographia heliceorum viventium, IV: 580.

Streptostyla dubia (Pfeiffer).  Fischer and Crosse, 1875; Miss. Sci. Mex. Amér. Cent.: 65.-  Von Martens, 1891; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 90; pl. 5, fig. 10.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 161-162; pl. 28, fig. 65.

Euglandina dubia (Pfeiffer), H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 54.-  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 48-49; figs. 1-2 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas. Syntypes BMNH 1991144.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  México in extreme northern Chiapas and Adjacent Tabasco.  CHIAPAS: 3 km N of Ixhuatán, 550 m alt.  TABASCO: 4 km E of Teapa (Thompson, 1995).

 

 

Varicoturris (Varicoturris) flammulata (H. B. Baker, 1941)

 

Euglandina (Gheisbreghtia) flammulata H. B. Baker, 1941;  Nautilus, 55: 56-57; pl. 5, figs. 10-11 (shell).-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 7; pl. 1, figs. 10-11 (anatomy).-  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 49; figs. 3-4, 6-7 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Las Tortolas, nr. Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico; 2700 ft. alt.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Cerro de las Palmas, 1 km E of Berlín, ca. 4 km N of Córdoba, 980 m alt. (Thompson, 1995).

 

 

Varicoturris (Varicoturris) huehuetenangoensis (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina huehuetenangoensis Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 54; figs. 14-16 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Finca Chiblac, ca. 5 km W of San Ramón, Dept. Huehuetenango, Guatemala.  Holotype FLMNH 190305.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Varicoturris (Varicoturris) pycnoptyx (Thompson, 1995)

 

Euglandina pycnoptyx Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 49-52; figs. 8-11 (shell).

 

 TYPE LOCALITY.-  Limestone blFLMNHf 6 km NE of Comalapa, Veracruz, Mexico.  Holotype FLMNH 81946.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Subgenus Streptostylella Pilsbry, 1908

 

Streptostylella Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 161.-  H. B. Baker, 1941: 54.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Streptostyla botteriana Crosse & Fischer, 1869.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Central Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized.

 

 

Varicoturris (Streptostylella) botteriana (Crosse & Fischer, 1869)

 

Streptostyla botteriana Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 18: 190.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 25; pl. 2, figs. 4-4b (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 44; pl. 11, fig. 95 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 85.

Streptostyla (Streptostylella) botteriana Crosse & Fischer.  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 161.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Pittierria Von Martens, 1901

 

Pittieria Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 617.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch, 19: 162.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 55.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Streptostyla (Pittieria) bicolor Von Martens, 1901.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Central Mexico south to northern Panama.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three subgenera and fourteen species are recognized.

 

 

 

Subgenus Pittieria Von Martens, 1901

 

  DISTRIBUTION.- Costa Rica.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized.

 

 

Pittieria (Pittieria) bicolor (Von Martens, 1901)

 

Streptostyla (Pittieria) bicolor Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 617; pl. 44, fig. 6 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man Conch., 19: 162-163; pl. 29, fig. 86 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Uiskar, in Alta Talamanca, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Pittieria (Pittieria) pittieri (Von Martens, 1901)

 

Glandina pittieri Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 611; pl. 28, fig. 54.

Euglandina pittieri (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 199; pl. 28, fig. 54.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Between Mokri and Ukutschka, near Talamanca, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Subgenus Laeviglandina Pilsbry, 1908

 

Laeviglandina Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 55.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95; Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 12.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Oleacina underwoodi Fulton, 1897

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Central Veracruz and Guerrero south to northern Panama.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Nine species are recognized.

 

 

Pittieria (Laeviglandina) aurantiaca (Angas, 1879)

 

Glandina aurantiaca Angas, 1979; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 480; pl. 40, fig. 8 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 612.

Euglandina (Laeviglandina) aurantiaca (Angas). Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 204.-  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 96-97; text-fig. 22d (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “From the hill country”, Costa Rica,

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: Puerto Viejo; Rio Sarapiquí; San Miguel, on the road to Sarapiquí; Turrialba; Tuis, 600-600 m alt.; Santa Clara, 200-300 m alt.; Talamanca; Valley of Baca; Terraba (all Von Martens, 1901).  PANAMA: Bocas del Toro (Pilsbry, 1926).

 

 

Pittieria (Laeviglandina) broctontomlini (Pilsbry, 1926)

 

Euglandina broctontomlini Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 97-98; text-fig. 22a (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Vesta Farms, Estrella Vally, Costa Rica. Holotype ACSP 132557a.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: Cahuita; Rio Jiminey, 50 ft. alt.  PANAMA, Bocas del Toro Prov.: Mono Creek.

 

 

Pittierria (Laeviglandina) chiriquiensis (Da Costa, 1900)

 

Glandina chiriquiensis Da Costa, 1900: 66; pl. 7, fig. 2 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 612.

Euglandina chiriquiensis (Da Costa).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 202; pl. 27, fig. 45 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 95-96; text-fig. 22a (shell).

Pittierria chiriquiensis(Da Costa).  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 12; pl. 3, fig. 29 (mantle collar), fig. 30 (reproductive system), fig. 31 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiriqui, Panama.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: Nr. Santa Clara, Volcan de Chiriqui, 4100 ft. alt. (Pilsbry, 1908).

 

 

Pittieria (Laeviglandina) decidua (Pfeiffer, 1861)

 

Oleacina decidua Pfeiffer, 1861; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 26.

Glandina decidua (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1970: 122.  Von Martens, 1891: 70; pl. 4, figs. 12-13 (shell).

Euglandina decidua (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 204; pl. 27, figs. 37-38.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Juquila, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Pittieria (Laeviglandina) izabellina (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Achatina (Glandina) izabellina Pfeiffer, 1846; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 32.-  Reeve, Conch. Icon, 6: pl. 21, fig. 95.

Euglandina isabelina (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 203-204.-  Pilsbry, 1926: 97-98.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Mexico”.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Unknown.

 

 

Pittieria (Laeviglandina) lanceolata (Von Martens, 1891)

 

Glandina lanceolata Von Martens, 1891: 69; pl. 4, fig. 1-1b, 4 (shell).

Euglandina lanceolata (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 203; pl. 27, figs. 38-40 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Omilteme, Guerrero.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUERRERO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Pittieria (Laeviglandina) obtusa (Pfeiffer, 1844)

 

Glandina obtusa Pfeiffer, 1844; in Philippi, Abbild., 1: 132; pl. 1, fig. 3 (shell).-  Strebel, 1875: 36, figs. 26-26b (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 24; pl. 4, fig. 55 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 76.

Euglandina obtusa Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 204.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Ralejo, Nicaragua.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA, Dept. León: Polvón (Pilsbry, 1908).

 

 

Pittieria (Laeviglandina) tryoniana Pilsbry, 1908

 

Euglandina tryoniana Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 203; pl. 27, figs. 46-47 (shell). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Central America.  Holotype ANSP 24814.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Unknown.

 

 

Pittieria (Laeviglandina) underwoodi  (Fulton, 1897)

 

Oleacina underwoodi Fulton, 1897; Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 6th ser., 20: 212; pl. 6, fig. 9 (shell).

Glandina underwoodi (Fulton).  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 612.

Euglandina uderwoodi (Fulton).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201-202; pl. 27, fig. 44 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Asaha Centago” [Azahar de Cartago], Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

Subgenus Shuttleworthia H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Shuttleworthia H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 55.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 11. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Pittieria arborea H. B. Baker, 1941.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Mexico in the states of Puebla and Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three species are recognized. 

 

Pittierria (Shuttleworthia) ambigua (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Achatina ambigua Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 312.

Glandina ambigua (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 139; pl. 6, figs. 1, 4a-4c.-  Strebel, 1875: 53-54; pl. 2, fig. 48 (shell); pl. 13, figs. 48, 48a (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 72.

Oleacina ambigua (Pfeiffer).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 23; pl. 4, figs. 25, 27 (shell).

