INDEX | VETIGASTROPODA | PULMONTA (LYMNAEOIDEA-PUPILLOIDEA) | PULMONATA (ORTHALICOIDEA) |
PULMONATA (ACHATINOIDEA-SAGDOIDEA) | PULMONATA (GASTRODONTOIDEA-HELICOIDEA) | BIBLIOGRAPHY


PART 5: PULMONATA (GASTRODONTOIDEA-HELICOIDEA)

 

Superfamily GASTRODONTOIDEA Tryon, 1866

 

Family EUCONULIDAE H. B. Baker, 1928

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Palearctic realm, southeast Asia, Pacific islands, North, Central and South America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Numerous genera are recognized (Zilch, 1959: 271-282).  Thirty (30) species of Helicarionidae, subfamily Euconulinae are recognized in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

 

Genus Euconulus Reinhardt, 1883

 

Euconulus Reinhardt, 1883; Beitrage zur Landeskunde Oesterreichs, 9: 94.-   Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 234-235.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix fulvus Müller, 1774.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Holarctic realm in general, Hawaii, and Tahiti.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Six subgenera are recognized.  Only one occurs in the study area.

 

 

 

Subgenus Euconulus Reinhardt, 1883

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Holarctic realm in general.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Numerous species.  A single species occurs in the study area.

 

 

 

Euconulus fulvus (Müller, 1774)

 

Helix fulva Müller, 1774; Hist. Vermium, 2: 56.

Euconulus fulvus (Müller).  Pilsbry, 1908; Nautilus, 22: 25.-  Pilsbry, 1926; Nautilus, 40: 68.-  Baker, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 9-11; pl. 1, fig. 6 (pallial organs), figs. 7-8 (reproductive anatomy).-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 235-238; fig. 116a (radula), fig. 116b, 116c (reproductive anatomy), fig. 116d (pallial organs); figs. 117a-d (shell).-  Bequaert & Miller, 1973: 143-144.-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 129.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Fredrichsdal, Denmark.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Almost throughout the Holarctic realm (Pilsbry, 1946).  The species barely enters Mexico along its northern border with California.  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: Sierra San Pedro Mártir, 2700-2800 m alt. (Smith, et al, 1990).  CHIHUAHUA: NW part of state (Bequaert & Miller, 1973).  SONORA: ESE part of Sierra Alamos, Arroyo Las Piedras (26°59’37”N, 108°56’36”W) (Naranjo-Garcia, 1991).

 

 

Genus Habroconus Fischer & Crosse, 1872

 

Habroconus Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 154.-  Baker, 1928c: Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 11.-  Zilch, 1959: 279, 280.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix selenkai Pfeiffer, 1866.

 

  DISTRIBUTTION.-  South America, the West Indies and Central America north to Mexico.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Five subgenera are recognized.  All occur in the study area

 

 

Subgenus Habroconus Fischer & Crosse, 1872.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.- Northern South America, Central America, Mexico and the West Indies.

 

  TAXONOMY.- Five species and one subspecies occur in the study area.

 

 

Habroconus (Habroconus) championi (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Guppya championi Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 119; pl. 6, figs. 16, 16a-c (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 619.-  van der Schalie, 1940; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (413): 4.

Habroconus championi (Von Martens).  Pérez & López, 2002: 173-174.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Purula [Purulha], towards the head of the Polochíc valley, Dept. Baja Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.  COSTA RICA, Prov. Cartago: Hacienda El Roble, between Irazu and Turrialba.  Prov. San José: environs of San José (Von Martens, 1892); San Cristobal; Tarbaca; 1500-1800 m alt. (Von Martens, 1901).  NICARAGUA, Dept. Leon (Pérez & López, 2002).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Panzamala (van der Schalie, 1940). Dept. Baja Verapaz: Purulja.  Dept. Huehuetenango: Cholhuitz (Von Martens, 1892). 

 

 

Habroconus (Habroconus)costaricanus costaricanus (Pilsbry, 1920)

 

Guppya costaricana Pilsbry, 1920; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 72: 4; text-fig. 2 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Alajuela, Alajuela Prov., Costa Rica; 3200 ft alt.  Holotype ANSP 105285.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Habroconus (Habroconus)costaricanus elatior (Pilsbry, 1920)

 

Guppya costaricana elatior Pilsbry, 1920; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, 72: 5; text-fig. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Brook near the Rio Reventazón, Juan Viñas, Costa Rica; 2500 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 105276.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Habroconus (Habroconus) elegans Strebel, 1880

 

Habroconus elegans Strebel, 1880: 24; pl. 4; figs. 1b, 1c (shell).

Stenopus elegans (Strebel).  Pilsbry, 1891; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 43: 312.

Guppya elegans (Strebel).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 120.-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 768.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Woods of Pacho, near Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Baja Verapaz: Salama (Von Martens, 1892).  VERACRUZ: Orizaba (Pilsbry, 1891).

 

 

Habroconus (Habroconus)selenkai (Pfeiffer, 1866)

 

Zonites selenkai Pfeiffer, 1866; Malak. Blätt, 12: 77.

Zonites (Habroconus) selenkai (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 171; pl. 7, figs. 9, 9a-b (shell).

Habroconus selenkae (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1880: 28; pl. 4, figs. 1, 1a (shell); pl. 9, fig. 9 (radula).-  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 24; pl. 7, figs. 12, 13 (shell).-  Pérez & López, 2002: 175-176.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mirador, Veracruz (Baker, 1930a: 24).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: various localities in the Pacific versant (Pérez & López, 2002).  PUEBLA: below Necaxa Falls, 2215-2625 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).  VERACRUZ: Jalapa; Hacienda Mirador, near Jalapa; Agua Caliente, near Misantla (Strebel, 1880); Atoyac, 1300-1475 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).

 

 

Habroconus (Habroconus) trochulinus (Morelet, 1851)

 

Helix trochulina Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 10.

Zonites (Habroconus) trochulinus (Morelet).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 172.

Guppya trochulina (Morelet).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 120; pl. 6, figs. 17, 17a-d (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 619.-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 768.

Guppya (Habroconus) trochulina (Morelet).  Baker, 1922; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (106): 47-48; pl. 17, fig. 4 (radula), fig. 5 (jaw).

Habroconus (Habroconus) trochulinus (Morelet).  Baker, 1928c; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 13-14; pl. 2, figs. 4, 5 (reproductive anatomy).-  Baker, 1930: Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 22-23; pl. 7, figs. 10, 11 (shell).-  Bequaert, 1957; Bull. Mus. Comparative Zoology, 116: 219-220.-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 12. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Woods of Petén, near San Luis, Dept. Petén, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Venezuela north to Veracruz and Puebla (Baker, 1930).  COSTA RICA, Prov. Alajuela: San Cristobal; La Palma (Von Martens, 1901).  Prov. Limon: Puerto Viejo; between Mokri and Ukatschka, Alta Talamanca (Von Martens, 1901).  Prov. San José: environs of San José, near the streamlet Atajueleta, 1135 m alt. (Von Martens, 1892); San Francisco de Guadalupe. Prov. Puntarenas: El Pital, valley of the Rio Naranjo, 200 m alt.; Quebrada de Java, in the valley of the Rio Brus, 900 m alt. (Von Martens, 1901).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Petén: San Luis (Von Martens, 1892); Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).  CHIAPAS: Selva Lacandona, Laguna Ocotal to El Censo, 700-1000 m alt.; El Real, 600 m. alt. (Bequaert, 1957).  MICHOACAN: Patzcuaro; Morelia (Pilsbry, 1904).  PUEBLA: Necaxa, 2625-4925 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).  VERACRUZ: Texolo (Pilsbry, 1904); Coatotolapam; Lago de Catamaco (Baker, 1922); Peñuela to Sumidero, 2625-3400 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).

 

 

Subgenus Cocosconus Baker, 1941

 

Cocosconus Baker, 1941; Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, (166): 223.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Guppya hopkinsi Dall, 1900.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Cocos Island, Costa Rica.  Holotype USNM 108524.

 

  TAXONOMY.-   A single species is recognized.

 

 

 

Habroconus (Cocosconus) hopkinsi (Dall, 1900)

 

Guppya hopkinsi Dall, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 52: 97; pl. 8, figs. 5-7 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 52: 105; text-fig. (reproductive anatomy).

Guppya pacifica (Pfeiffer).  Ancey, 1903; Jour. de Conchyl., 51: 101.

Habroconus (Cocosconus) hoptkinsi (Dall, 1900).  Baker, 1941; Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, (166): 225; pl. 44, fig. 5 (radula), fig. 6 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cocos Island.   

 

  DSRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from Cocos Island.

 

 

 

 

Subgenus Cocoslens Baker, 1941

 

Cocoslens Baker, 1941; Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, (166): 223.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Habroconus (Cocoslens) pallius Baker, 1941.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Cocos Island, Costa Rica.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized.

 

 

 

Habroconus (Cocoslens) pallidaus Baker, 1941

 

Habroconus (Cocoslens) pallidaus Baker, 1941; Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, (166): 224-225; pl. 60, figs. 10-12 (shell); pl. 444, fig. 3 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 4 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Wafer Bay, Cocos Island.  Holotype ANSP 170394.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Subgenus Ernstia Jousseaume, 1889

 

Ernstia Jousseaume, 1889;  Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 2: 232-258.-  Baker, 1928; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 12.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Ernstia ernsti Jousseaume, 1889.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Northern South America and Central America north to Mexico.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species occur in the study area.  Others occur in South America.

 

 

 

Habroconus (Ernstia) elegantulus (Pilsbry, 1919)

 

Guppya elegantula Pilsbry, 1919; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 71: 215; text-fig. 4.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 39, 48, 51.

Euconulus elegantulus (Pilsbry).  Baker, 1922; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 106: 49-50; pl. 17, fig. 6 (radula).

Habroconus (Ernstia) elegantulus (Pilsbry).  Baker, 1928c; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 13-13; pl. 1, fig. 9 (penis).-  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 22.-  Haas, 1949; Nautilus, 62: 137, 138.-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 12.-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998: 14.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Canyon and falls below Valles, San Luis Potosi.  Holotype in the ANSP.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Cama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Chimaltenango:  Finca Montserrat; Yepocapa (Haas, 1949).  Dept. Escuintla: Zapote (Haas, 1949).  Dept. Izabal: Jocolo; Maya Farms, Quirigua (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).  Dept. Sacatepequez: Finca San Rafael (Haas, 1949).  JALISCO: Guadalajara (Pilsbry, 1919).  MICHOACAN: Uruapan (Pilsbry, 1919).  MORELOS: Yautepec Pilsbry, 1919).  NUEVO LEON: Diente, nr. Monterrey (Pilsbry, 1919).  PUEBLA: Necaxa, 2215-5550 ft. alt. (Baker, 1928, 1930).  SAN LUIS POTOSI:  Valles; numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  TAMAULIPAS: canyon 4 mi. W of Ciudad Victoria, 3000 ft. alt. (Pilsbry, 1919).  VERACRUZ: Orizaba (Pilsbry, 1919); Coatotolapam (Baker, 1922).  Atoyac to Sumidero, 1300-3400 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).

 

 

 

Habroconus (Ernstia) zeteki Pilsbry, 1930

 

Habroconus (Ernstia) zeteki Pilsbry, 1930d; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 350-351; pl. 29, figs. 5, 6 (shell).-  Morrison, 1946; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 106: 42

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Ruins of Old Panama City, Panama.  Holotype ANSP 151367.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- PANAMA, Pearl Islands: San José Island (Morrison, 1964).  Prov. Panama: Old Panama City.

 

 

 

Subgenus Pseudoguppya Baker, 1925.

 

Pseudoguppya Baker, 1925; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (156): 10.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix cassiquiensis  Pfeiffer, 1853.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Northern South America and Central America.

 

  TAXONOMY.- Five species occur in the study area.  Others occur in northern South America.

 

 

 

Habroconus (Pseudoguppya) browni (Pilsbry, 1910)

 

Guppya browni Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 62: 509; text-fig. 6 (shell).

Euconulus (Pseudoguppya) browni (Pilsbry).  Baker, 1925a: 11.-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 100.

Habroconus browni (Pilsbry).  Pilsbry, 1930d; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 351.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Between Tabernillo and San Pablo, Canal Zone, Panama.  Holotype ANSP 101319.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Habroconus (Pseudoguppya) calverti (Pilsbry, 1920)

 

Guppya calverti Pilsbry, 1920; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 72: 3; text-fig. 1 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Stream near the railroad west of Juan Viñas, Costa Rica; 330 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 105266.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Habroconus (Pseudoguppya) pacificus (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Helix pacifica Pfeiffer, 1846; Symbolae, 3: 66. 

Patula (Trochomorpha) pacifica (Pfeiffer).  Tryon, 1887; Man. Conch., 3: 78; pl. 14, fig. 28.

Guppya hopkinsi conulus Von Martens, 1902; Sitz. Ges. Naturf. Berlin: 59.

Guppya fultoni Gude, 1903; Proceedings Malacological Society, 5: 265; pl. 7, figs. 18-20 (shell).

Habroconus (Pseudoguppya) pacifica (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1941; Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, (166): 226; pl. 60, fig. 13 (shell); pl. 44, fig. 7 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cocos Island, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRBUTION RECORDS.  COSTA RICA: known only from Cocos island.