Euglandina ambigua (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201.

Pittieria (Shuttleworthia) ambigua (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 59.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Córdoba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Bajada del Ojo de Agua, nr. Córdoba; Huatusco; Orizaba (Strebel, 1975).

 

 

Pittierria (Shuttleworthia) arborea H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Pittierria arborea H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 59; pl. 5, figs. 13-15.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 11-12 (shell); pl. 3, figs. 25 (reproductive system), 26 (penis), 27 (radula), 28 (pallial organs).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Below Necaxa, Puebla, Mexico; 3120 ft. alt.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Pittierria (Shuttleworthia) difficilis (Crosse and Fischer, 1869)

 

Glandina difficilis Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 426.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 132; pl. 6, figs. 3, 3a.-  Von Martens, 1891: 78. 

Euglandina difficilis (Crosse & Fischer).  Pilsbry, 1908; Man. Conch., 19: 201.

Pittieria (Shuttlewortia) difficilis (Crosse & Fischer).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 59.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Probably in the environs of Cordova”, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Subfamily STREPTOSTYLINAE H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Streptostylarum H. B. Baker, 1941.

 

  TYPE GENUS.-  Streptostyla Shuttleworth, 1852.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico and Central America.  A single species is reported from Venezuela.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Seventy-three species are recognized in the study area.

 

 

Genus Myxastyla Thompson, 1995

 

Myxastyla Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 73-74.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Streptostyla coxeni Richards, 1938.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Northern Central America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three species are recognized.

 

 

Myxastyla coxeni (Richards, 1938)

 

Streptostyla coxeni Richards, 1938; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 79: 172; pl. III, fig. 2.

Myxastyla coxeni (Richards).  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 74-75; figs. 44-45 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Limestone outcrops between Coxen Hole and West End, Roatán Island, Bay Islands, Honduras.  Holotype ANSP 170020.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS: apparently endemic to Roatán Island.  Other species of Myxastyla, undescribed, occur elsewhere in Honduras.

 

 

Myxastyla hyalina Thompson, 1995

 

Myxastyla hyalina Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 78-79; figs. 49-50 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Limestone knoll 17.5 km by road NW of Tactíc, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala (15°21'29" N, 90°25'25" W); 1330 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 189852.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: 11 km W of San Cristobal Verapaz, 1120 m alt.; 1.5 km SE of San Juan Chamelco; 1300 m alt.; 2 km ESE of Cajáj; 1250 m alt.; 11 km S of Cobán; 1350 m alt.; 14 km N of Cobán; 990 m alt.

 

 

Myxastyla pycnota Thompson, 1995

 

Myxastyla pycnota Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 75-78; figs. 46-48 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Gorge along the Rio Selequa 12 km SSE of La Democracia, Dept. Huehuetenango, Guatemala; 950 m alt. HOLOTYPE FLMNH 190415.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Oryzosoma Pilsbry, 1891

 

Oryzosoma Pilsbry, 1891; Nautilus, 5: 9.-  Pilsbry, 1891; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 43: 311.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch, 19: 163.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Streptostyla (Orizosoma) tabiensis Pilsbry, 1891.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Yucatan.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The single known species is known only from a single bleached shell.

 

 

Oryzosoma tabiensis (Pilsbry, 1891)

 

Streptostyla (Orizosoma) tabiensis Pilsbry, 1891; Nautilus, 5: 9.-  Pilsbry, 1891; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 43: 311; pl. 15, figs. 6-7 (shell).

Oryzosoma tabiensis (Pilsbry).  Pilsbry, Man. Conch, 19: 163; pl. 30, figs. 99, 1 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cave in the mountains near the Hacienda Tabi, Yucatan.  Holotype ANSP 61630.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  YUCATAN: known only from the type locality.

 

Genus Salasiella Strebel, 1877

 

Salasiella Strebel, 1877: 29.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 54: 80-83.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Salasiella joaquinae Strebel, 1877.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico south to Panama.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two subgenera are recognized.  The genus includes twelve species.

 

 

Subgenus Salasiella Strebel, 1877

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico south to Panama, Old Providence Island, Colombia.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Nine species are included in the subgenus.

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) browni Pilsbry, 1910

 

Salasiella browni Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 62: 508; text-fig. 5 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 345.-  H. B. Baker, 1923; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (135): 7.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Las Cascades, Canal Zone, Panama.  Holotype ANSP 101325.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: Las Cascades; between Tabernillo and San Pablo (Pilsbry, 1926); Barro Colorado Island (Pilsbry, 1930)

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) corni Richards, 1939

 

Salasiella corni Richards, 1939; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 81: 32-33; text-fig. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Near Quin BlFLMNHf, Corn Island, Nicaragua.  Holotype ANSP 173926.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) guadalajarensis Pilsbry & Cockerell, 1926

 

Salasiella guadalajarensis Pilsbry and Cockerell, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 77: 308; fig. 6 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Guadalajara, Jalisco.  Holotype: ANSP 107474.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) guatemalensis Pilsbry, 1920

 

Salasiella guatemalensis Pilsbry, 1920; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 71: 213; text-fig. 1.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 48.-  H. B. Baker, 1923; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (135): 7.-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 8.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Gualan, [Dept. Zacapa], Guatemala.  Holotype ANSP 114838.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: Jocola (Pilsbry, 1920).  Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) hinkleyi Pilsbry, 1920

 

Salasiella hinkleyi Pilsbry, 1920; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 71: 212; text-fig. 2 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mountain side near the Tamosopo Sugar Company’s place, San Luis Potosí.  Holotype ANSP 45198a.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: Dientew, nr. Monterrey (Pilsbry, 1920).  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: El Abra (Pilsbry, 1920).

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) joaquinae Strebel, 1877

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) joaquinae Strebel, 1877: 29-30; pl. 10, figs. 1-7 (anatomy); pl. 11, fig. 8 (radula).-  Von Martens, 1891: 81.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 172.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: Diente, nr. Monterrey (Pilsbry, 1907).  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) margaritacea (Pfeiffer, 1857)

 

Achatina margaritacea Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 321.

Salasiella margaritacea (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1891: 81; pl. 5, fig. 8.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 171-172; pl. 28, fig. 61 (shell).-  H. B. Baker, 1923; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (135): 6-7.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Cordoba; Hacienda Coatotolopam (H. B. Baker, 1923).

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) pulchella (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Achatina pulchella Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 379 (non Achatina pulchella Spix, 1827).

Glandina pulchella (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 136.

Salasiella pulchella (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1891: 83; pl. 5, fig. 9.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 173-174; pl. 28, fig. 62.-  H. B. Baker, 1923; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (135): 7.-  Jacobson, 1968; Nautilus, 81: 118.

Salasiella pfeifferi Pilsbry, 1899; Proc. cad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51: 398 (new name for Achatina pulhella Pfeiffer, 1856).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: type locality.  NICARAGUA, Dept. Zelaya: 78 mi. W of San Carlos, along the Rio Cocos (Jacobson, 1968).

 

 

Salasiella (Salasiella) subcylindrica Pilsbry, 1903

 

Salasiella subcylindrica Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55:  774; text-fig. 1 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 174; text-fig. 1.-  Thompson, 1957; Nautilus, 70: 101.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Diente, near Monterrey, Nuevo León.  Holotype ANSP 77169a.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: known only from the type locality. TABASCO: 0.5-1.0 mi. E of Teapa (Thompson, 1957).

 

 

Salasiella (?) camerata H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Oleacina? (Salasiella?) camerata H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 55; pl. 5, figs. 4-5 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tepexic, below Necaxa, Puebla, Mexico;  2200 ft. alt.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: known only from the type locality and a near-by locality above Necaxa, 4925 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

Subgenus Perpusilla H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Perpusilla H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 54: 81-82.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Salasiella perpusilla (Pfeiffer, 1866).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Mexico in the states of Nuevo León, Puebla and Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three species are recognized.

 

 

Salasiella (Perpusilla) minima Pilsbry, 1907

 

Salasiella minima Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 172-173; text-fig. 6. 

Salasiella (Perpusilla) minima Pilsbry.  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 54: 83; pl. 6, fig. 12 (radula), fig. 13 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Hills around Orizaba, about 500 ft. above the town, Veracruz.  Holotype ANSP 58070.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: type locality.  PUEBLA: nr. Necaxa (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

 

Salasiella (Perpusilla) modesta (Pfeiffer, 1862)

 

Oleacina modesta Pfeiffer, 1862; Malak. Blätt., 9: 98.

Glandina modesta (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 135.-  Strebel, 1875: 52; pl. 13, fig. 49 (shell).

Salasiella modesta (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1877: 30; pl. 9, fig. 9.-  Von Martens, 1891: 81.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 172; text-figs. 4, 5 (shell).-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 8.

Salasiella (Perpusilla) modesta (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 54: 82-83; pl. 6, figs. 8, 10 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 9 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Province of Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: nr. Necaxa (H. B. Baker, 1941).  VERACRUZ: Córdoba (H. B. Baker, 1941).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).

 

 

Salasiella (Perpusilla) perpusilla (Pfeiffer, 1866)

 

Oleacina perpusilla Pfeiffer, 1866; Malak. Blätt., 13: 86.

Glandina perpusilla (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 134; pl. 3, figs. 4, 4a-c.-  Strebel, 1875: 53.-  Strebel, 1877: 30; pl. 9, fig. 8 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 173; text-figs. 2, 3 (shell).

Salasiella (Perpusilla) perpusilla (Pfeiffer).  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 54: 81-82; pl. 6, fig. 1 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 2 (radula), figs. 3-4 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mirador, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: Diente, nr. Monterrey (Pilsbry, 1907).  PUEBLA: Necaxa (H. B. Baker, 1941).  VERACRUZ: woods of Pacho, nr. Jalapa (Strebel, 1877).

 

 

Genus Strebelia Crosse and Fischer, 1868

 

Physella Pfeiffer, 1861; Malak. Blätt., 8: 71 (non Physella Haldeman, 1842).

Strebelia Crosse & Fischer, 1868; Jour. de Conchyl, 16: 90.

Spirobulla Ancey, 1881; Le Naturaliste, 1: 484.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Physella berendti Pfeiffer, 1961.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Mexico in the states of Veracruz and Hidalgo.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The genus is monotypic.

 

 

Strebelia berendti (Pfeiffer, 1861)

 

Physella berendti Pfeiffer, 1861; Malak. Blätt., 8: 71; pl. 1, figs. 1-4.

Strebelia berendti (Pfeiffer).  Crosse & Fisher, 1868; Jour. de Conchyl., 16: 90.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 12; pl. 1, figs. 1-1b (shell).-  Strebel, 1878: 9-10; pl. 1, figs. 1a-1b (animal), figs. 2-10 (anatomy); pl. 2, figs. 1-10 (anatomy); fig. 11 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Here restricted to Mirador, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Mirado; Coiscomatepec (Pfeiffer, 1861); Pacho, nr. Jalapa (Strebel, 1978); Texolo (Pilsbry, 1903).

 

 

Genus Streptostyla Shuttleworth, 1852

 

Streptostyla Shuttleworth, 1852; Mittheilungen für Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Bern: 203.- Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 144-145.-  H. B. Baker, 1927; Nautilus, 41: 21.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 53.-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 233-234.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  By tautonymy, Achatina streptostyla Pfeiffer, 1846.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.—  Mexico, Central America, and Cuba.  A single species is reported from Venezuela.

 

  TAXONOMY.—  Fifty-five species and fourteen subspecies are recognized in Mexico and Central America.  Four subgenera, Streptostyla, Chersomitra, Peténiella and Eustreptostyla, occur in the study area.  Another subgenus, Rectoleacina, occurs in Cuba.

 

The distinctions between the subgenera Streptostyla and Chersomitra are anatomical primarily.  The numerous species that remain unknown anatomically are retained in the subgenus Streptostyla, with the exceptions of those placed in Eustreptostyla and Peténiella.   Species for which the anatomy is known are preceded with an asterisk (*).  Within Streptostyla species are grouped according to shell shape as a matter of convenience only following von Von Martens (1892) and Pilsbry (1897).  The arrangement does not reflect phylogenetic relationships, which is not possible to achieve without further anatomical or genetic information.

 

 

Subgenus Streptostyla Shuttleworth, 1852

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico and Central America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Forty-two species and twelve subspecies are recognized.

 

 

SHELL OLIVIFORM

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) clavatula Ancey, 1903

 

Streptostyla clavulata Ancey, 1903; Nautilus, 17: 56-57. (Not figured).

Streptostyla clavatula Ancey.  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 160-161.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Central America”.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  None recorded.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Apparently Ancey’s name clavulata was a typographic error, which was corrected to clavatula by Pilsbry (1907).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) cylindracea (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Achatina cylindracea Pfeiffer, 1846; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 31. 

Streptostyla cylindracea (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 30.-  Angas, 1879; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 482.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 48; pl. 11, fig. 98 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 93-94; pl. 5, fig. 13 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 148.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Tortilla, Central America”.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA.  VERACRUZ: Córdoba (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) gabbi Pilsbry, 1907

 

Streptostyla  boucardi (Pfeiffer) var. (?).  Angas, 1879; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 482.

Streptostyla boucardi (Pfeiffer).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 46; pl. 10, fig. 72 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 616.

Streptostyla gabbi Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 158; pl. 30, figs. 2, 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  On the ridge between Tiloria and Zorquin, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: Cabeceras de Tarazu, 2000 m alt.; Alahuela; Tarbaca; Diquis, below Terraba; Cañas Gordas (Von Martens, 1901).

 

 

 

*Streptostyla (Streoptostyla) irrigua irrigua (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Spiraxis (Streptostyla) irrigua Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Natrf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 205. 

Streptostyla irrigua (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 37.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 46; pl. 10, fig. 58.-  Von Martens, 1891: 92.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 8-9; pl. 1, fig. 7 (radula), fig. 8 (reproductive anatomy).-  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions in Natural History, 1: 31; pl. 11, fig. 7.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.—  Cordova [Córdoba}, Veracruz; syntype: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18837/1 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Córdoba, 2625-3125 ft. alt.  PUEBLA: Necaxa (H. B. Baker, 1943)

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) irrigua cingulata Crosse & Fisher, 1869

 

Streptostyla cingulata Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 31.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 40; pl. 1, figs. 6, 6a (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 45; pl. 10, fig. 55 (shell).

Streptostyla irrigua cingulatum Crosse & Fischer.  Pilsbry, 1907, Man. Conch., 19: 146.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  [San Andres] Tuxtla, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Orizaba (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) irrigua quirozi Strebel, 1877

 

Streptostyla quirozi Strebel, 1877: 21; pl. 8, fig. 3 (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 44; pl. 11, fig. 92 (shell).

Streptostyla shuttleworthi var. quirozi Strebel.  Von Martens, 1891: 93.

Streptostyla irrigua quirozi Strebel.  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 146.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60;  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 7.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not stated.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Coatepec; Miahuatlan; San Antonio de Monte (Strebel, 1877); Tezuitlan; Misantla (Von Martens, 1891).  PUEBLA: Necaxa, 2120-5500 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1943).

 

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) irrigua similis Strebel, 1877

 

Streptostyla similis Strebel, 1877: 19, 50; pl. 8, fig. 8; pl. 12, fig. 7 (shell).

Streptostyla shuttleworthi var. similis Strebel.  Von Martens, 1891: 93.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Misantla, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Orizaba; Veracruz  OAXACA: Juquila (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) irrigua ventricosa Von Martens, 1891

 

Streptostyla shuttleworthi var. λ Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 42, pl. 2, fig. 3 (shell).