 

 

 

 

Habroconus (Pseudoguppya) pittieri (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Guppya pittieri Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 121; pl. 6, figs. 18, 18a-d (shell).

Euconulus (?) pittieri (Von Martens).  Baker, 1922; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (106): 48-49.

Habroconus pittieri (Von Martens).  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. St. Mus., 11: 243.

Euconulus pittieri (Von Martens).  Pérez & López, 2002: 167-169.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San Francisco de los Rios, near San José; 1100 m alt., Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. San José: San Francisco de los Rios; Urraca, near San José, 1135 m alt. (Von Martens, 1892).  NICARAGUA: numerous localities along the Pacific versant (Pérez & López, 2002).  CAMPECHE: 5.1 mi. NNW of Dzilbachen; 8.1 mi. SW of Champoton; 7.1 mi. S of Pixtun; 19.2 mi. E of Silvituc (Thompson, 1967).  QUINTANA ROO: 4.0 mi. E of Xpujil, Campeche; 7.1 mi. NNW Xiatil (Thompson, 1967).  VERACRUZ: Catamaco (Baker, 1922).  YUCATAN: 0.8 mi. NE of Becanchen (Thompson, 1967).

 

 

 

Habroconus (Pseudoguppya) utillensis (Ancey, 1886)

 

Conulus utillensis Ancey, 1866; Ann. de Malac., 2: 238 (not figured).

Guppya utillensis (Ancey).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 122.

 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Utila Island, Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Guppya Mörch, 1867

 

  TYPE SPECIES.- Helix vaccus Mõrch (error for Conulus vacan Guppy, 1866, in part) = Helix gundlachi Pfeiffer, 1840 (see Baker, 1925: 7-8).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Central America, Mexico, southern United States, West Indies.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Numerous species are placed in Guppya, but the generic allocations of many are doubtful because anatomical characteristics of only a few are known.  Thirteen species are recognized in the study area.

 

 

Guppya angasi Von Martens, 1892

 

Stenopus guildingi Angas, 1879; PZS: 484; pl. 40, fig. 14 (shell). (not Stenopus guildingi Bland, 1865).

Guppya angasi Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 120 (substitute name for Stenopus guildingi Angas).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 619.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Costa Rica.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: between Mokri and Ukatschka, Alta Talamanca (Von Martens, 1901).  Prov. Puntarenas: Quebrada de Java, 900 m alt.; Cañas Gordas (Von Martens, 1901).

 

 

Guppya biolleyi Von Martens, 1892

 

Guppya biolleyi Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 121; pl. 6, figs. 19, 19a-d (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 620.-  Fluck, 1905; Nautilus, 19: 78.-  Baker, 1928c; Pro. Cad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 7-8; pl. 1, fig. 1 (pallial organs), fig. 2 (posterior foot), figs. 3, 4 (reproductive anatomy).-  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 220: 21.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Hacienda Helvetia, Costa Cuca, Guatemala (Baker, 1930).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Sarapiqui (Von Martens, 1901).  Prov. San José: La Urraca; San Francisco de Los Rios (Von Martens, 1892).  NICARAGUA: Rama Key, Bluefields Lagoon (Fluck, 1905).  GUATEMALA: Hacienda Helvetia, Costa Cuca (Von Martens, 1892).  PUEBLA: Necaxa, 2625-5500 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).

 

 

 

Guppya capsula Dall, 1926

 

Guppya capsula Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4) 15: 479-480 (not figured).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  North slope of Mount Evermann, Socorro Island, Nayarit; 2000-2800 ft. alt.  Holotype CAS 2202. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Guppya fulvoidea (Morelet, 1851)

 

Helix fulvoidea Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 9.

Zonites (Hyalinia) fulvoidea (Morelet).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 177.

Guppya gundlachi (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 122 (in part).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Isla de Carmen, at the head of the Laguna de Terminos, Campeche.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CAMPECHE:  Recorded only from the type locality.

 

 

Guppya gundlachi gundlachi  (Pfeiffer, 1840)

 

Helix pusilla Pfeiffer, 1839; Archiv für Naturg., 1: 351 (not Helix pusilla Lowe, 1833).

Helix gundlachi Pfeiffer, 1840; Archiv für Naturg., 1: 250 (substitute name for Helix pusilla Pfeiffer).

Guppya gundlachi  (Pfeiffer).  Tate, 1870; American Journal of Conchology, 5: 155.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 122-123.-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 768.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 39, 48, 51.-  Baker, 1922; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (106): 45; pl. 17, fig. 1 (jaw), fig. 3 (radula).-  Pilsbry, 1926a; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 100.-  Pilsbry, 1930d; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 351.-  Richards, 1938; 172.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 244-245; fig. 120a (shell).-  Basch, 1958: 11.-  Thompson, 1967c: 243.-  Correa-Sandoval, 1999: 8.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 170-172.

Helix simulans C. B. Adams, 1849; Contributions to Conchology, 2: 35.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix pusilla: Cuba. Helix simulans: Jamaica. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- Florida and Texas south to Panama, Venezuela and Trinidad, and the West Indies.  PANAMA: Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island; Juan Mina (Pilsbry, 1926a); Mt. Hope (Pilsbry, 1930d).  Prov. Panama; Panama City (Pilsbry, 1926a); ruins of Old Panama City (Pilsbry, 1930d).  NICARAGUA: numerous localities along the Pacific versant (Pérez & López, 2002).  Dept. Chontales (Tate, 1870).  Dept. Rio San Juan (Tate, 1870).  HONDURAS: Roatan Island, between Coxen Hole and French Harbor (Richards, 1938).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Chama (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Izabal: Cavech; Esmeralda; Jocolo (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1958).  CAMPECHE: 8.1 mi. SW of Champoton (Thompson, 1967).  TAMAULIPAS: nr. Ciudad Victoria; canyon 4 mi. W of Ciudad Victoria (Pilebry, 1904).  QUINTANA ROO: 4.0 mi. E of Xpujil, Campeche; 1.5 km. NNE of San Miguel, Cozumel Island (Thompson, 1967).  TAMAULIPAS: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).  VERACRUZ: Coatotolapam (Baker, 1922); Naranjo (21º20’00” N, 97º42’16” W); El Cedral, road from Poza Rica to Tajin (20º29’11” N, 97º25’23” W) (Correa-Sandoval, 1999).  

 

 

 

Guppya gundlachi orosciana Von Martens, 1892

 

Guppya orosciana Von Martens, 1892; 123; pl.6, figs. 20, 20a-d (shell).

Guppya gundlachi orosciana Von Martens.  Baker, 1928c; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 8-9; pl. 1, fig. 5 (reproductive anatomy.-  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 23.-  Basch, 1959; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (612): 12.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Calera de San Ramon, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: type locality.  GUATEMALA; Dept. Alta Verapaz: Coban (Von Martens, 1892).  Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).  PUEBLA; Necaxa (Baker, 1928).  VERACRUZ: Cordoba; Sumidera, 2625-3400 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).

 

 

 

Guppya jalisco Pilsbry, 1919

 

Guppya jalisco Pilsbry, 1919; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 71: 216; pl. 11, fig. 6 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Guadalajara, Jalisco.  Holotype ANSP 44830.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: Guadalajara.

 

 

Guppya micans (Angas, 1879)

 

Stenopus micans Angas, 1879; PZS: 485; pl. 40, fig. 15 (shell).

Guppya micas (Angas).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 121-122.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 620; pl. 44, fig. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Bruschik; Alta Tararia (Von Martens, 1901).

 

 

Guppya micra Pilsbry, 1904

 

Guppya micra Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 769; pl. 49, figs. 5, 5a, 5b (shell).-  Correa-Sandoval, 1999: 8.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Patzcuaro, Michoacan.  Lectotype ANSP 85913a (Baker, 1963: 236).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  MICHOACAN: Patzcuaro (Pilsbry, 1904).  TAMAULIPAS: canyon 4 mi. W of Cd. Victoria (Pilsbry, 1904).  VERACRUZ: Cazones (20º42’42” N, 97º11’32” W)(Correa-Sandoval, 1999).

 

 

 

Gyppya montanicola Dall, 1926

 

Gyppya montanicola Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 15: 479; pl. 35, figs. 10-11 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  North slope of Mount Evermann, Socorro Island, Nayarit; 2000-2800 ft. alt.  Holotype CAS 2201.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Guppya perforata Dall, 1926

 

Guppya perforata Dall, 1926; Proceedings California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 15: 478; pl. 36, figs. 12-13 (shell)

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-   Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands, Nayarit.  Holotype CAS 2198.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from Maria Madre Island, and from Maria Magdalena Island (Dall, 1926).

 

 

 

Guppya socorroana Dall, 1926

 

Guppya socorroana Dall, 1926; Proceedings California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 15: 478-479; pl. 35, figs. 14-15.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Socorro Island, 2000 ft alt.  Holotype CAS 2199.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: Socorro Island; Maria Magdalena Island (Dall, 1926).

 

 

Guppya spirulata (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Helix sirulata Pfeiffer, 1845; Monogr. Helic. Vivent., 1: 37.- 

Guppya (?) spirulata (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 123-124.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Realejo, Dept. Chinandega, Nicaragua.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Guppya sterkii punctum Baker, 1930

 

Guppya sterkii punctum Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 21-22; pl. 7, figs. 14, 15, 16 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Near Necaxa, Puebla; 2625 ft. alt.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

 

Genus Ovachlamys Habe, 1948

 

Ovachlamys, Habe, 1946; Venus, 14: 167.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.- Macroclamys fulgans Gude, 1900.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Japan.  Widely introduced throughout the tropical regions of the world.

 

  TAXONOMY.  Two species are recognized.  One is introduced into the study area.

 

 

Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900)

 

Macrochlamys fulgens Gude, 1900; Proc. Malacol. Soc. London, 4: 70-80.

Ovachlamys fulgens (Gude, 1900).-  Habe, 1946; Venus, 14: 167.-  Azuma, 1982;  Colored Illustrations Land Snails Japan (in Japanese): 177; pl. 27, fig. 328.-  Barrientos, 1998; Rev. Biol. Trop., 46: 369-384 (life history).-  Barrientos, 2000; Rev. Biol. Trop., 48; 71-87 (ecology, distribution).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Japan.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Japan.  Widely introduced in the tropical Pacific region and in the American tropics.  COSTA RICA:  Humid tropical zones throughout the country (Barrientos, 2000).

 

 

Genus Velifera W. G. Binney, 1879

 

Velifera W. G. Binney, 1879; Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1: 257.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Velifera gabbi W. G. Binney, 1879.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Costa Rica.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The genus is monotypic.

 

 

Velifera gabbi W. G. Binney, 1879

 

Velifera gabbi W. G. Binney, 1879; Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1: 257-258, pl. 11, figs A-D (living animal, shell and radula); Binney, 1881; ibid., 3: 86; pl. 2, fig. H (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Central Costa Rica, on the banks of the Rio Blanco, 3000 ft. alt.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Family GASTRODONTIDAE Tryon, 1866

 

This is a Nearctic subfamily consisting of six genera.  Two occur in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

Genus Striatura Morse, 1864

 

Striatura Morse, 1864; Journal of the Portland Society of Natural History, 1: 17.-  Baker, 1928c; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 33.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 487-488.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-Helix milium Morse, 1859.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  North America, Hawaiian Islands.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three subgenera are recognized.  One subgenus occurs in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

Subgenus Striatura Morse, 1864.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  North America south to Nicaragua.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species occur in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

 

Striatura (Striatura) meridionalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1906)

 

Vitrea milium meridionalis Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1906; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 58: 152.

Striatura (Pseudohyalina) meridionalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss).  Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220): 36-39; pl. 11, figs. 2, 4 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 5 (radula).

Striatura (Striatura) meridionalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss).  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 493-495; fig. 270 (shell); figs. 271a, 271b (reproductive anatomy), fig. 271c (radula). 

Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss).  Bequaert & Miller, 1973: 146.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 185-187.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Along the Guadalupe River above New Braunfels, Texas.  Holotype ANSP 90724.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA, Dept. Leon (Pérez & López, 2002).  CHIHUAHUA: Sierra de Breña, 7000 ft. alt. (Bequaert & Miller, 1973).  NUEVO LEON: Pablillo.  PUEBLA: Necaxa (Baker, 1930).  VERACRUZ: Cordoba (Pilsbry, 1946).

 

 

 

Striatura (Striatura) pugetensis (Dall, 1895)

 

Patulastra? pugetensis Dall, 1895; Nautilus, 8: 130.  Pilsbry, 1896; Nautilus, 9: 18.

Striatura milium pugetensis (Dall).  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 16: 169.

Striatura pugetensis (Dall).  Baker, 1930; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220); 38; pl. 11, fig. 3 (penis).-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 492-493; fig. 269 (shell).

Striatura (Pseudohyalis) pugetensis (Dall).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 129.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Seattle, Washington.  Holotype USNM 107541.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Found from British Columbia and Montana south to southern California and Baja California.  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: Isla Guadalupe, hills above Northeast Anchorage, 300 m alt.; 3.2 km N of S end of island on E side (Smith, et al, 1990).

 

 

 

Genus Zonitoides Lehmann, 1862

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix nitidus Müller, 1774.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Throughout most of the temperate Holarctic realm.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three subgenera are recognized.  One subgenus occurs in the study area.

 

 

 

Subgenus Zonitella Baker, 1828

 

 Zonitella Baker, 1828; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 33, 39-40.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 475, 480.