Streptostyla shuttleworthi var. Strebel, 1877: pl. 8, fig. 9a (shell). 

Streptostyla shutttleworthi var. ventricosa Von Martens 1892.

Streptostyla irrigua var. ventricosa Von Martens.  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 146.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not stated by Von Martens.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Orizaba; Nautla (Von Martens, 1891).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) lattrei lattrei (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Achatina lattrei Pfeiffer, 1845; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 138.-  Reeve, 1849; Conch. Icon, 6, Achatina: pl. 14, fig. 53 (shell).

Streptostyla delattrei (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 33; pl. 1, figs. 5-5b.-  Strebel, 1877: 21; pl. 8, figs. 10-10c; pl. 12, fig. 10 (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 44; pl. 10, fig. 49.-  Von Martens, 1891: 91.

Streptostylla lattrei (Pfeiffer). Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 145.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 43, 51.

Glandina oliva Morelet, 1849; Test Noviss., I: 13.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Achatina lattrei: Not given.  Glandina oliva: Vera Paz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA.  Alta Verapaz: Cobán; Chama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Baja Verapaz: Panzos; Senahu, 2800 ft. alt.  Dept. Izabal: Izabal (Von Martens, 1891); mountains of Rio Cavech, above Cavech Village (Hinkley, 1920).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) lattrei edwardsiana Crosse & Fischer, 1869

 

Streptostyla delattrei var. edwardsiana Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. Conchyl., 17: 29.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 35; pl. 2, figs. 2-2a (shell).-  Strebel, 1877: 20.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 44; pl. 10, fig. 49.-  Von Martens, 1891: 91-92.

Streptostyla lattrei var. edwardsiana Crosse & Fischer.  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 145.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality. 

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) lattrei sallei Crosse & Fischer, 1869

 

Streptostyla delattrei var. sallei Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conch., 17: 30.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 36; pl. 2, figs. 1-1a (shell).-  Strebel, 1877: 20; pl. 8, fig. 4; pl. 12, fig. 20 (shell).

Streptostyla sallei Crosse & Fischer.  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 44; pl. 10, fig. 50 (shell).

Streptostyla lattrei var. sallei Crosse & Fischer.  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 145.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) novoleonis Pilsbry, 1899

 

Streptostyla novoleonis Pilsbry, 1899; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51: 397.-  Pilsbry, 1903, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 774; pl. 48, figs. 3, 3a (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, 1993; Rev. Biol. Trop., 41: 605.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Diente, near Monterrey, Nuevo León.  Lectotype ANSP 77153a (H. B. Baker, 1963: 219).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: Santiago (Correa-Sandoval, 1993).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) palmeri Dall, 1905

 

Streptostyla palmeri Dall, 1905; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 48: 191.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 146-147; pl. 29, fig. 68 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998; Acta Zool. Mex., (73): 16.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Alvarez Mountains, San Luis Potosí; 7200 ft. alt.  Holotype USNM 110394.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: 2 km NW Poza de la Media Luna, 1070 m alt. (21°53’39” N, 100°03’56” W); km post 140, east of Platanito, 1320 m alt. (22°28’02” N, 99°28’25” W); 6 km SW of Xilitla, 830 m alt. (21°23’10” N, 99°03’56” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) potosiana Dall, 1905

 

Streptostyla potosiana Dall, 1905; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 48: 190; pl. 44, fig. 4.-  Pilsbry, 1907: Man. Conch., 19: 146; pl. 29, fig. 67 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998; Acta Zool. Mex., (73): 16.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Alvarez Mountains, San Luis Potosí; at a height of 7200 ft.  Holotype USNM 110395.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: Hwy. Río Verde-Cd. Valles, Km 81, 1420 m alt. (21°53’54” N, 99°35’00” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) shuttleworthi (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Spiraxis shuttleworthi Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 320; pl. 35, fig. 8 (shell).

Streptostyla shuttleworthi Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 102; pl. 29, figs. 7, 7a; pl. 2, fig. 4 (shell).-  Strebel, 1877: 6, 18; pl. 8, fig. 9.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 44; pl. 10, figs. 52-53 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 92.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 146.

Spiraxis bullacea Pfeiffer, 1866; Malak. Blätt., 13: 84.-  Von Martens, 1891: 93,

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS.  TABASCO: Teapa. VERACRUZ:  Misantla; Orizaba; Cordoba (Von Martens, 1891)

 

 

SHELL CONIFORM

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) conulus Von Martens, 1891

 

Streptostyla conulus Von Martens, 1891: 94; pl. 5, fig. 15.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 148; pl. 28, fig 60 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sayula, Jalisco.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) gracilis Pilsbry, 1907

 

Streptostyla gracilis Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 148-149; pl. 28, fig. 66.-  Jacobson, 1952; Nautilus, 65: 113.-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998; Acta Zool. Mex., (73): 16.-  Correa-Sandoval, 2000; Acta Zool.Mex., (79):: 9.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., 86: 237.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Valles, San Luis Potosí.  Holotype ANSP 92802a (Baker, 1963: 219).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998). TAMAULIPAS: Km 636, on the road between Santa Inez and Llera (Jacobson, 1956); numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).  VERACRUZ: San Juan Cuajinampa (21°11’53” N, 97°30’00” W) (Correa-Sandoval, 2000).

 

 

*Streptostyla (Streptostyla) streptostyla streptostyla (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Achatina streptostyla Pfeiffer, 1846; Zeitschrift für Malakozoologie: 159.

Streptostyla streptostyla.-  H. B. Baker, 1927; Nautilus, 41: 21.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 6.

Streptostyla coniformis (Shuttleworth).-  Strebel, 1877: 15; pl. iv, figs. 11-14 (shell); pl. vi, fig. 1 (anatomy).

Streptostyla pfeifferi Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 27.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 47.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Orizaba; Sumidero 2625-3400 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

*Streptostyla (Streptostyla) streptostyla coniformis (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Spiraxis (Streptostyla) coniformis Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 206.  

Stretostyla coniformis (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 43.-  Strebel, 1877: 6, 15: pl. 8, figs. 6-6b (shell); pl. 9, fig. 12 (live animal); pl. 6, fig. 3 (radula); pl. 4, figs. 11-13 (anatomy).-  Von Martens, 1891: 94, pl. 5, fig. 14.- Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions to Natural History, 1: 19; pl. 11, fig. 3 (shell).

Streptostyla blandiana Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 31.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 28; pl. 1, figs. 8, 8a (shell).

Streptostyla pfeifferi Crosse & Fischer, in Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 27.

Streptostyla streptostyla form coniformis (Shuttleworth).   H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus. 55: 60.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.—  Spiraxis coniformis: Cordova, Veracruz; Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18835/1 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).  Streptostyla blandiana: Cordova, Veracruz.  Streptostyla pfeifferi: Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.—  VERACRUZ: Córdoba; Mirador; Coatepec; Orizaba (Von Martens, 1891). 

 

 

SHELL TURGIDA

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) chiriquiana Von Martens, 1901

 

Streptostyla favescens Da Costa, 1900; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 9: 66; pl. 7, fig. 1 (shell) (not Spiraxis [Streptostyla] flavescens Shuttleworth, 1852).

Streptostyla chiriquiana Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 613.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 151.-  Tomlin, 1927; Nautilus, 41: 130-131.

Streptostyla pallidus Da Costa, 1901; Proc. malac. Soc. London, 9: 185 (new name for Streptostyla flavescens Da Costa, 1900).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiriqui, Panama.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) costaricensis Da Costa, 1904

 

Streptostyla costaricensis Da Costa, 1904; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 6: 6; pl. 1, fig. 3 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 155-156; pl. 29, fig. 82 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Azajar de Cartago, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) labida (Morelet, 1851)

 

Glandina labida Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 13.