 

  TYPE SPECIIES.-  Helix arboreus Say, 1816.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  North America south to Costa Rica.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Seven species occur in the study area.  Aside from Zonitoides arboreas and Z. hoffmanni, the taxonomic status of the others remains to be determined.

 

 

Zonitoides (Zonitella) arboreus (Say, 1816)

 

Helix arboreus Say, 1816; [Nicholson’s] American Edit. British Encycl., 2: Conchology, sp. no. 2; pl. 4, fig. 4 (shell).

Hyalinia arborea (Say).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 116-117; pl. 6, figs. 13-13c (shell).

Zonitoides (Zonitella) arboreus (Say, 1816).  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 480-483; fig. 260: 7-8 (reproductive anatomy); fig. 261 (shell), fig. 262 (live animal).-  Haas, 1949; Nautilus, 62: 137, 138.-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez, & Reza, 1998: 14.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Probably Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Baker, 1930a).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Throughout North America south to Costa Rica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and the Lesser Antilles.  Introduced widely by its association with live plants.  GUATEMALA, Dept. Chimaltenango: Finca Montserrat (Haas, 1949).  Dept. Zacapa:  Santa Clara, N of Cabañas, Sierra de las Minas (Haas, 1949).  PUEBLA:  Necaxa (Baker, 1930a).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: km 48 on rd. from Cd. Valles-Agua Buena, 900 m alt. (21°52’55” N, 99°22’06” W); Las Pozas (arroyo) , 520 m alt. (21°24’08” N, 98°59’44” W); 0.3 km NE of Las Pozas, 600 m alt. (21°24’38” N, 99°00’15” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  VERACRUZ: Cordoba (Baker, 1930a).

 

 

 

Zonitoides (Zonitella) hoffmanni (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Hyalina hoffmanni Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 115, pl. 6, figs. 11, 11a, 11b. 11c (shell).

Zonitoides hoffmanni (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1920: 5.-  Baker, 1929; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 81: 255-256; pl. 8, fig. 8 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Quebrada Honda, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Cartago: Hacienda El Roble, between Volcan Irazu and Volcan Turrialba (Von Martens, 1892).  Prov. Limon: bank of the Rio Reventazon, Cachi, 3300 ft. alt. (Pilsbry, 1920).  Prov. San José: San José (Von Martens, 1892).  PANAMA, Canal Zone.  Prov. Chiriqui: Boquete (Pilsbry, 1926a).

 

 

 

Zonitoides (Zonitella) glomerulus (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Hyalinia glomerula Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 115; pl. 6, figs. 14–14c (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San Luis, Dept. Petén, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Zonitoides (Zonitella) multivolvis Pilsbry, 1926

 

Zonitoides  multivolvis Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 131; text-fig. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cahuita, Limon Prov., Costa Rica.  Holotype ANSP 140311.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Zonitoides (Zonitella) nitidopsis (Morelet, 1851)

 

Helix nitidopsis Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 8.

Zonites (Hyalinia) nitidopsis  (Morelet).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 178.

Hyalinia nitidopsis (Morelet).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 115; pl. 6, figs. 9-9c.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Salama, Dept. Baja Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Zonitoides (Zonitella) ostauri Pilsbry, 1926

 

Zonitoides ostauri Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 100-101; text-fig. 24 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Drift of San Juan Creek, Bocas del Torro Prov., Panama.  Holotype ANSP 140714.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Zonitoides (Zonitella) tehuantepecensis (Crosse & Fischer, 1870)

 

Zonites tehuantepecensis Crosse & Fischer, 1870; Jour. de Conchy., 18: 297.

Zonites (Hyalinia) tehuantepecensis Crosse & Fischer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 174; pl. 10, figs. 1, 1a (shell).

Hyalinia tehuantepecesis (Crosse & Fischer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 116.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tehuantepec, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Senahu (Von Martens, 1892).  OAXACA: Tehuantepec.

 

 

 


 

Superfamily ZONITOIDEA

 

Family ZONITIDAE Mörch, 1864

 

Subfamily ZONITINAE Mõrch, 1864

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  North America and Europe.

 

  TAXONOMY.- The subfamily contains many genera (Zilch, 1959: 242-258). Twenty-eight (28) species of Zonitidae are recognized in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

Genus Glyphyalinia Von Martens, 1892

 

Glyphyalinia Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 117.-  Baker, 1928; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 19.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 255, 288.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix indentata Say, 1822 (Pilsbry, 1946).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  North and Middle America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Seven species are recognized.  One species and two subspecies occur in the study area.

 

 

Glyphyalin1a indentata indentata (Say, 1822)

 

Helix indentata Say, 1822: 372.

Hyalinia (Glyphyalinia) indentata (Say).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 117.

Vitrea indentata  (Say).  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 768.

Retinella (Glyphyalinia)indentata (Say).  Baker, 1930b; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 82: 209-210.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 288-290; figs. 146 (shell); figs. 127 (6, 7) (reproductive anatomy), fig. 127 (8) (pallial organs).-  Correa-Sandoval, 1993; Rev. Biol. Trop., 41: 675.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 180-182.

Glyphyalinia indentata (Say).  Naranjo-Garcia, 1991: 168, 169.-   Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998: 41.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not specified.  Say gave localities in northern Philadelphia and New Jersey.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Generally distributed in the temperate part of the eastern United States.  NICARAGUA: Pacific versant of the country (Pérez & López, 2002).  MICHOACÁN: Uruapan (Pilsbry, 1904).  MORELOS: Yautepec (Pilsbry, 1891).  NAYARIT: Socorro Island; Clarion Island (Dall, 1926).  NUEVO LEON: Santiago (Correa-Sandoval, 1993).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: Río Gallinas, Ej. El Carpintero (21°54’08” N, 99°15’47” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  SONORA: numerous localities in the eastern part of the state (Naranjo-Garcia, 1991).

 

  REMARKS.-  Some Central American and Mexican records may pertain to the following subspecies.

 

 

 

Glyphyalinia indentata paucilirata (Morelet, 1849)

 

Helix paucilirata Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 8.

Zonites (Hyalinia) paucilirata (Morelet).   Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 173.-  Pilsbry, 1891; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 43: 312.

Hyalinia pauciliraa (Morelet).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 118; pl 6, figs. 12-12c (shell).

Retinella (Glyphyalinia) indentata paucilirata (Morelet).  Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220): 24.-  Baker, 1930b, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 210-211; pl. 11, fig. 6 (jaw), fig. 7 (radula), fig. 8 (reproductive anatomy).-   Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 291-292; figs. 146b (shell); fig. 139: 6-8 (same figures as in Baker).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 129.

Zonites indentatus var. umbilicatus Cocherell, 1893; British Nat., 3: 81.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix paucilirata: Salama, Dept. Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. Zonites indentatus var. umbilicatus: Lee Co., Texas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Widely distributed in the mid-west and central United states to Arizona, New Mexico and Texas south to Guatemala.   GUATEMALA, Dept. Alto Verapaz: Salama.  BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Sierra Laguna; Sierra de la Giganta, ca. 1.6 km from Pie de la Cuesta, along trail to Guajademi, 640-750 m alt.; 19 km SW of San Miguel Comondú; San Javier; along road from Valle Perdido to Bajada del Molino, 430 m alt.; summit of trail from La Burrera to La Laguna, 2100 m alt.; La Laguna, 1980 m alt. (Smith, et al, 1990).  FEDERAL DIST.: San Juan Teotihuacan, 7510 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930a).  PUEBLA: Necaxa, 4430-5000 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930a).  Pilsbry (1946) records this snail from DURANGO, JALISCO, MICHOACAN and MORELOS but does not provide specific localities.

 

 

 

Genus Nesovitrea Cooke, 1921

 

Nesovitrea Cooke, 1921; Occasional papers Bernice Bishop Museum, 7: 271.-  Baker, 1941;, Bulletin Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 166: 328.

Perpolita Baker, 1928c; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 15.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2:255, 256.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Types by original designations.  Nesovitrea: Vitrea pauxillus Gould, 1846.  Perpolita: Helix electrina Gould, 1841.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Palearctic realm and Hawaiian islands.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Many Palearctic, Nearctic and Hawaiian species.  One species with two subspecies occurs in Mexico.

 

 

 

Nesovitrea subhyalina subhyalina (Pfeiffer, 1867)

 

Helix subhyalina Pfeiffer, 1867; Malak. Blätter, 14: 196.

Hyalinia subhyalina (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1880: 18; pl. 4, fig. 14 (shell).

Zonites (Hyalinia) subhyalina (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872; 172.-  Pilsbry, 1891; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 43: 312.

Hyalinia subhyalina (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 117.

R[etinella] (Perpolita) subhyalina subhyalina (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 220: 28.-  Baker, 1930b; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 199; pl. 9, fig. 13 (radula).

Retinella (Nesovitrea) subhyalina (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1941; Bulletin Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 166: 329.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Uncertain; Mirador or near Vera Cruz, Veracruz (Strebel & Pfeffer, 1880).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA:  Necaxa, 4265-5000 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).  VERACRUZ: Orizaba (Baker, 1930).

 

 

 

Nesovitrea subhyalina socorroensis (Dall, 1926)

 

Zonitoides socorroensis Dall, 1926; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., (4) 15: 484; pl .36, figs. 9-11.

Retinella ((Perpolita) subhyalina socorroensis (Dall).  Baker, 1930b; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 200.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Mount Evermann, Socorro Island, Nayarit; 2000-2600  ft. alt.  Holotype CAS 2206.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARIT: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Genus Hawaiia Gude, 1911

 

Hawaiia Gude, 1911; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 9: 272.-  Baker, 1930a; Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 34-35.-  Pilsbry, 1930b; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 247.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 418-420.

Pseudovitrea Baker, 1928c; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 24-25.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Hawaiia: Helix kawaiensis Pfeiffer, 1854 (Helix minuscule Binney, 1840) (see Pilsbry, 1930b: 247).  Pseudovitrea: Helix minuscule Binney, 1840.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  North America from Alaska and Maine to Florida and south to Costa Rica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The genus contains two or more species and several subspecies.  Two species occur in the study area.

 

 

Hawaiia minuscula minuscula (Binney, 1840)

 

Helix minuscule Binney, 1840; Boston Journal of Natural History, 3: 435.

Chanomphalus minusculus (Binney).  Strebel, 1880:19.

Pseudohyalina minuscule (Binney).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 124-125.

Zonitoides minusculus (Binney).  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 768.-  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 39.

Pseudovitrea minuscule (Binney, 1840).  Baker, 1928c; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 25-27; pl. 5, figs. 1, 3, 4 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 2 (radula).

Hawaiia minuscula (Binney, 1840).  Bequaert & Clench, 1938; Pub. Canegie Inst. Wash., (491): 253, 254.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 420-424; figs. 228a (lectotype shell), figs. 227a, 227c, 227d (reproductive anatomy), fig. 227 b (radula).-  Bequaert & Miller, 1973: 145.-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998: 14.-  Correa-Sandoval, 1999: 8.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 183-184.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Ohio.  Lectotype ANSP (Pilsbry, 1946: 421).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Widely distributed as for the genus. NICARAGUA: Pacific versant of the country (Pérez & López,, 2002)  GUATEMALA; Dept. Izabal: Izabal; Quirigua (Hinkley, 1920).  Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).  CAMPECHE: Isla de Carmen; Palizada (Von Martens, 1892).  CHIAPAS: Palenque.  CHIHUAHUA, SONORA and BAJA CALIFORNIA (Bequaert & Miller, 1973).  NUEVO LEON: Topo Chico, nr. Monterrey (Pilsbry, 1904).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: numerous localities in eastern part of state (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  SONORA: ca. 4.2 mi. from Cerro de Oro (29°38.9’ N, 110°36.6’ W) (Naranjo-Garcia, 1991).  TAMAULIPAS: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).  YUCATAN: Sazich Cave, Calcehtok (Bequaert & Clench, 1938).  VERACRUZ: Rancho El Sol, Naranjos (21°20’00” N, 97° 43’16” W); 1 km E of Poza Rica (20°49’11” N, 97°30’00” W); Ruinas El Tajín (20°26’29” N, 97°22’30” W) (Correa-Sandoval, 1999). 

 

 

 

Hawaiia minuscula neomexicana (Cockerell & Pilsbry, 1900)

 

Zonitoides neomexicans Cocherell & Pilsbry, 1900; Nautilus, 13: 114.

Pseudovitrea minuscule neomexicana (Cockerell & Pilsbry).  Baker, 1929; PROC. ACAD. NAT. SCI. PHILA., 81: 262; pl. 10, figs. 7-9 (anatomy).

Hawaiia minuscula neomexicana (Cockerell & Pilsbry).  Baker, 1930; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 35.-  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 424-425; figs. 7-9 (shell).

Punctum pygmaeum var. albeolum Dall, 1926; Proceedings California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 15: 481-482.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Zonitoides neomexicanus: Dripping Spring, Organ Mountains, Texas.  Punctum pygmaeum var. albeolum: Maria Magdalena Island, Tres Marias Islands, Nayarit.  Holotype CAS 2203.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Texas and New Mexico south to Nayarit and Puebla; Colombia.  NAYARIT:  Maria Magdalena Island; Mt. Evermann, Maria Madre Island, 2000-2800 ft. alt. (Dall, 1926).  PUEBLA: Necaxa (Baker, 1930).  COLOMBIA: Old Providence Island (Pilsbry, 1930).

 

 

 

Hawaiia minuscula permodesta (Strebel, 1880)

 

Hyalinia permodesta Strebel, 1880: 19; pl. 4, fig. 9 (shell).

Pseudovitrea minuscula permodesta (Strebel).  Baker, 1929; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 81: 262-263; pl. 10, figs. 10-12 (shell).

? Hawaiia minuscula permodesta (Strebel, 1880).  Pilsbry, 1946; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 423-424; figs. 228b; figs. 229 (10-12).

Hawaiia minuscule subsp. Thompson, 1967c: 243; fig. 3 D-F (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mirador, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CAMPECHE: 8.1 mi. SW of Champoton; 7.2 mi. SW of Pixtun (Thompson, 1967).  VERACRUZ: Mirador.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The identification of specimens from various regions of the study area is problematic.  Thompson (1967) could not assign specimens from Campeche to subspecies; and Smith, et al, hesitated to assign specimens from Baja California Sur to species.

 

 

Hawaiia pentagyra (Pilsbry, 1907)

 

Zonitoides pentagyra Pilsbry, 1907; Nautilus, 21: 28; pl. 3, figs. 6, 7, 8 (shell).-  Hinkley, 1907; Nautilus, 21:

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  River drift, Tampico, Tamaulipas.  Holotype ANSP 93796.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  TAMAULIPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Mesomphix Rafinesque, 1819

 

Mesomphix Rafinesque, 1819; Jour. de Physique, 88: 125.-  Pilsbry, 1911; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 63: 478.-  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (22): 24.-  Pilsbry, 1946, Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 305, 319.

Omphix Pilsbry, 1911; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 63: 479.

Micromphix Pilsbry, 1911; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 63: 479.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Mesomphix: Helix laevigatus Rafinesque, 1819 (= Mesomphix perlaevis vulgatus Baker, 1933; not Helix laevigatus Linnaeus, 1766.  Omphix: Helix inornatus Say, 1821.  Micromphix: Helix subplasus Binney, 1842.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern North America from Ontario and Quebec to Guatemala, in regions of moderate or high humidity (Pilsbry, 1946).

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Four subgenera are recognized.  Three occur in the study area.

 

 

Subgenus Mesomphix Rafinesque, 1819

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  This is an Appalachian group primarily, with some species extending outward from the mountains into adjacent  regions.  The subgenus Mesomphix does not occur in the study area.

 

 

Subgenus Omphalina Rafinesque, 1831

 

Omphalina Rafinesque, 1931; Enumeration and account …: 3.-  Pilsbry, 1894; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 46: 14.-  Pilsbry, 1911; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 63: 469-470.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 104.-  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 26.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Omphalina cuprea Rafinesque.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern North America from Quebec south to Guatemala.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Omphalina includes nine species, five of which occur in Mexico and Central America.

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubratus lucubratus (Say, 1829)

 

Helix lucubrate Say, 1829; New Harmony Disseminator, II: 229.

Hyalina lucubrate (Say).  Tryon, 1866; Man. Conch., 2: 247; pl. 18, fig. 14 (shell). 

Omphalina lucubrate (Say).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 106-107; pl. 6, figs. 1, 1a, 1b, 2, 2a, 2b, 3, 5 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 767.

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubrate lucubrata (Say).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 27.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mexico.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA.  VERACRUZ: Las Vigas; Cordoba (Von Martens, 1892), Texolo (Pilsbry, 1904).

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubratus caducus (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Helix caduca Pfeiffer, 1846; Malak. Blätter, 3: 159.

Zonites caducus Binney & Bland; land and freshwater shells of North America, 1: 286; fig. 513 (shell).-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 163; pl. 7, figs. 3, 3a (shell); pl. 8, figs. 13-16 (radula).

Moreletia caduca (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1880: 6; pl. 1, figs. 1b, 7a, 7b, 7c (shell); pl. 8, figs. 1 (anatomy), figs. 9, 9a (shell); pl. 9, figs. 1 (radula), fig. 17 (jaw).

Omphalina caduca (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 108.

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubratus caducus (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 26-28.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordoba, Veracruz (Baker, 1930: 27).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Quilate, nr. Misantla; Soncoautla, nr. Coatepec; San Antonia Huatusco; Cerro de Palmas, nr. Cordoba; Cordoba; Orizaba; Mirador; Jalapa (Von Martens, 1892); Peñuela to Sumidero, 2625-3400 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubratus deppianus (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Omphalina lucubrata deppiana Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 107; pl. 6, figs. 4, 4a, 4b (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Orizaba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubratus fasciatus (Fischer & Crosse, 1872)

 

Zonites (Moreletia) caducus var. β fasciata Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 163; pl. 7, fig. 3b (shell).

Moreletia angiomphala Strebel, 1880: 8, 92; pl. 1, figs. 2a-f, 3a-c, 7a-b, 8 a-d (shell); pl. 8, figs. 2, 3 (anatomy), figs. 8, 8a (shell); pl. 9, figs. 2-4 (radula), fig. 16 (jaw).

Omphalina lucubrate fasciata (Fischer & Crosse).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 107.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Zonites fasciata: Jacale, nr. the Volcán de Orizaba.  Moreletia angiomphala: not specified.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Cajetas; San Antonia del Monte, nr. Neolingo; Cuautlatitlan, between Jico and Perote; Ixhuacan, between Jalapa and Quimistla; Coatepec, nr. jalapa (Strebel, 1880); Jalapa; Jacale; Mirador (Von Martens, 1892).

 

  REMARKS.-  Baker (1930, 2) stated that angiostomus might be a distinct species.

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubratus olivarius (Fischer & Crosse, 1872)

 

Zonites (Moreletia) lucubratus olivaria Fischer & Crosse, 1972: 161; pl. 7, figs. 4, 4a (shell).

Omphalina lucubrata olivaria (Fischer & Crosse).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 107-108.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tepanasacualco, Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubratus strebelianus (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Moreletia fuliginosa form B.  Strebel, 1880: 6; pl. 8, figs. 7, 7a (shell).

Omphalina caduca strebeliana Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 108.

Mesomphix (Omphalina) lucubratus strebelianus (Von Martens).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 28.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Near Misantla, Veracruz (Baker, 1930: 28).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: Necaxa (Baker, 1930). VERACRUZ: Quilate; Hirial; Palpoala; Misantla; Cajetes, nr. San Juan Miahuatlan, between Jalapa and Misantla (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) martensianus (Pilsbry, 1903)

 

Omphalina martensiana Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 766-767; pl. 48, figs. 7, 7a, 7b (shell); text-fig. (radula).

Mesomphix (Omphalina) martensianus (Pilsbry).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 28.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Huehuetenango, Guatemala. Holotype ANSP 85521.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Huehuetenango: Huehuetenango.

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) paradensis (Pfeiffer, 1860)

 

Helix paradensis Pfeiffer, 1860; Malak. Blätter, 7: 233.

Zonites (Moreletia) paradensis (Pfeiffer). Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 158; pl. 7, figs. 7, 7a (shell).

Moreletia paradensis (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1880: 10; pl. 1, fig. 6 (shell); pl. 2, figs. 4, 7 (shell).

Moreletia dohrnii Strebel, 1880: 93; pl. 15, figs. 1 (radula and anatomy).

Mesomphix (Omphalina) paradensis (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 28.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Helix paradensis: Parada, Oaxaca.  Moreletia dohrnii: not specified.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: Parada.  VERACRUZ: Cajetes, nr. San Juan Miahuatlan; Consolapa, nr. Coatepec; Coautlatitlan (Strebel, 1880).

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) pittieri (Bartsch, 1909)

 

Omphalina pittieri Bartsch, 1909: 322; pl. 33, figs. 2, 7, 8 (shell)

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  In the vicinity of Secanquim, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.  Holotype USNM 207783.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Mesomphix (Omphalina) zonites (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Helix zonites Pfeiffer, 1845; PZS: 127.

Zonites (Moreletia) metonomasticus Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 157; pl. 7, fig. 2a, 2(?).

Moreletia metonomastica (Fischer & Crosse).  Strebel, 1880: 5.

Omphalina (Moreletia) zonites (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 106.

Mesomphix (Omphalina) zonites (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 28.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix zonites: not stated.  Zonites metonomasticus: Tuxtla [Gutierrez], Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: Tuxtla Gutierrez. 

 

 

 

Subgenus Moreletia Gray, 1855

 

Moreletia Gray, 1855; Catalogue of the pulmonata or air breathing Mollusca in the collection of the British Museum: 148.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix euryomphala Pfeiffer, 1845.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Guatemala.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The subgenus includes a single species.

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Moreletia) euryomphala (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Helix euryomphala Pfeiffer, 1845.

Zonites (Moreletia) euryomphala (Pfeiffer).  Gray, 1855; Catalogue of the Pulmonata or air-breathing Mollusca in the collection of the British Museum: 148.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 155; pl. 7, figs 1, 1a, 1b; pl. 8, figs. 1-9 (anatomy).

Moreletia euryomphala (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1875; PZS: 648.-  Strebel, 1880: 5.

Mesomphix euryomphala (Pfeiffer). van der Schalie, 1940: 4.

Omphalina (Moreletia) euryomphala (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 106.

Helix cymbalum Morelet, 1849; Test Noviss., I: 7.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix euryomphala: Coban, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.  Helix cymbalum: mountain forests of Vera Paz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: mountains of Alta Verapaz; Coban (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

 

Subgenus Zonyalina Von Martens, 1865

 

Zonyalina Von Martens, 1865; Malak. Blätter, 12: 16.-  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 29.-  Zilch, 1959: 242.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-   Helix bilineata Pfeiffer, 1845.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Mexico

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three species are recognized.

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Zonyalina) bilineatus (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Helix bilineata Pfeiffer, 145; PZS: 128.

Hyaline (Zonyalina) bilineata (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, Malak. Blätter, 12: 16.

Zonites (Moreletia) bilineatus (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 167.

Zonyalina bilineatus (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1880: 11; pl. 2, figs. 3, 12, 14 (shell); pl. 8, figs. 4 (anatomy); pl. 9, figs. 5, 6 (radula); fig. 19 (jaw).

Omphalina bilineata (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 109; pl. 6, fig. 6 (variety apicalis).-  Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 707.-  Bequaert, 1957; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 116: 220.

Zonites (Zonyalina) bilineatus (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1891; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 43: 312. 

Mesomphix (Zonalina) bilineatus (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220): 26, 28-30; pl. 9, fig. 2 (radula), figs. 3, 4 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not stated.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIAPAS: Laguna Ocatal, 950 m alt. (Bequaert, 1957).  VERACRUZ: Cordoba; Mirador; Misantla; Jalapa; Pacho, nr. Jalapa; Cuautlatitlan; Orizaba (Von Martens, 1892); Cordoba to Sumidero, 2625-3400 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).

 

 

Mesomphix (Zonyalina) modestus (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Zonites (Moreletia) bilineatus form β Strebel, 1880: 13; pl. 2, fig. 14a.

Omphalina modesta Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 110-111; pl. 6, figs. 7, 7a, 7b (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 617.

Mesomphix (Zonyalina) modestus (Strebel).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 29.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Jalapa; Las Vigas, NW of Jalapa; Nacimiento de Quilate, nr. Misantla (Von Martens, 1892).  COSTA RICA, San José Prov.: La Palma, 1600 m alt.; La Paz, 750 m alt.

 

  REMARKS.-  Von Martens (1901: 617) records this species from Costa Rica, on the basis of a report by Biolley, 1897; Moluscos terrestres y fluviatiles de Costa Rica: 7.  These records need to be confirmed.

 

 

 

Mesomphix (Zonyalina) tuxtlensis  (Crosse & Fischer)

 

Zonites tuxtlaensis Crosse & Fischer, 1870; Jour. de Conchyl., 18: 237.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 166; pl. 7, figs. 6, 6a (shell).

Omphalina tuxtlensis (Crosse & Fischer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 110.

Mesomphix (Zonyalina) tuxtlensis  (Crosse & Fischer).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 29.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tuxtla [San Andres Tuxtla ?], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Genus Patulopsis Strebel, 1880

 

Patulopsis Strebel, 1880: 16.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Patulopsis carinata Strebel, 1880.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Mexico in the states of Veracruz and Puebla.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two subgenera are recognized.

 

 

 

Subgenus Patulopsis Strebel, 1880

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Mexico from the states of Puebla and Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized.

 

 

 

Patulopsis (Patulopsis) carinatus Strebel, 1880

 

Patulopsis carinatus Strebel. 1880: 16; pl. 4, figs. 15, 15a, 15b (shell); pl. 8, fig. 6 (anatomy); pl. 9, fig. 8 (radula), fig. 20 (jaw).

Omphalina (Patulopsis) carinata (Strebel).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 113.-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 708.

Mesomphix (Patulopsis) carinatus (Strebel).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220); 33-34; pl. 10, figs. 5, 6 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Woods of Pacho, nr. Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- VERACRUZ: Jalapa; Pacho, nr. Jalapa; Coatepec (Von Martens, 1892).  PUEBLA: above Necaxa, 4700-5500 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).