Streptostyla labida (Morelet).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 45.-  Von Martens, 1891; 96: pl. 5, fig. 16 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 150; pl. 29, fig. 73 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Vera Paz [Alta Verapaz], Guatemala. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.  Von Martens (1901) reports this species from Costa Rica.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) obesa Von Martens, 1891

 

Streptostyla obesa Von Martens, 1891: 95; pl. 5, fig. 12, 12a.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 149; pl. 29, figs. 71-72 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) turgidula turgidula (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Spiraxis turgidula Pfeiffer, 185; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 320; pl. 35, fig. 9 (shell).

Streptostyla turgidula (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 58; pl. 1, fig. 4 (shell).-  Strebel, 1877: 17; pl. 12, fig. 6.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 46; pl. 10, fig. 65.-  Von Martens, 1891: 95.- H. B. Baker, 1941: 60.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Jalapa (Strebel, 1877); Córdoba, 2625-3000 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941: 60).  Von Martens (1901) reports this species from COSTA RICA.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) turgidula guatemalensis Fischer & Crosse, 1870

 

Streptostyla turgidula guatemalensis Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 59; pl. 1, fig. 4a (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 96.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 150.

Streptostyla schneideri Strebel, 1877: 26; pl. 9, fig. 1 (shell).

Streptostyla turgidula producta “Pilsbry”.  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 40, 43, 51 (a nomen nudum).

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  San Agustin, [Dept. Sololá], Guatemala (Von Martens, 1891).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA.  Dept. Alta Verapaz: Chama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Izabal: Maya Farms, Quirigua; mountains of Rio Cavech, above Cavech Village (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Retalhuleu: Hacienda Helvetia, 3000 ft. alt.; Hacienda Buenavista, 3500 ft. alt.; Hacienda Germania (Von Martens, 1891).                       

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) nebulosa Dall, 1896

  

Streptostyla nebulosa Dall, 1896; Proc. U. S. National Museum, 19: 364-365; pl. 33, fig. 4 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 150-151; pl. 29, fig. 74 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San Cristobal, Chiapas.  Holotype USNM 107369. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) sumichrasti Ancey, 1903

 

Streptostyla sumichrasti Ancey, 1903; Nautilus, 17: 56.-   Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 151 (not figured).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Isthmus of Tehuantepec.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA (?).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) vancegreenei Jacobson, 1966

 

Streptostyla vancegreenei Jacobson, 1966; Nautilus, 79: 102-103; figs. 1.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Quemigüas [Quimiquas] or Rio Negro, approximately 20 miles northeast of Bonanza, Zelaya Department, Nicaragua; approximately 14º12’ N, 84º37’ W, estimated elevation 1300 ft.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) viridula Angas, 1879

 

Streptostyla viridula Angas, 1879; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 482; pl. 50, fig. 12.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 98.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 616.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 157-158; pl. 29, fig. 81.-  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 98, text-fig. 22c (shell).-  Tomlin, 1927; Nautilus, 41: 131.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Hills of Uren, Costa Rica.  Holotype in the ASNSP.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Limón Prov.: Puerto del Tierra, on road to Sarapiquí, 600 m alt.; Tuis, 600 m alt.; Schukuluk, in Alto Uren; between Mokri and Ukatschka, Alta Talamanca; La Hondura, 1000 m alt.; slopes of Volcán Barba (Von Martens, 1901).  PANAMA, Bocas del Torro Prov.:¨Mono Creek (Pilsbry, 1926).

 

 

SHELL PHYSAEFORM

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) biconica Pfeiffer, 1856

 

Spiraxis biconica Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 378.

Streptostyla biconica (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 32.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 98; pl. 5, figs. 17, 17a (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 157; pl. 29, fig. 79 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) binneyana Crosse & Fischer 1869

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) binneyana Crosse & Fischer 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 29.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 29; pl. 1, figs. 3, 3a (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907, Man. Conch., 19: 156; pl. 30, fig. 98.

Streptostyla venticosula var. binneyana Crosse & Fischer.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 97; pl. 5, figs. 20, 21, 21a.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Totonicapam [Totonicapan], [Dept. Totonicapan] Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) crassa Strebel, 1877

 

 

Streptostyla crassa Strebel, 1877: 26; pl. 9, figs. 2-2b (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 47; pl. 10, fig. 71.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 152.

Streptostyla delibuta var. crassa Strebel.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 97.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cobán, [Dept. Alta Verapaz], Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) delibuta (Morelet, 1851)

 

Glandina delibuta Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 13.

Streptostyla delibuta (Morelet).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 44.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 97; pl. 5, figs. 18, 18a (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 152; pl. 29, figs. 77, 78, 80 (shell).-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 43, 51.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Vera Paz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Chama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Izabál: environs of Izabál (Von Martens, 1892); mountains of Cavech, above Cavech Village (Hinkely, 1920).  Von Martens (1901) reports this species from Costa Rica.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) flavescens flavescens (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Spiraxis (Streptostyla) flavescens Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 206.

Streptostyla flavescens (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 39.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 48; pl. 11, fig. 77 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 98; pl. 5, fig. 19 (shell).-  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions to Natural History, 1:25; pl. 11, fig. 6.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.  Syntypes: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18836/2 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.—  VERACRUZ: Córdoba.

 

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) flavescens boucardi (Pfeiffer, 1861)

 

Spiraxis boucardi Pfeiffer, 1861; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 24.

Streptostyla boucardi (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 43.-   Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 99; pl. 5, fig. 19. 

Streptostyla flavescens boucardi (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 158; pl. 29, fig. 83 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Juquila, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) fulvida Crosse & Fischer, 1869

 

Streptostyla fulvida Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 32.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 50; pl. 1, figs. 11, 11a (shell).-  Strebel, 1877: 17; pl. 12, fig. 8.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 46; pl. 10, fig. 60 (shell).-  Von Martens, 99.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) glandiformis Crosse & Fischer, 1869

 

Streptostyla glandiformis Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 32.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 50, pl. 1, figs. 10, 10a.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 46; pl. 10, fig. 61 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 99.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 158.-  H. B. Baker, 1941: 60.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Orizaba; Córdoba, 2625-3125 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) oblonga (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Spiraxis oblonga Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London,: 378.

Streptostyla oblonga (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 57.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 100.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 159.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) plicatula Strebel, 1977

 

Streptostyla plicatula Strebel, 1877: 16; pl. 8, fig. 2.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 47; pl. 10, fig. 70.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 98.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 157.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Atoyac, 1300-1415 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) thomsoni Ancey, 1888

 

Streptostyla thomsoni Ancey, 1886; Ann. de Malac.: 257.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 98.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 156 (not figured).-  Haas & Solem, 1960; Nautilus, 73: 130.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Utilla Island, Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BELIZE, Cayo Dist.: Rio Frio Cave, 2 mi. from Augustine (Haas & Solem, 1960; Nautilus, 73: 130).  HONDURAS: type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) valerioi Rehder 1942

 

Streptostyla valerioi Rehder 1942; Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 32: 351-352; fig. 17 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cervantes, Cartago Prov., Costa Rica; 1480 m alt.  Holotype USNM 536020.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Cartago Prov.: Navarro.  San Jose Prov.: Tablazo, 1800 m alt.; La Verbina, 1000 m alt. (Rehder, 1942).

 

 

*Streptostyla (Streptostyla) ventricosula (Morelet, 1849)

 

Glandina ventricosula Morelet, 1849; Test Noviss., I: 15.

Streptostyla ventricosula (Morelet).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 97; pl. 5, fig. 20 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 153; pl. 30, figs. 87, 89 (shell).-  Bequaert & Clench, 1933; Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash., (431): 529.-  Branson & McCoy, 1963; Nautilus, 76: 103).-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 235-238; text-figs, B, D, E, G (anatomy).

Streptostyla yucatanensis Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 153; pl. 30, figs. 90-91 (shell).-  Bequaert & Clench, 1933; Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash., (431): 529.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.

Streptostyla yucatanensis var. distorta Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 154; pl. 30, fig. 92 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Glandina ventricosula: environs of Merida, Yucatan.  Streptostyla yucatanensis: Tekanto, Yucatan.  Streptostyla yucatanensis var. distorta: Tekanto, Yucatan.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CAMPECHE: many localities (Thompson, 1967).  QUINTANA ROO.  YUCATAN: 19.1 mi. SSE of Uman; 0.8 mi. NE of Becanchén (Thompson, 1967).  Von Martens (1901: 615) reports this species from COSTA RICA.

 

 

SHELL APLECTIFORM

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) boyeriana Crosse & Fischer, 1869

 

Streptostyla boyeriana Crosse & Fischer, 1869, Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 32.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 46; pl. 1, figs. 5, 9, 9a (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 48; pl. 10, fig. 67.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 102.

 

   TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) dysoni (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Achatina dysoni Pfeiffer, 1846; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 32.

Streptostyla dysoni (Pfeiffer).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 48; pl. 11, fig. 75 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 102.-  Pilsbry, 1907, Man. Conch., 19: 159.-  Haas & Solem, 1960; Nautilus, 73: 130.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BELIZE, Cayo Dist.: Rio Frio Cave, 2 mi. from Augustine (Haas & Solem, 1960; Nautilus, 73: 130).  HONDURAS.  NICARAGUA, Dept. Chontales: Castillo Fort (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) jacobsoni Pilsbry, 1951

 

Streptostyla jacobsoni Pilsbry, 1951; Nautilus, 64: 120; pl. 9, fig. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Km 636, on the road between Santa Inez and Llera, Nuevo León [Tamaulipas, see Jacobson, 1952: 112].  Holotype ANSP 187058.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  TAMAULIPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

*Streptostyla (Streptostyla) meridana meridana (Morelet, 1849)

 

Glandina meridana Morelet, 1849; Test Noviss., I: 15.

Streptostyla meridana (Morelet).  Fischer & Crosse, 1890: 32.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 103; pl. 5, figs. 25, 26 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 154-155; pl. 30, figs. 93-96 (shell).-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 238-240; text-figs. 1h, 1i (reproductive anatomy), text-figs. 2a-2d (shell).

Streptostyla Streptostyla maslini Branson & McCoy, 1962; Nautilus, 76: 8; pl. 2, figs. 1, 2b (shell).

Streptostyla toltecorum Branson & McCoy, 1962; Nautilus, 76: 8-9; pl. 2, figs. 2, 2b.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Glandina meridana: Merida, Yucatan.  Streptostyla maslini: 19 miles east of Merida, Yucatan; holotype UMMZ 210557.  Streptostyla toltecorum: 3 miles east of Campeche, Campeche; holotype UMMZ 210558.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CAMPECHE: numerous localities (Thompson, 1967).  QUINTANA ROO: 7.1 mi. NNW of Xiatil.  YUCATAN: 7.0 mi. SSE of Uan; 1.0 mi. SSE of Puerto Telchac; 0.8 mi. NE of Becanchén; 30 mi. S of Uxmal; 19 mi. E of Merida (Branson & McCoy, 1962).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) meridana cobanensis (Tristram, 1861)

 

Spiraxis cobanensis Tristram, 1861; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 231.

Streptostyla cobanensis (Tristram).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 52.- Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 101.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 155; pl. 30, fig. 82 (shell).-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Ms., 11: 240.

Streptostyla cornea Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 33.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 51; pl. 1, figs. 13, 13a (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Spiraxis cobanensis: Cobán, [Dept. Alta Verapaz], Guatemala.  Streptostyla cornea: Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Sololá.: San Agustin; Hacinda Helvetia, upper Rio Cholhuitz, 3000 ft. alt. (Von Martens, 1891).  TABASCO: 0.5-1.0 mi. E of Teapa (Thompson, 1957).  Von Martens (1901: 616) reports this species from Costa Rica.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) propinqua Thompson, 1963

 

Streptostyla propinqua Thompson, 1963; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 76: 22; pl. 2, figs. 1-3.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Hacienda Monte Cristo, Metapan, Santa Ana Province, El Salvador; 2200 m alt.  Holotype UMMZ 195760.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  EL SALVADOR: known only from the type locality.

 

 

*Streptostyla (Streptostyla) sololensis Crosse & Fischer, 1869

 

Streptostyla sololensis Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 33.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 16-20, 53; pl. 1, figs. 12, 12a (shell); pl. 4, figs. 1-5 (anatomy).-  Strebel, 1877: 6.-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 46; pl. 10, fig. 65 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 101; pl. 5, figs. 22, 23 (shell).-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus. 34: 51.-  Haas, 1949; Nautilus, 62: 137.

 

TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mountains of Sololá, Dept. Sololá, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Chama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Chimultenango: Ruins of Iximche (Von Martens, 1892); W slope of the Volcano Acatenango (Haas, 1949).  Dept. Sapatepequez: Finca San Rafael (Haas, 1949). Von Martens (1901: 616) reports this species from Costa Rica.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) vexans Strebel, 1877

 

Streptostyla vexans Strebel, 1877: 28; pl. 9, fig. 7 (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 49; pl. 11, fig. 96 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 102.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 60.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Jalapa; Córdoba, 2625-3000 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1941).

 

 

SHELL SUBTURRITE

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) mohriana (Pfeiffer, 1862)

 

Spiraxis mohriana Pfeiffer, 1862; Malak. Blätt., 9: 97.

Streptostyla mohriana (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 65.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 102.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 160 (not figured).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cerro Borrego, near Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) pilsbryi Richards, 1937

 

Streptostyla pilsbryi Richards, 1937; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 77: 252; pl. 4, fig. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Near the ruins of San Gerbaio, Cuzumel Island, Quintana Roo.  Holotype ANSP 167748.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  QUINTANA ROO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) sargi sargi Crosse & Fischer, 1869

 

Streptostyla sargi Crosse & Fischer, 1875; Jour. de Conchyl., 23: 225..-  Strebel, 1877: 27; pl. 9, fig. 1 (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 49; pl. 11, figs. 78, 79 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 102.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 51.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cobán, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Chama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Baja Verapaz: Senahu, 2800 ft. alt. (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) sargi championi Von Martens, 1901

 

Streptostyla sargi var. championi Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 617; pl. 44, fig. 4.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 159; pl. 29, fig. 85.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sabo, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Streptostyla) sargi pallidior Crosse & Fischer, 1876

 

Streptostyla sargi var. pallidior Crosse & Fischer, 1876; Jour. de Conchyl, 24: 381; pl. 11, figs. 1b, 1c (shell).-  Fischer & Crosse, 1897: 662; pl. 71, figs. 2, 2a.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 617.-   Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 159; pl. 29, fig. 84 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cobán, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Subgenus Chersomitra Von Martens, 1860

 

Chersomitra Von Martens, 1860; in Albers, Die Heliceen: 33.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 145.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Glandina nigricans Pfeiffer, 1845.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  From central Veracruz south to Guatemala.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Six species are assigned to the subgenus Chersomitra.

 

 

Streptostyla (Chersomitra) chiapensis Pilsbry, 1909

 

Streptostyla limnaeiformis var. parvula Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 100; pl. 5, fig. 24 (shell) (not Spirixis [Streptostyla] parvula Pfeiffer, 1856.)

Streptostyla limnaeiformis chiapensis Pilsbry, 1909; Man. Conch., 20: 111.-  Bequaert, 1957: 217.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: Laguna Ocotal, 950 m alt. (Bequaert, 1957).

 

 

*Streptostyla (Chersomitra) limneiformis (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Spiraxis (Streptostyla) limneiformis Shuttleworth, 1852; Mit. NatrFLMNH. Ges. Bern, 1852: 206. 

Streptostyla limneiformis (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 39.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 159.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 100.