 

 

 

Subgenus Omphalinella Baker, 1930

 

Omphalinella Baker, 1930; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220): 26, 29.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Helix veracruzensis Pfeiffer, 1956.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico from the states of Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Puebla, Veracruz and Guerrero.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Four species and two subspecies are assigned to this subgenus.

 

 

 

Patulopsis (Omphalinella) montereyensis montereyensis (Pilsbry, 1899)

 

Omphalina montereyensis Pilsbry, 1899; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51: 395.-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 767-768; pl. 48, figs. 6, 6a, 6b (shell).

Mesompix (Omphalinella) montereyensis montereyensis (Pilsbry).  Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220): 31.

Mesomophix montereyensis (Pilsbry).  Correa-Sandoval, 1993; Rev. Biol. Trop., 41: 675.-  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Diente, near Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.  Holotype ANSP 77110.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEON: Diente; Santiago (Correa-Sandoval, 1993).  TAMAULIPAS:  numerous localities in W part of state (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).

 

 

Patulopsis (Omphalinella) montereyensis victorianus (Pilsbry, 1903)

 

Omphalina montereyensis victoriana Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 798; pl. 48, figs. 5, 5a, 5b (shell).

Mesomphix (Omphalinella) montereyensis victorianus (Pilsbry).  Baker, 1930a, (220): 31.-  Solem, 1954; Nautilus, 68: 7.-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998: 14.- Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 236.

 

 TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cañon 4 miles west of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas.   Holotype ANSP 85912a. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUIS POTOSI; Cd. del Maíz-El Naranjo, km 35 (22°30’00” N, 99°22’06” W) (Correa-Sandoval, et al, 1998).  TAMAULIPAS: Ranch del Cielo, 7 km N of Gomez Farias; 20 km N of Chamal (Solem, 1954); numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).

 

 

Patulopsis (Omphalinella) salleana (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Zonites veracruzensis Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 159; pl. 7, figs. 8a, 8b (shell) (not Helix veracruzensis Pfeiffer, 1856).

Omphalina salleana Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 112. (Substitute name for Zonites veracruzensis Fischer & Crosse, 1872).

Mesomphix (Omphilinella) salleana (Von Martens).  Baker, 1930a; Occ. pa. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220): 31.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordoba, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Patulopsis (Omphalinella) sculptus (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Omphalina sculpta Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 113; pl. 6, figs. 10, 10a, 10b (shell).

Mesomphix (Omphalinella) sculptus (Von Martens).  Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220): 31.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Omilteme, Guerrero.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUERRERO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Patulopis (Omphalinella) verecruzensis veracruzensis (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Helix veracruzensis Pfeiffer, 1956; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 318.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 111; pl. 6, figs. 8, 8a, 8b (shell).

Mesomphix (Omphalinella) verecruzensis veracruzensis (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 31-32; pl. 10, figs. 1, 3 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 2 (pallial organs), fig. 4 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordova [Cordoba], Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Cordoba; Atoyac to Sumidero, 1300-3400 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930)

 

 

 

Patulopsis (Omphalinella) veracruzensis jalapensis (Strebel, 1880)

 

Zonyalina jalapensis Strebel, 1880: 15; pl. 2, figs. 11, 11a (shell); pl. 8, fig. 5 (anatomy); pl. 9, fig. 7 (radula), fig. 19 (jaw).

Omphalina veracruzensis jalapensis (Strebel).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 111.

Mesomphix (Omphalinella) veracruzensis jalapensis (Strebel). Baker, 1930a; Occasional papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 31.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Coban.  VERACRUZ: Jalapa; environs of Jalapa; Pacho; Consolapa; Soneautla; Coatepec; Dos Arroyos, between Jalapa and Naolingo (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

 

Genus Pycnogyra Strebel, 1880

 

 Pycnogyra Strebel, 1880: 20.-  Baker, 1928; Proc. Acad. Nat. Si. Phila., 80: 27.-  Zilch, 1959: 240.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.- Helix berendti Pfeiffer, 1861.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Mexico from the states of Veracruz and Puebla.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The genus is monotypic.

 

 

 

Pycnogyra berendti (Pfeiffer, 1861)

 

Helix berendti Pfeiffer, 1861; Malak. Blätter, 8: 72.

Pycnogyra berendti (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1880: 20; pl. 4, fig. 5 (shell); pl. 9, fig. 12 (radula).-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 768.-  Baker, 1928; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 27-29; pl. 5, figs. 5, 7, 10 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 6 (pallial organs), fig. 8 (jaw), fig. 9 (radula).-  Zilch, 1959: 240; fig. 846 (shell).

Pseudohyalina berendti (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 126.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Hacienda Mirador, near Jalapa, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Mirador; Coatepec; Consolapa; Dos Arroyos (Von Martens, 1892); Texolo (Pilsbry, 1904).  PUEBLA: Necaxa (Baker, 1928).

 

 

 

Superfamily LIMACOIDEA

 

Family LIMACIDAE Lamarck, 1801

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Western Palearctic region.  A single genus, Deroceras, occurs naturally in North America.  Three genera have been introduced widely through human agency.

 

 

Genus Limax Linnaeus, 1758

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Limax maximus Linnaeus, 1758.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Europe, adjacent Asia and Africa.  Introduced widely in temperate and tropical areas of the world.

 

  TAXONOMY.- Numerous species, two of which have been introduced into the study area.

 

 

Limax maximus Linnaeus, 1758

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sweden.

 

  DISTRIBUTIO RECORDS.- Europe, Asia Minor and Algeria.  MWXICO: Guajimalpa to El Desierto de Leones, 8525-9850 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1930a).

 

 

Limax flavus Linnaeus, 1758

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Western Europe.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: Huachinango, 4300 ft. alt. (H. B, Baker, 1930)4580ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1930a).

 

 

Genus Deroceras Refineque, 1920

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Limax laevis Müller, 1774.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Entire Palearctic region and  both North America and South America.  Widely disseminated by human activities.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Over 70 species have been described, but fewer than half are recognizably descried.   Three occurs in the study area.  Two are of doubtful validity.

 

 

 

 

Deroceras cobanensis (Crosse & Fischer, 1872)

 

Limax cobanensis Crosse & Fischer, 1872; Jour. de Conchyl., 20: 159.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 349.

Deroceras cobanenesis (Crosse & Fischer).  H. B. Baker, 1930; Occasional Papers Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, (220): 42.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Coban, Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.- GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The taxonomic status of this species is questionable (H. B. Baker, 1930a).

 

 

Deroceras costaricensis (Cockerell, 1890)

 

Agriolimax californicus subsp. costaricensis Cockerell, 1890; Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 6: 278-279.

Agriolimax costaricesnsis Cockerell.  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 345.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The taxonomic status of this species requires further study.

 

 

Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774)

 

Limax laevis Müller, 1774; Verm. Terr. et Fluv., II: 1.

Limax (Hyrolimax) laevis Müller.  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 347-349.

Deroceras laeve (Müller).  H. B. Baker, 1930; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich, (320): 41-45; ; pl. 11, figs. 1 (radula), 6 (penis), 7 (terminal genitalia).-  Pilsbry, 1948; Land moll. N. Amer., 2: 539-552; figs. 280-291.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 164-165.

 

  TYPE LOALITY.-  Denmark

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  North America generally, from the Arctic to Central America.  The southern limit is not determined.  Von Martens (1898) gives the following records.  COSTA RICA, Prov. San Jose: Borubeta, on the Rio Uren.  NIARAGUA, Dept. Chontales: Javali, in Chontales.  Dept. Managua: (Pérez & López, 2002).  Dept. León (Pérez & López, 2002).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Coban.  Dept. Guatemala: Guatemala City.  Dept. Sacatepequez: Antigua.  Dept. Totonicapan: Plateau of Totonicapan.  VERACRUZ: Jalapa

 

  TAXONOMY.-  H. B. Baker (1930a) lists the following names from the study area as probable synonyms of Deroceras laeva.

 

     Limax gracilis Rafinesque, 1820.

     Limax campestris Binney, 1841.

     Limax semitectus Möch, 1857.

     Krynichia americana tata, 1870.

     Limax guatemalensis Crosse & Fischer, 1870.

     Limax stenuras Strebel & Pfeffer, 1880.

     Limax jalapensis Strebel & Pfeffer, 1880.

     Limax berendti Strebel & Pfeffer, 1880.

     Adriolimax motaguensis Cockerell, 1914.

     Agriolimax berendti var. pictus Cockerell, 1897.

 

 

 

Genus Milax Gray, 1855

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Limax gagatus Draparnaud.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Europe, particularly in the Mediterranian region.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  About 20 species are recognized.  A single species has been introduced into the study area.

 

 

 

Milax gagatus (Draparnaud, 1801)

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not stated.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Reported for Mexico from a limited area, but can be expected to have been introduced widely in Mexico and elsewhere.  MEXICO: Desierto de Los Leones, 9850 ft. alt. (H. B. Baker, 1930a).

 

 

Superfamily ARIONOIDEA

 

Family BINNEYIDAE cOCKERELL, 1891

 

Subfamily BINNEYINAE Cockerell, 1891

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Pacific coastal region of North America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two genera are recognized.  One occurs in Baja California Norte.

 

 

Genus Binneya Cooper, 1863

 

Binneya Cooper, 1863; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 3: 62.-  Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1898; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 50: 229.-  Pilsbry, 1948; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 732-735.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Binneya notabilis Cooper, 1863.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.- Small islands off the coast of southern California and Baja California Norte.

 

 TAXONOMY.-  Two subgenera are recognized.  Both occur in Baja California Norte.

 

Subgenus Binneya Cooper, 1863

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  CALIFORNIA: Santa Barbara Island; San Nicolas Island (fossil).  Baja California Norte (?).

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The subgenus is monotypic.

 

 

 

Binneya (Binneya) notabilis Cooper, 1863

 

Binneya notablis Cooper, 1863; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 3: 62; fig. 15.-  Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1908; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 50: 231.-  Pilsbry, 1948; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 735-737; fig. 394, A (radula), B (reproductive system), C (jaw); fig. 395, a-c (shell).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 127-128; fig. 30 (distribution map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Santa Barbara Island, California.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CALIFORNIA: Santa Barbara Island, San Nicolas Island.  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: hills north of Bahia San Quintin.

 

  TAXONOMY.- the identity of the Mexican population is uncertain, and it may involve a distinct species (Pilsbry, 1948).

 

 

Subgenus Alluthyra Pilsbry, 1948

 

Alluthyra Pilsbry, 1948; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 737.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Binneya guadalupensis Pilsbry, 1927.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Endemic to Guadalupe Island, Baja California Norte.

 

  TAXONOMY.-   A single species is recognized.

 

 

Binneya guadalupensis Pilsbry, 1927

 

Binneya guadalupensis Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 16: 169; pl. 6, figs. 2, 4, 5 (shell), figs. 3, 6-9 (animal); pl. 9, figs. 2, 2a-2d (reproductive anatomy), 3 (jaw).-  Pilsbry, 1948; Land. Moll. N. Amer., 2: 737; fig. 394 d-k (anatomy); fig. 395 B, C (shell), D, E (animal).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 128.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  3 miles south of Northeast Anchorage, Guadalupe Island, Baja California Norte.  Syntypes CAS 2566-2573.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: Guadalupe Island.

 

 

FAMILY PHILOMYCHIDAE Gray, 1847

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  East Asia, North America south to Colombia.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Four genera generally are recognized.  Philomycus, Pallifera and Megapallifera are New World genera.  Pallifera is the only genus that occurs in the study area.

 

 

Genus Pallifera Morse, 1864

 

Pallifera Morse, 1864; Jour. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., 1: 8.-  Pilsbry, 1948; Land Moll. N. Amer., 2: 759.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Philomychus dorsalis Binney, 1842.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern North America, eastern and Central Mexico, Costa Rica, Colombia.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Seven species are recognized.  One species and two subspecies are recorded from the study area.  Two other species are considered nomina dubia.

 

 

Pallifera costaricensis costaricensis (Mörch, 1858)

 

Philomycus costaricensis Mörch, 1858, in Vidensk, Meddelelser Kjobenh., 1857: 341.  Mõrch, 1860; Malak. Blätter, 6: 109.-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 346.-  Cockerell, 1913; Nautilus, 27: 3.

Tebennophorus costaricensis (Mörch).  Binney, 1879; Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 1: 261; pl. 11, fig. M (animal), fig. N (radula).-  Binney, 1884; Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 3: 87; pl. 8, fig. N (radula).

Pallifera costaricensis (Mörch).  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, 78: 99.-  Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 9220: 15.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Central Costa Rica, 2000 ft. alt.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.  PANAMA: Prov. Bocas del Toro: Bocas del Toro (Cockerell, 1913).

 

 

Pallifera costaricensis alticola Baker, 1930

 

Pallifera costaricensis alticola Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 220: 15-18; pl. 8, fig. 2 (jaw), figs. 3, 6 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 4 (pallial organs).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- On a rotten Douglas-fir log near Desierto de Los Leones, Mexico; 9850 ft. alt.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-   MEXICO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Pallfera costaricensis crosseana (Strebel, 1880)

 

Tebennophorus crosseana  Strebel, 1880; 25; pl. 10, fig. 6 (animal);  pl. 9, figs. 13 (radula), fig. 22 (jaw).

Philomychus crosseanus (Strebel).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 346.-  Pilsbry, 1904; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 770.

Pallfera costaricensis crosseana (Strebel & Pfeffer).   Baker, 1930a; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (220): 18-21; pl. 8, fig. 1 (radula), fig. 5 (jaw).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not given.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PUEBLA: Necaxa, 4265-5200 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930).  VERACRUZ: Cordoba, 625-3400 ft. alt.; Las Tortolas, 2 km NE of Cordoba, 2625-3000 ft. alt.; Sumidero, 3400 ft. alt. (Baker, 1930); Texolo (Pilsbry, 1904).

 

 

Baker (1930a: 18-19) treats the following taxa as nomina dubia.  He refers the names to Pallifera.

 

 

Pallifera sallei (Crosse & Fischer, 1869)

 

Philomycus sallei Crosse & Fischer, 1869; Jour. de Conchyl., 17: 190.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 191; pl. 9, figs. 6 (animal), fig. 7 (jaw), figs. 8-11 (radula).-  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 346.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Playa Vicente, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Pallifera auratus (Tate, 1870)

 

Tebennophorus auratus Tate, 1870; Amer. Jour. Conch., 5: 153.

Philomychus auratus (Tate).  Von Martens, 1898; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 340.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Javali, Dept. Chontales, Nicaragua.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NICARAGUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Superfamily HELICOIDEA

 

Family CAMAENIDAE Pilsbry, 1895

 

Subfamily PLEURODONTINAE Ihering, 1912

 

 

Genus Labyrinthus Beck, 1837

 

Labyrinthus Beck, 1837.-  Solem, 1966; Fieldiana: Zoology, 50: 37-44. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix otis Lightfoot, 1786 (= Helix labyrinthus Deshayes, 1838) (Herrmannsen, 1846).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southeastern Nicaragua south to Madre de Dios, Peru, east to Caracas, Venezuela and the confuences of the Rio Tapajóz and the Rio Amazon in Pará, Brazil.  Sea level to 2200 m alt.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  About thirty species and ten subspecies are recognized in Labyrinthus (Solem, 1966).  Five species and three subspecies occur in the study area.

 

 

Labyrinthus quadridentatus quadridentatus (Broderip, 1832)

 

Caracolls quadridentata Broderip, 1832; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 30.

Labyrinthus quadridentatus (Broderip).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 176-177.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 628-629.

Labyrinthus quadridentatus quadridentatus (Broderip).  Solem, 1966; Fieldiana: Zoology, 50: 51-52; figs. 10b, 11b.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Prov. Comarca de Baru: Puerto Armuelles (Solem, 1966).  COSTA RICA, Prov. Puntarenas: Coto; Quebrada de la Palma, Rio Coto basin (Solem, 1966); Térraba, 200-300 m alt.; Alto de Mano Tigre, nr. Térraba, 690-700 m alt.; El Pozo, Rio Grande de Térraba; El Pital, Rio Naranjo valley, 200 m alt.; Quebrada Chenarria, Golfito (Von Martens, 1901).

 

 

 

Labrinthus quadridentatus biollyi Solem, 1966

 

Labrinthus quadridentatus biollyi Solem, 1966; Fieldiana: Zoology, 50: 52-53; figs. 10c, 11c (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Guaitil de Pirris, San José Prov., Costa Rica.  Holotype Carnegie Museum 62.575.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Alajuela: Piedras Negras.  Prov. Cartago: Azahar de Cartago.  Prov. San José: Guaitil de Pirris (Solem, 1966).

 

 

 

Labyrinthus triplicatus (Von Martens, 1868)

 

Helix triplicatus Von Martens, 1868; Malak. Blätt., 15: 156.

Helix (Labyrinthus) triplicatus (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 165-166; pl. 41, figs. 17-19 (shell).

Labyrinthus triplicatus (Von Martens).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 176; pl. 10, figs. 2a-c (shell).-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 628.-  Solem, 1966; Fieldiana: Zoology, 50: 47-48; fig. 10a, 11a (shell).

Helix aesopus Angas, 1878; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 72-73; pl. 5, figs. 11, 12 (shell).

Helix (Labyrinthus) triplicatus var. aesopus Angas.-  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 166; pl. 64, figs. 27, 28 (shell).

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) aesopus (Angas).  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 127.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix triplicatus: Costa Rica.  Helix aesopus: Buena Vista, [Prov. Alajuela?], Costa Rica.     

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA.  COSTA RICA, Prov. Cartago: Turrialba; Navarro; Platanillo, 600 m alt.; Cervantes, 1480 m alt.; Valle de Tuis, 620 m alt.; Tuis, 650 m alt.; Talamanca valley (Solem, 1966).  Prov. Heredia: Sarapiquí (Von Martens, 1892).  Prov. Limon: Cahuita; hills of Urén (Solem, 1966). 

 

 

 

Labyrinthus subplanatus sipunculatus (Forbes, 1850)

 

Helix labyrinthus var. sipunculatus Forbes, 1850; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 53; pl. 9, figs. 4a, 4b (shell).

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) otis sipuncuculata (Forbes).  Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 62: 504.

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) sipuncuculata (Forbes).  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 74; pl. 9, fig. 4.

Labyrithus subplanatus sipunculatus (Forbes).  Solem, 1966: Fieldiana: Zoology, 50: 119-122; figs. 33b, 34a, 35 (shell); fig. 59 (map).

Helix annulifera Pfeiffer, 1852; Conch. Icon., Helix: 100; fig. 555 (shell).

Helix (Labyrinthus) labyrinthus annulifera Pfeiffer.  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 162; pl. 42, figs. 32, 33 (shell).

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) sipunculata annulifera (Forbes).  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 74.

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) goldmani Dall, 1912; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 59: 1-2; pl. 2, figs. 1, 2 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix labyrinthus var. sipunculatus: Panama.  Helix annulifera: Panama.  Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) goldmani: Pirrí Range, Darien, Panama.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLOMBIA, Dept. Chocó: Finca La Victoria, Boca del Pepe, Rio Baudo; Nucuí; mountains near mouth of Atrato River (Solem, 1966).  PANAMA, Prov. Darién: Pirri Range; Paya; Rio Tucutí.  Prov. Panama: Cerro Campana; Sierra Chucanti, 1800 ft. alt. (Solem, 1966).

 

 

 

Labyrinthus otis orthorhinus (Pilsbry, 1910)

 

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) otis orthorhinus Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 61: 502, 505; pl. 37, figs. 1-4 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 75.-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 339.

Labyrinthus otis orthorhinus (Pilsbry).  Solem, 1966; Fieldiana: Zoology, 50: 108-113; figs. 30c, 31c (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  North shore of naval base, Prov. Colón, Panama. Holotype ANSP 101308a (Baker, 1963: 246).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLOMBIA, Dept. Chocó: Acandi; mountains nr. mouth of Rio Atrato (Solem, 1966).  PANAMA, Prov. Darien: Pintupo; Tacarcuna.  Comarco de San Blas: forest nr. Armila; hills nr. Rio Mandingo, head of Golfo de San Blas.  Prov. Panama: mountains nr. Gaspasalama, Rio Mamoní; Rio Indio, nr. Madden Lake; between Chepo and Rio Plantanal; along ridge of Rio Chico, fork of Rio Pequení and Rio Bosquerón; La Aneida, nr. Tucuman Airport, 9 km from Cerro Azul; slope of Cerro Cabra; hills above Arraiján; Cerro Trinidad; Cerro Campana.  Canal Zone: between Tabernillo and San Pablo; nr. Empire; nr. Gorgona; Alhajuela; Gatun; Barro Colorado Island; Rio Piquení; shore of Lake Madden.  Prov. Colon: Santa Isabel; Quebrada Querquera, 15 mi. NE of Colón; nr. Quipo; San Juanito, nr. Pegero, Coclé del Norte.  Prov. Coclé: El Valle.  Prov. Veraguas: Azuero Peninsula, Tres Puntas; Avacada; Mangillo.  COSTA RICA, Prov. San José: Santa Maria de Dota, 1500 m alt.

 

 

 

Labyrinths uncigera uncigera (Petit, 1838)

 

Caracolla uncigera Petit, 1838; Guerin’s Mag. de Zool.: 113.

Helix (Labyrinthus) uncigera (Petit).  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 164-165; pl. 4; figs. 23-26 (shell).

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) uncigera (Petit).  Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 62: 501; fig. 1 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 75-76; fig. 6c; pl. 9, fig. 6 (shell).

Labyrinthus unciger (Petit).  Solem, 1966; Fieldiana: Zoology, 50: 95-96, 97-100; figs. 29e, 29f (shell).

Helix uncigera var. conoidea Ancey, 1890; Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 7: 152.

Helix uncigera anopla Ancey, 1890; Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 7: 152.

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) tenaculum Dall, 1909; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 52: 360-362; text-fig. 64; pl. 37, figs. 5, 6, 11, 12 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Caracolla uncigera: Panama.  Helix uncigera var. conoidea: Colombia.  Helix uncigera var. anopla: Colombia.  Pleurodone (Labyrinthus) tenaculum: Mountains nr. mouth of Atrato River, “Sierra Darién, Panama”.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLOMBIA, Dept. Choco; Arquía, 1.5 hrs. walk from Unguia; Acandi; Golfo de Urabá; mountains nr. mouth of Atrato River (Solem, 1966).  PANAMA, Canal Zone: Rio Pequení; Salamanca Hydrographic Station, Rio Pequení.  Prov. Darién: Rio Puerco.  Prov. Panama: mountains around Gaspasalama, upper Mamoni River; half-way from Cerro Azul to Mandingo; Cerro Campana.  Comarco de San Blas: Puerto Olvaldia (Solem, 1966).

 

 

Labyrinths uncigera chiriquiensis (Pilsbry, 1910)

 

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) uncingera chiriquiensis Pilsbry, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 62: 506-507; fig. 2 (shell).

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) chiriquiensis Pilsbry.  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 76; fig. 6b; pl. 9, fig. 5 (shell).

Labyrinths unciger form chiriquiensis (Pilsbry, 1910).  Solem, 1966; Fieldiana: Zoology, 50: 97-100; figs. 27a, 27b, 29c, 29d (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiriquí Lagoon, Prov. Chiriquí, Panama.  Lectotype ANSP 1612a (Baker, 1963: 244).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Canal Zone: nr. Madden Lake.  Prov. Chiriquí: Chiriquí Lagoon.  Prov. Coclé: El Valle; El Valle, 2400 ft. alt.; trail to Las Minas; Club Campestre, El Valle.  Prov. Panama: Cerro Campana (Solem, 1966).

 

 

Labyrinthus uncigera tau Pilsbry, 1926

 

Pleurodonte (Labyrinthus) uncigera tau Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 76; fig. 6a.

Labyrinthus unciger form tau (Pilsbry).  Solem, 1966; Fieldiana, Zoology: 50: 96-97; fig. 29a (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Bocas del Torro Island, Bocas del Torro Prov., Panama.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLOMBIA, Dept. Choco: Acandi (Solem, 1966).  PANAMA, Prov. Colón: Rio Salud.  Prov. Coclé: El Valle.  Prov. Bocas del Torro: Bocas del Torro Island; Mono Creek, Almirante (Solem, 1966).

 

 

 

Genus Zachrysia Pilsbry, 1894

 

Zachrysia Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., Ser. 2, 9: 97

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix auricoma Férussac, 1821.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Cuba. 

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Four subgenera are recognized.  One has been introduced into the study area.

 

 

Subgenus Zachrysia Pilsbry, 1894

 

  TAXONOMY.- Several species are native to Cuba.  One species, with two subspecies, has been introduced into the study area.

 

 

Zachrysia auricoma auricoma (Férussac, 1821)

 

Helix (Helicogena) auricoma Férussac, 1821.

Helix (Thelidomus) auricoma Férussac.  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 62-63; pl. 3, figs. 26-30 (shell).

Pleurodonte (Zachrysia) auricoma (Férussac).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 96.

Zachrysia auricoma (Férussac).  Bequaert & Clench, 1936; Pub. Canegie Inst. Wash., (457): 64.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cuba.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Prov. Panama: Panama City (Bequaert & Clench, 1936).

 

 

Zachrysia auricoma havanensis (Pilsbry, 1894)

 

Pleurodonte (Zachrysia) auricoma havanensis Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 97; pl. 23, figs. 19-23 (anatomy).

Zachrysia auricoma havanensis Pilsbry.  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 76-77; fig. 7 (shell).-  Bequaert & Clench, 1936; Pub. Canegie Inst. Wash., (457): 64.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Havana, Cuba.  Lectotype ANSP 77459a (Pilsbry, 1926: 76; H. B. Baker, 1963: 245).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  A Cuban species that has been widely introduced to other tropical regions.  PANAMA, Prov. Panama: Cathedral Plaza, Panama City (Pilsbry, 1926).  YUCATAN: Quinta; Merida (Bequaert & Clench, 1936).

 

 

 

Family SOLAROPSIDAE Nordsieck, 1986

 

 

Genus Psadara K. Miller, 1878

 

Psadara Miller, 1878; Malac. Blätt., 25: 162.-  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 112.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix selenostoma Pfeiffer; 1852.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Brazil, Bolivia and Peru north to Guayana and Colombia; Costa Rica. 

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Many species.  One occurs in the study area.

 

 

Psadara tiloriensis (Angas, 1879)

 

Helix (Solaropsis) tiloriensis Angas, 1879; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 477; pl. 40, fig. 2.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 159.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 626.