Streptostyla lymneiformis (Shuttleworth).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 49; pl. 11, fig. 77.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 5; pl. 1, figs. 5 (reproductive system), 6 (radula).-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 234.-  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions to Natural History, 1: 34; pl. 11, fig. 4.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Cordova [Cordobá], Veracruz: syntypes: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18839 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Córdoba; Sumidero (H. B. Baker, 1941)

 

 

Streptostyla (Chersomitra) lurida (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Spiraxis (Streptostyla) lurida Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 205.

Streptostyla (Chersomitra) lurida (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 48; pl. 2, figs. 6-6b (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 45; pl. 10, fig. 59 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 96.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 150.-  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions in Natural History, 1: 34; pl. 11, fig. 8 (shell).

Streptostyla bocourti Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 34.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 47; pl. 1, figs. 14, 14a (shell).-  Strebel, 1877: 24; pl. 8, figs. 1-1b (shell).-  Haas, 1949; Nautilus, 62: 137.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Spiraxis lurida: Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz; syntypes: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18838/2 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).  Streptostyla bocourti: Cobán, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.—  VERACRUZ: Córdoba; Pacho; Orizaba.  TABASCO: San Juan Bautista.  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán (Von Martens, 1891).  Dept. Sacatepequez: Finca San Rafael (Haas, 1949).  Von Martens (1901) reports this species from COSTA RICA.

 

 

Streptostyla (Chersomitra) mitraeformis (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Spiraxis (Streptostyla) mitraeformis Shuttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naurf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 205. 

Streptostyla mitraeformis (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 62; pl. 1, figs. 16, 16a (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 45; pl. 10, fig. 57 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 90-91.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 614. 

Streptostyla mitraeformis var. minor Strebel, 1877: 25; pl. 9, fig. 5 (shell).

Streptostyla (Chersomitra) mitraeformis (Shuttleworth).  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions in Natural History, 1: 36-37; pl. 11, fig. 9.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.—  Spiraxis mitraeformis: Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz; syntypes: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18840/3. Streptostyla mitraeformis minor: Cobán, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.—  TABASCO (Von Martens, 1891).  VERACRUZ: Córdoba; Toxpam, nr. Córdoba (Von Martens, 1891). GUATEMALA, Dept. Petén: Lago de Petén.  Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán (Von Martens, 1891).  Von Martens (1901: 614) reports this species from Costa Rica.

 

 

*Streptostyla (Chersomitra) nigricans (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Glandina nigricans Pfeiffer, 1845; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 75.

Streptostyla nigricans (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 60; pl. 1, figs. 15, 15a (live animal).-  Strebel, 1877: 24; pl. 9, figs. 3, 3a; pl. 12, fig. 11 (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 45; pl. 10, fig. 56 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1891: 90.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 50.

Streptostyla (Chersomitra) nigricans (Pfeiffer).  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 234-235; text-figs. 1A (salivary glands), 1C (reproductive system), 1F (kidney).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Vera Cruz”.  Von Martens (1891) suggests that this is in error for Vera Paz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: 3.5 mi. S of Rayón, 5500 ft. alt. (Thompson, 1967).  TABASCO: 0.5-1 mi. E of Teapa (Thompson, 1957).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cobán (Von Martens, 1892); Chejel, 2000 ft. alt. (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Petén: Lago de Petén (Von Martens, 1892)

 

 

*Streptostyla (Chersomitra) physodes (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Spiraxis (Streptostyla) physodes Shutttleworth, 1852; Mitt. Naurf. Ges. Bern, 1852: 207.

Streptostyla physodes (Shuttleworth).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 54.-  Strebel, 1877: 6, 22; pl. 7, fig. 1 (radula, shell); pl. 22, fig. 2 (animal).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 49; pl. 11, fig. 80 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 99.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 4-5; pl. 1, fig. 4 (reproductive system).-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 234.-  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions to Natural History, 1: 43; pl. 11, fig. 5.

Spiraxis auriculacea Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 320.

Streptostyla auriculacea (Pfeiffer).   Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 55-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 49; pl. 11, fig. 82 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Spiraxis physodes: Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz; syntypes: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18841/3 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).  Spiraxis auriculacea: Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  VERACRUZ: Córdoba; nr. Córdoba (H. B. Baker, 1941); Pacho, nr. Jalapa; Mirador; Huatusco (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

Subgenus Eustreptostyla H. B. Baker, 1927

 

Eustreptostyla H. B. Baker, 1927; Nautilus, 41: 21.-  H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 53.-  Zilch, 1959; Handb. Palaoz., 6 (2): 456.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.- Streptostyla nicoleti (Shuttleworth, 1852). 

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Northeastern Mexico from Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosí south to Central Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Five species and two subspecies are recognized.  The shell of Eustreptostyla is characterized by having a strongly twisted columella and having strong growth threads below the suture. The type species is large with a thick, solid shell about 30-40 mm high.

 

 

 

*Streptostyla (Eustreptostyla) nicoleti nicoleti (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Spiraxis (Streptostyla) nicoleti Shuttleworth, 1852: 204 (Diagnos. no. 2, p. 24).

Spiraxis nicoleti, Pfeiffer, 1853; Monogr. Helic. Viv., 3: 477.

Achatina nicoleti, Pfeiffer, in Martini & Chemnitz, Syst. Conch.-Cab., ed. 2, Achatina, no. 47: 325; pl. 26, figs. 18, 19.

Streptostyla nicoleti,  Fischer and Crosse, 1870: 23.-  Strebel, 1875: 6, 12-14, 49;  pl. 3 (anatomy); pl. 6, fig. 1 (radula);  pl. 22, figs. 3, 3a-3d (living animal).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 43; pl. 11, fig. 93.-  Von Martens, 1891: 85.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 5; pl. 1, fig. 9 (anatomy).-  Zilch, 1959: 457, fig. 1621.-  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contrib. Nat. Hist., 1: 39; pl. 11, fig. 2.

 

TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz; syntypes: Naturhistorische Museum Bern 18842/2 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003).

 

DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Coatepéc; Jalapa (Von Martens, 1892); Misantla; San Isidro (Strebel, 1875); Sumidero (H. B. Baker, 1943).

 

 

*Streptostyla (Eustreptostyla) nicoleti atypica H. B. Baker, 1941

 

Streptostyla nicoleti form A Strebel, 1877: 13; pl. 3, figs. 1-10 (anatomy); pl. 6, fig. 1 (radula); pl. 7, fig. 2 (shell).

Streptostyla nicoleti atypica H. B. Baker, 1941; Nautilus, 55: 55-56.-  H. B. Baker, 1943; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 95: 6.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Rio Necaxa gorge, Puebla, Mexico; 2625 ft. alt.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: type locality.  VERACRUZ: San Juan Miahuatlán (Strebel, 1877).

 

 

 

Streptostyla (Eustreptostyla) nicoleti subovata Von Martens, 1891

 

Streptostyla nicoleti var. subovata Von Martens, 1891: 85.

Streptostyla nicoleti (Shuttleworth).  Fischer and Crosse, 1870: 23; pl. 1, figs. 2, 2a (shell).

Streptostyla nicoleti (Shuttleworth) form B.  Strebel, 1875: 14; pl. 7, figs. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Toxpam, near Cordova [Córdoba], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Orizaba (Strebel, 1875).

 

 

 

Streptostyla (Eustreptostyla) bartschi Dall, 1908

 

Streptostyla bartschi Dall, 1908; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 35: 178-179; pl. 29, fig. 1 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Guttierez & Reza, 1998; Acta Zool. Mex., (73): 16.-  Correa-Sandoval, 2000; Acta Zool. Mex., 79: 9.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tamaulipas.  Holotype USNM 19800.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: 6 km. SW of Xilitla, 830 m alt. (21°23’10” N 99°03’56” W); Cueva El Salitre, 450 m alt. (21°22’55” N, 98°57’53” W); Cueva “El Salitre”, Xilitla (21°22’55” N, 98°57’53” W); Las Pozas, Xilitla (21°24’08” N, 98°59’44” W); Xilitla (21°22’55” N, 98°59’44” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998). VERACRUZ: Rancho Altos y Bajos, 2 km NW of Barra de Cazones (20°45’24” N, 97°15’00” W) (Correa-Sandoval, 2000).