Psadara tiloriensis (Angas).  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 112-113.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Between the rivers Tilorio and Zhorquin [Prov. Limon], Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limon: Puerto Viejo, at the confluence of the Rio Viejo and the Rio Sarapiqui (Von Martens, 1901).

 

 

 

Family HUMBOLDTIANIDAE Pilsbry, 1939

 

 

Genus Bunnya H. B. Baker, 1942

 

Bunnya H. B. Baker, 1942; Nautilus, 56: 37-41.-  Miller, 1987; Veliger, 29: 308-312.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Bunnya bernadinae H. B. Baker, 1942.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Western México: States of Durango, Jalisco, México, Nayarit, and Sinaloa.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species.

 

 

Bunnya bernadinae H. B. Baker, 1942

 

Bunnya bernadinae H. B. Baker, 1942; Nautilus, 56: 37-40; pl. 5, figs. 1-2 (shell), fig. 3 (mantle collar), fig. 4 (radula), fig. 5 (jaw), figs. 6-9 (genitalia).-  Miller, 1987; Veliger, 29: 308-312.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Walls of old monastery, Desierto de Leónes, Distrito Federal, México.  Holotype in the UMMZ.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: in addition to the type locality it is known from Temexcaltgepec.

 

 

Bunnya naranjoae Miller, 1987

 

Bunnya naranjoae Miller, 1987; Veliger, 29: 308-312; fig. 1 (shell), fig. 2 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Along road from El Chante to Guizár, 1.5 km south of Rancho Manantlán, (or 16 km south of El Chante), Sierra Manantlán, Jalisco; (19º36.5'00" N, 104º12.3'00" W) 1390 m alt.  Holotype SBMNH 34369.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental from the vicinity of Mazatlán, Sinaloa in the north to the Sierra de Manantlán in southwestern Jalisco.  DURANGO: ravine along the Mazatlán-Durango highway 3 km E of Santa Lucia (15 km west of Loberas summit).  JALISCO: type locality.  NAYARIT: ravine along the Tepic-Puerto Vallarta highway at km 42 marker from Tepic; in riparian valley of Rio Manantlan from the type locality to 1.1 km upstream in the vicinity of the abandoned sawmill at Rincon de Manantlan.

 

 

Genus Humboldtiana Von Ihering, 1892

 

Humboldtiana Ihering, 1892; Zoologie, 54: 472.-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 165-166.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 395-399.-  Burch & Thompson, 1957; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., 590: 1; map 1.-  Solem, 1974; Veliger, 16: 359-364.-  Nordsieck, 1987; Arch. für Mollusk., 118: 23.-  Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 50-51.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix humboldtiana Pfeiffer, 1847.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Texas south to the states of México and Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Six subgenera are recognized.  The genus contains 51 species.  Forty-one species have been described from Mexico. 

 

 

Subgenus Aglotrochus Thompson, 2006

 

Aglotrochus Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 92.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Humboldtiana tanymastix Thompson, 2006. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Chihuahua.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The subgenus contains a single known species.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Aglotrochus) tanymastix Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana tanymastix Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 92-97; figs. 70-75 (shell), figs. 76-77 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, Sierra Santo Domingo, 4 km west-southwest of Francisco Portillo (28˚36’ N, 105˚54’ W), 1970 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 21324. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA; known only from the type locality.

 

 

Subgenus Clydonacme Thompson, 2006

 

Clydonacme Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 75.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-   Humboldtiana regula Thompson, 2006.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Chihuahua.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Six species.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Clydonacme) hogeana (von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix humboldtiana högeana von Martens, 1892; Biol. Centr. Amer.: 148; pl. 7, figs. 20, 21 (shell).

Humboldtiana högeana (von Martens).-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 179.-  Pilsbry, 1935; Nautilus, 48: 2; pl. 1, fig. 9 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1935; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87: 2; pl. 1, fig. 9 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer.: 402.-  Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 202.-  Solem, 1954; Nautilus, 68: 5.-  Solem, 1974; Veliger, 16: 363.-  Thompson, 1967; Nautilus, 81: 25.-  Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 90-92; figs. 63-69 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Chihuahua”.  Lectotype BMNH 1901-6-22-657 (Thompson, 2006). 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA.  von Martens described this species from “Chihuahua”.  It is not clear whether the type locality is the city or the state.  Whether the species actually occurred in Cd. Chihuahua can no longer be determined.  The city has expanded since the Eighteenth Century from being a small pueblo of less than 1,500 people then to a vast metropolis of 750,000 people now, and nothing remains there that resembles a natural habitat that could harbor an Humboldtiana.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Clydonacme) oberon Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana oberon Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 85-86; figs. 46-49 (shell), figs. 52-53 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, Sierra Victorino, 17 km west of Nueva Majalca (28º47.4’ N, 106º27.7’ W) 1900-2000 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 317164. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Clydonacme) princeps Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana princeps Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 87-90; figs. 54-59 (shell), figs. 60-62 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, 13 km southwest of Cd. Chihuahua (28˚37’ N, 106˚10’ W); 1540 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 350039.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Clydonacme) regula Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana regula Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 76-79 (shell); figs. 27-31 (shell); figs. 32-33 (reproductive system).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, Sierra de la Catarina, highway pass ca. 12 km northeast of Ignacio Zaragoza (29º46.0’ N, 107º37.8’ W); 2250 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 320069. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality: 21.6 km NE of Ignacio Zaragoza, 2280 m alt. (29˚46.4’ N, 107˚37.5’ W); 11 km NE of Ignacio Zaragoza, 2320 m alt. (29˚46.0’ N, 107˚38.2’ W).

 

 

Humboldtiana (Clydonacme) spectabile Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana spectabile Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 79-80; figs. 36-39 (shell); 34-35 (reproductive anatomy). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, a rocky outcrop in the foothills of the Sierra La Catarina, Buenaventura, (29º40’ N, 107º30’ W); 1850 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 25129.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known from the type locality in the foothills of the Sierra La Catarina, which lies about 20 km southwest of Buenaventura.  The range is oriented north-south, and is about 60 km long and about 10 km wide near its middle.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Clydonacme) titania Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana titania Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 82-85; figs. 42-45 (shell); figs. 50-51 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Chihuahua, Sierra Victorino, 0.6 km southeast of Cumbres Majalca Visitors Center (28º48.1’ N, 106º28.8’ W), ca. 21 km west of Nueva Majalca; 2060 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 358679.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Subgenus Gymnopallax Thompson, 2006

 

Gymnopallax Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 72.

 

  TYPE SPECIES:  Humboldtiana cicatricosa Thompson, 2006.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Chihuahua.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Gymnopallax) cicatricosa Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana cicatricosa Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 72-75; figs. 19-23 (shell), figs. 24-26 (reproductive anatomy); fig. 41 (animal).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, 4 km north-northeast of Rancho Blanco, ca. 31 km NNE of San Juanito, along highway from La Junta to Creel (28˚10.7’ N, 107˚23.5’ W); 2180 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 317169;

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Humboldtiana (Gymnopallax) sylvania Thompson & Mejia, 2006.

 

Humboldtiana sylvania Thompson & Mejia, 2006; Nautilus, 120: 28-29; figs. 6-10 (shell), figs. 13-14 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, Corareachi, 4.4 km north, 0.4 km west of Baqueachi (27°28.45’ N, 107°30.93’ W); 2000 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 353714.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Subgenus Humboldtiana von Ihering, 1892

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Texas south to the states of México and Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The subgenus contains thirty-eight species and subspecies.  Twenty-nine species occur in Mexico.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) balanites Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana balanites Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 68-72; figs. 12-16 (shell), figs. 17-18 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 40 (animal).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, 0.3 km north of San Ignacia Arareco, ca. 5 km south of Creel; 2280 m alt. (27º43.9’ N, 107º37.4’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 317170. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality and a near-by locality: 6.6 km E of San Ignacio Arareco, ca. 6 km south, 8 km east of Creel (27º43.9’ N, 107º23.5’ W), 2280 m alt. (FLMNH 317171, FLMNH 317172).

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) bicincta Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Humboldtiana bicincta Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 59-62; figs. 19-24 (shell), 25-29 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Zacatecas, Sierra de Mascarón, Cuesta de Judas, 4 km south by road from Las Crucitas, 2500 m alt. (24º41.7’ N, 101º39.0’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 268291.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  ZACATECAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) bFLMNHfoniana (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Helix bFLMNHfoniana Pfeiffer, 1845; Zeit. für Malak., 2: 152; Syst. Conch. Cab., 92: 151; pl. 92, figs. 11-13.-  Pfeiffer, in Philippi, 1847; Abb. II: 183; pl. 9, fig. 2.

Helix humboldtiana var. bFLMNHfoniana Pfeiffer.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872; Miss. Sci. Mex., I: 240; pl. 11, fig. 2.-  von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 148.

Helix (Lysinoe) humboldtiana Pfeiffer.-  von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 147.

Helix matronula Uhde, in von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 148.

Humboldtiana bFLMNHfoniana (Pfeiffer).-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 79: 170-173; text-fig. 2 (radula); pl. 2, figs. 2-4d (genitalia); pl. 12, fig. 5 (shell), pl. 13, fig. 1 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1939, Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 396; fig. 264 (genitalia), fig. 265c (jaws), fig. 266, 2-4d (genitalia).-  Solem, 1974; Veliger, 16: 362.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Rio Frio, northern slope of Volcán Ixtaccihuatl, on  the road to Puebla, México; 2600 m alt.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  MÉXICO, DISTRITO FEDERAL: at high altitudes in mountains forming the western border of the Distrito Federal and along the southeastern border of the State of México. ESTADO DE MÉXICO: Desierto de Los Leónes (nr. and above La Venta and Guajimalpa or "Coaximalpán", about 22 km SW of México City, ca. 3,000 m alt.; Santa Rosa, 2600 m alt.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) chrysogona Pilsbry, 1948

 

Humboldtiana chrysogona Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 189-190; pl. 14, fig. c (shell), text-fig. 2b (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Zacatecas, on a low limestone blFLMNHf at lower border of the village Aranzazu, Conceptión del Oro; 8,500 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 164055.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  ZACATECAS: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) corruga Thompson & Mejia, 2006

 

Humboldtiana corruga Thompson & Mejia, 2006; Nautilus, 120: 25-28; figs. 1-5 (shell), figs. 11-12 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chihuahua, 0.8 km south and 0.3 km west of Norogachi (27º15.9’ N, 107º7.7’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 358872.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) durangoensis Solem, 1954

 

Humboldtiana durangoensis Solem, 1954; Nautilus, 68: 4-6, pl. 1, figs. 2, 6 (shell).-  Solem, 1955; Nautilus, 69: 41-42.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Durango, pine woods at 8000 ft., Laguna del Progresso, 30 miles north northwest of Los Coyotes and 25 miles north northwest of El Salto.  Holotype UMMZ 169746.

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  DURANGO: Sierra Madre Occidental from the drainage basin of the Rio Mezquital near Durango City, N to the Rio Mayo in SW Chihuahua, and eastern Sinaloa (Solem, 1955).  CHIHUAHUA: no locality given.  DURANGO: 2.5 mi. W of San Luís; 8000 ft. alt.; El Boneto, SW of Santiago Papasquiaro, 8000 ft. alt.(24º55’ N, 105º42’ W); Tepehuanes (25º22’ N, 105º42’ W); on trail from Pueblo Nueva to Aseradero Metates, 9000 ft. alt. (23º24’ N, 105º24’ W).  SINALOA: 13.4 mi. NE of Santa Lucia, 7100 ft. alt. (FLMNH 130599).

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) edesma Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Humboldtiana edesma Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 62-66; figs. 30-34; figs. 30-34 (shell), figs. 36-41 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra San Francisco de Desmontes, east slope of Cerro La Mota, Cueva Ahumada 5 km southwest of Los Fierros, Nuevo León; 1,200 m alt. (25º41.2’ N, 100º42.9’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 244468.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: known from the Sierra San Francisco de Desmontes.  The sierra is a low, dry limestone range that is aligned NE-SW across the Nuevo León-Coahuila border east of Saltillo.  The type locality is at the northeast end of the range. A population from the southwest end of the range is referred to this species.  COAHUILA: Cuesta de Büey, 5 km NE of Mesón del Norte, 1450 m alt. (25º37.7’ N, 100º55.2’ W).