 

 

Streptostyla (Eustreptostyla) jilitlana Dall, 1908

 

Streptostyla jilitlana Dall, 1908; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 35: 179-180; pl. 29, fig. 8 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998; Acta Zol. Mex., (73): 16.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Jilitla {Xilitla], San Luis Potosí.  Holotype USNM 107821.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: km 140, E of Platanito, 1320 m alt. (22°28’02” N, 99°28’25” W); Cueva El Salitre, 450 m alt. (21°22’55” N, 98°57’53” W); Las Pozas (Xilitla), west side of arroyo, 540 m alt. (21°23’39” N, 98°59’44” W); Las Pozas, 520 m alt. (21°24’08” N, 98°59’44” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).

 

 

Streptostyla (Eustreptostyla) toyuca Dall, 1908

 

Streptostyla toyuca Dall, 1908; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 35: 179; pl. 29, fig. 6 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Metlal Toyuca, Puebla.  Holotype USNM 107822.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Eustreptostyla) supracostata Pilsbry, 1910

 

Streptostyla supracostata Pilsbry, 1909; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61: 544-545; text-fig. 4 (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, Guttierez & Reza, 1998; Acta Zool. Mex., (730: 16.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  At a cave near San Dieguito, San Luis Potosí.  Lectotype ANSP 99031a (H. B. Baker, 1963: 219).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUIS POTOSÍ: a canyon below Las Canoas; El Ambra (Pilsbry, 1909); 6 km SW of Xilitla, 830 m alt. (21°23’10” N 99°03’56” W); Cueva El Salitre, 450 m alt. (21°22’ 55” N, 98°57’53” W); Las Pozas (arroyo), 520 m alt. (21°24’08” N, 98°59’44” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al. 1998).

 

 

 

Subgenus Peténiella Pilsbry, 1907

 

Peténia Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. Conchyl., 17: 35.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 66.  (Not Peténia Günther, 1862, Pisces).

Peténiella Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 161.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Glandina ligulata Morelet, 1849.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Guatemala, Chiapas and Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized.

 

 

Streptostyla (Peténiella) catenata (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Spiraxis catenata Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 378.

Streptostyla catenata (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 63.-  Strebel, 1877:  27; pl. 12, fig. 5 (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 251; pl. 11, fig. 81 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: not known from a definite locality.

 

 

Streptostyla (Peténiella) ligulata (Morelet, 1849)

 

Glandina ligulata Morelet, 1849; Test Noviss., I: 12.-  Morelet, 1852: 257; pl. 10, fig. 3 (shell).

Peténia ligulata (Morelet).  Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 3: 35.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1870: 66-68; pl. 1, figs. 17-17a (shell).

Streptostyla ligulata (Morelet).  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 50; pl. 11, fig. 87.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 102.

Streptostyla (Peténiella) ligulata (Morelet).  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 161.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 40.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Woods of Petén and Palenque”.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Izabal: Livingston (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Petén.  CHIAPAS: Palenque.   VERACRUZ: Ojo de Agua, nr. Córdoba (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

Subfamily SPIRAXINAE H. B. Baker, 1939

 

Spiraxinae H. B. Baker, 1939; Nautilus, 53: 9.

 

  TYPE GENUS.-  Spiraxis C. B. Adams, 1850.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.- Spiraxis is confined to the West Indies.  The subgenera Spiraxis s. s., Repressaxis H. B. Baker, 1939, Dignaxis H. B. Baker, 1939 and Euspiraxis Pfeiffer, 1854 are known from Jamaica and Hispaniola.  The subgenus Ravenia Crosse, 1873 is confined to Los Roques.  All mainland species are referred to different genera.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Five genera and seventy-five species of Spiraxinae are recognized in the study area.

 

Traditionally Spiraxis has been used as an all-inclusive genus for species of the Spiraxinae because of the difficulty of assigning species to different genera on the basis of shell morphology. H. B. Baker (1939b) discusses the anatomy of the subfamily. He emphasizes that subgenera and sections he recognized should more properly be ranked as genera and subgenera on the basis of anatomical differentiation. This ranking was followed by Zilch (1960) and is adapted here. The large number of species assigned to Volutaxis and Pseudosubulina remains arbitrary in many cases because of the lack of anatomical information.

 

 

Genus Mayaxis Thompson, 1995

 

Mayaxis Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 79-81. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Myaxis leei Thompson, 1995.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Chiapas and Tabasco, Guatemala and northern Honduras.

 

  TAXONOMY.- Nine species are placed in the genus.  Previously, three species, Myaxis cilindrella, M. porrecta and M. stolli were classified as Subulina. They are now placed in Myaxis on the basis of shell morphology and for biogeographic reasons

 

 

Mayaxis chiapensis (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Achatina chiapensis Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 379.

Subulina chiapensis (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1877: 637; pl. 26, figs 2-2b (shell).

Pseudosubulina chiapensis (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1882: 119; pl. 7, fig. 17 (shell).-  Tryon, 1885; Man. Conch., 1: 50; pl. 9, fig. 36.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 303.-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 3.

Mayaxis chiapensis (Pfeiffer).  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 82.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: known from the type locality.  A record of this species from Guatemala is questioned by Von Martens (1898: 303).

 

 

Mayaxis cylindrella (Morelet, 1851)

 

Achatina cylindrella Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 12.

Subulina cylindrella (Morelet).  Fischer & Crosse, 1878: 634; pl. 25, fig. 13.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 300.-  Pilsbry, 1906; Man. Conch., 18: 226-27; pl. 39, figs. 26, 27.-  Haas, 1949; Nautilus, 62: 136, 138.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Woods of Petén, near San Luis, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Chimaltenango: Finca Panajabal; Yabocapa.  Dept. Esquintla: Zapote (Haas, 1949).

 

 

Mayaxis fortis (Von Martens, 1898)

 

Pseudosubulina fortis Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 304; pl. 17, fig. 17.-   Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 5; pl. 5, fig. 19.

Myaxis fortis (Von Martens).  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 82.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Restricted to El Reposo, western Guatemala, 800 ft. alt. (Thompson, 1995).

 

  DISTRIBUTION records.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Esquintla: Miramar.  Dept. Jutiapa: Zapote.  Dept. Quetzaltenango: Mercedes.  Dept. Retalhuleu: nr. San Francisco (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

Mayaxis leei Thompson, 1995

 

Myaxis leei Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 84; figs. 51 (reproductive system), 52 (penis), 53 (radula), 54-56 (shell).

 

 TYPE LOCALITY.- Cerro Santa Barbara, Finca Las Quebradas, 3 km W of  Nueva Esperanza, Dept. Santa Barbara, Honduras; 1280 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 193387.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Mayaxis lirifera (Morelet, 1851)

 

Achatina lirifera Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 12.

Subulina lirifera (Morelet).  Crosse and Fischer, 1878: 633; pl. 25, fig. 12.

Pseudosubulina lirifera (Morelet).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 304-305; pl. 17, fig. 20 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1907; Man. Conch., 19: 2-3; pl. 5, figs. 14-17 (shell).

Myaxis lirifera (Morelet).  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 83.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Woods of Petén, near San Luís, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Petén: type locality.  Dept. Izabal: Livingston (Von Martens, 1898).

 

 

Mayaxis martensiana (Pilsbry, 1920)

 

Pseudosubulina martensiana Pilsbry, 1920; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 71: 214; pl. 11, fig. 3.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 44.

Myaxis martensiana (Pilsbry).  Thompson, 1995; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39: 82.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mountains west of Livingston, Dept. Izabal, Guatemala.