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) eulaliae Metcalf, 1983

 

Humboldtiana eulaliae Metcalf, 1983b; Nautilus, 98: 145-147; figs. 1-4 (shell).-  Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 97.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A canyon on the west side of the Sierra Santa Eulalia 1.3 km east of El Pinolero and 7.5 km north and 1.5 km east of Penoles, Chihuahua; 1250 m alt. (27º12'00" N, 103º47'36" W).  Holotype USNM 820297.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) fasciata Burch & Thompson, 1957

 

Humboldtiana fasciata Burch & Thompson, 1957; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., 590: 2-5; pl. I, figs. A1-A4, D (shell); pl. II (genitalia); pl. III figs. a, c, d (genitalia); pl. V, figs. A, B, a, b, f (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Minerál del Monte, Hidalgo; 9,300 ft. alt.  Holotype UMMZ 191473.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HIDALGO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) fortis Pilsbry, 1940

 

Humboldtiana fortis Pilsbry, 1940; Nautilus, 53: 140.-  Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 193-195; pl. 12, figs. 9-11 (shell); text-figs. 4 (genitalia).-  Koestner & Schneider, 1940; Nautilus, 54: 47-49.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cerro Potosí, northwest of Galeana, Municipio de Galeana, Nuevo León; 10,000-12,000 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 164045.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) globosa Burch & Thompson, 1957

 

Humboltiana globosa Burch & Thompson, 1957; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., 590: 5-6; pl. I, figs. C, F (shell); pl. III, figs. B, b, f (genitalia); pl. V, figs. C, c, f (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Three miles east of Perote, La Molina, Veracruz; 8,000 ft. alt.  Holotype UMMZ 191476.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) gradyi Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Humboldtiana gradyi Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 51-55; figs. 1-6 (shell), 7-9 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Area near the Dos de Diciembre Microwave Tower, 2 km southeast, 5 km east of Dos de Diciembre, Durango; 2080 m alt. (24º44.6’ N, 103º32.7’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 267738.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  DURANGO; known only from the vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) humboldtiana (Pfeiffer, 1847)

 

Helix humboldtiana "Valenciennes" Pfeiffer, 1847, Symb. Hist., 2: 37; Zeit. f. Malak.: 152; pl. 92, figs. 18, 19 (shell).-  Pfeiffer in Philippi, 1847; Abb.: III, pl. 6, fig. 7 (shell).-  Fischer, 1899; Jour. de Conchyl., 47: 297-304, figs. 1-3 (shell).

Helix badiocincta Weigmann, in Pfeiffer, 1845; Symbolae Hist., 2: 37.  (A nomum nudum, but described as equivalent to H. Humboldtiana.)

Helix (Pomatia) humboldtiana (Pfeiffer).-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872; Miss. Sci. Mex.: 240; pl. 11, figs. 1, 1a (shell).

Helix (Lysinoe) humboldtiana var. hegewishi von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 147.

Humbolditana humboldtiana (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 80: 173-176; pl. 12, fig. 4 (shell); pl. 13, fig. 3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  México: Desierto de Leónes, State of México.  Pilsbry (1927: 174) expresses doubt about this locality.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Unknown.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) inferior Pilsbry, 1948

 

Humboldtiana montezuma inferior Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 188; pl. 12, figs. 3-8 (shell), text-fig. 1b (genitalia). 

Humboldtiana inferior Pilsbry.  Thompson, 2006; Nautilus, 120: 23. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  About 3 km from Hacienda Encinal, near Pablillo, on the trail to Alamar, Municipio de Galeana, Nuevo León, 6,000 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 164043.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) iversoni Thompson, 2006

 

Humboldtiana iversoni Thompson, 2006; Nautilus, 120: 21-24; figs. 1-4 (shell), figs. 5-6 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.—  Nuevo Leon, Highway 68 at km post 116, Las Noria (24°11.0’ N, 99°53.0’ W), 3 km south of Anteojitos; 1800 m alt.  Holotype FLMNH 130588.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) latizona Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Humboldtiana latizona Thompson and Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43; 66; figs. 42-47, 35 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra San Lorenzo, Mesitas Coloradas, 7.5 km east of Pedriceña, 1850 m alt., Durango (25º04.4’ N, 103º41.5’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 271009. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  DURANGO: known only from the type locality. 

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) malenae Metcalf, 1983

 

Humboildtiana malenae Metcalf, 1983a; Nautilus, 97: 70-72; figs. 1-4.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Boundary area between Municipios Ocampo and Muzquiz, on Coahuila State Highway 53, 6.2 km slightly north of east from Tres Caminos (village) above head of north branch of Cañada La Virgen, Coahuila; 1625 m alt. (28º43'55" N, 102º30'39" W).  Holotype USNM 784768.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COAHUILA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) montezuma Pilsbry, 1940

 

Humboldtiana montezuma Pilsbry, 1940; Nautilus, 53: 140.-  Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 105: 186-188; pl. 12, figs. 1, 2 (shell); text-fig. 1a (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Summit of El Infiernillo, a mountain near Pablillo, Municipio de Galeana, Nuevo León; 10,000 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 164062.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: recorded only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) nuevoleonis Pilsbry, 1927

 

Humboldtiana humboldtiana nuevoleonis Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 176-177; pl. 12, figs. 1-3 (shell), pl. 13, fig. 2 (shell).

Humboldtiana nuevoleonis.-  Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 190-193; pl. 14, figs. 2a, b (shell), text-fig. 3 (genitalia).

Lysinoe humboldtiana bFLMNHfoniana (Pfeiffer).-  Pilsbry, 1903; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 55: 762.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Diente, near Monterey, Nuevo León.  Holotype ANSP 85596.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COAHUILA: San Lorenza Canyon, SE of Saltillo, 7200 ft. alt.; Carneros Pass, 8,300 ft. alt.; Sierra Guadelupe, La Cuchilla.  NUEVO LEÓN: mountains around Monterrey; Alamar Canyon; 2-3 km from Alamar on trail to Pablillo.  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: Catorce; Santana, 9700 ft. alt.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) pergranulosa Solem, 1955

 

Humboldtiana pergranulosa Solem, 1955; Nautilus, 69: 42-43; pl. 3, figs. 1-3 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San José Range of Mountains in northeast Durango.  Exact location unspecified.  Restricted to near Jaralito (Solem, 1974).  Holotype ANSP 194820.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  DURANGO: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) pilsbryi Solem, 1954

 

Humboldtiana pilsbryi Solem, 1954; Nautilus, 68: 8-9; pl. 1, figs. 3, 4 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A humid pine-oak-madroño-yucca forest, two miles by road west of Ojitos Mine, about 4 miles west of Chihue, a few miles east of China [? Chinas, 23.8667 N, 99.4667 W], northwest of Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas; 8600 ft.  Holotype UMMZ 181280.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  TAMAULIPAS: recorded only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) pinicola Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Humboldtiana pinicola Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 55-59; figs. 10-15 (shell), figs. 16-18 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Southeast side of Cerro Puerto El Pino, limestone outcrop in an oak-pine forest ca. 6 km by road southwest of Pinal de Amoles, Querétaro; 2650 m alt. (21º07.5’ N, 99º38.2’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 268441.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  QUERÉTARO: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) potosiana Pilsbry, 1927

 

Pomatia humboldtiana "Valenciennes".  W. G. Binney, 1879; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 5: 336; pl. 2, figs. J (genitalia), k (radula).-  W. G. Binney, 1884; Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.: 108; pl. 8, fig. A (radula).

Humboldtiana potosiana Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 177-179; text-figs. 7a (genitalia), 7k (radula); pl. 12, fig. 6 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra de San Miguelito, south of Cd. San Luís Potosí, San Luís Potosí.  Holotype ANSP 31836.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) queretaroana (Dall, 1897)

 

Helix (Lysinoe) queretaroana Dall, 1897; Nautilus, 11: 73.

Humboldtiana queretaroana (Dall).  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 177.-  Solem, 1955; Nautilus, 69: 41; pl. 3, figs. 4-6 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Pinal de Amoles, Queretaro; 8,000-9,000 ft.  Holotype USNM 134691.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  QUERÉTARO: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) riskindi Fullington & Zimmerman, 1977

 

Humboldtiana riskindi Fullington & Zimmerman, 1977; Veliger, 20: 134-136; figs. 1-3 (shell), fig. 7 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra de La Gloria, Cañon Obscuro Chiquillo, 17 km east of Castaños, Coahuila; 1300 m alt. (26º47'25" N, 101º17'45" W).  Holotype Dallas Museum Natural History 5357.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COAHUILA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) striata Burch & Thompson, 1957

 

Humboldtiana striata Burch & Thompson, 1957; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (590): 6-8; pl. I, figs. B, E (shell); pl. IV (genitalia); pl. V, figs. D, d, e (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Paso Cortez, Distrito Federal, México; 10,500 ft. alt. Holotype UMMZ 192247.

 

DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  MÉXICO, D. F.: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) taylori Drake, 1951

 

Humboldtiana taylori Drake, 1951; Rev. Soc. Malacol: 93-96; pl. 13, figs. 1-4 (shell).-  Metcalf & Riskind, 1979; Veliger, 15: 179-181; figs. 1-5 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  From the surface of cultural deposits of archeological site C96, Cañon Media Luna, Fronteriza Range (Serranias del Burro), 16 miles south of Boquillas, northern Coahuila.  Corrected by Metcalf and Riskind to a canyon on the west flank of the Sierra Maderas del Carmen, Coahuila, in the vicinity of 29º00' N, 102º36' W.  Holotype USNM 596939.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COAHUILA: known only from the vicinity of the type locality: Sierra Madera del Carmen, Municipio de Villa Ocampo, ca. 2 km NNW of Loomis Peak on an eastern exposure; ca. 2500 m alt. (28º59'00" N, 102º33'00" W).

 

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) tescola Thompson, 1967

 

Humboldtiana tescola Thompson, 1967; Nautilus, 81: 22-27; text figs. A, B (genitalia), figs. 1-4 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Knoll 15.7 miles southwest of San Tiburcio, Zacatecas; 7600 ft. alt.  Holotype FLMNH 19752.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  ZACATECAS: known only from the type locality.

 

Humboldtiana (Humboldtiana) torrei Pilsbry, 1935

 

Humboldtiana torrei Pilsbry, 1935; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 87: 1; 2; pl. 1, fig. 10 (shell).-  Thompson, 2006; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 46: 97; figs. 78-81.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San Antonio y Santa Rosalia [now Ciudad Camargo; 27º40’ N, 105º10 W], nr. and south of Cd. Chihuahua, Chihuahua. Holotype ANSP 162325.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: recorded only from the type locality.

 

 

Subgenus Oreades Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Oreades Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 66. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Humboldtiana porterae Thompson & Brewer, 2000.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Cañón de Garcia, in southwestern Nuevo León, México.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Oreades) porterae Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Humboldtiana porterae Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 68-71; figs. 48-51 (shell), 52-54 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Nuevo León, Cañon de Garcia, 7 km northeast of Villa de Garcia; 950 m alt. (25°50.5’ N, 100°31.5’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 39938.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Subgenus Polyomphala Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Polyomphala Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 71. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Humboldtiana oreina Thompson & Brewer, 2000.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Sierra La Encantada, northwestern Coahuila, México.

 

  TAXONOMY-  Two species.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Polyomphala) oreina Thompson & Brewer, 2000

 

Humboldtiana oreina Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 71-75; figs. 55-59, 68 (shell), figs. 61-64 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra La Encantada, La Ventana, Cañon de Boquilla, 27 km WNW of Hacienda La Babia, 91 km NW of Melchor Musquíz, Coahuila; 1150 m alt. (28º39.1’ N, 102º19.5’ W).  Holotype FLMNH 271518.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COAHUILA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Humboldtiana (Polyomphala) plana Metcalf & Riskind, 1976

 

Humboldtiana plana Metcalf & Riskind, 1976; Nautilus, 90: 99-100; figs. 1-3 (shell).-  Thompson & Brewer, 2000; Bull. Fla. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43: 75-77; figs. 60, 65-67 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra de Santa Rosa near the summit of Rincón de Maria, in a sheltered mesic cleft with a northern exposure in a massive limestone cliff, Mcpo. de Muzquíz, Coahuila.  Holotype Delaware Museum of Natural History 106681.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COAHUILA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Family HELMINTHOGLYPTIDAE Pilsbry, 1939

 

Subfamily HELMINTHOGLYPTINAE Pilsbry, 1939

 

 

Genus Cahuillus Roth, 1996

 

Cahuillus Roth, 1996; Veliger, 39: 40. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Sonorella walcottiana Bartsch, 1903.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern California and adjacent northwestern Mexico.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three species are recognized.  Two occur in México.

 

 

Cahuillus greggi (Miller, 1967)

 

Sonorella greggi Miller, 1967; Nautilus, 80: 114-116; pl. 6, figs. A-F (shell); pl. 7, figs. A-F (genitalia).

Cahuillus greggi (Miller).-  Roth, 1996; Veliger, 39: 40.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra Purica, Sonora, in igneous rock outcroppings in northeastern-facing ravine, on south bank of large canyon which runs easterly from saddle between the two highest peaks at the south end of the range (30º31' N, 109º45’ W); 6300 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 310363.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Cahuillus mexicanus (Pilsbry & Lowe, 1934)

 

Microarionta rowelli mexicana Pilsbry & Lowe, 1934; Nautilus, 48: 67.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 230.

Cahuillus mexicanus (Pilsbry & Lowe).-  Roth, 1996: 40-41.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra San Francisco, in a range of granite mountains just south of the trail to Punta Peñasco, 12 miles south of Sonoyta, Sonora.  Holotype not cited.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: recorded only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Eremarionta Pilsbry, 1913

 

Eremarionta Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 382.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 226-227.- Bequaert & Miller, 1973; Moll. Arid SW: 106.-  Roth, 1996; Veliger, 39: 41.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Micrarionta desertorum Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1908.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  California and Arizona in low mountain ranges in the Mohave, Colorado and Yuma Deserts; northwestern Sonora and northeastern Baja California.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Numerous species and subspecies.  Four species and one subspecies occur in México.

 

 

Eremarionta ellipsostoma (Pilsbry, 1894)

 

Epiphragmophora ellipsostoma Pilsbry, 1894; Nautilus, 8: 81-82.-  Pilsbry, 1916; Nautilus, 29: 102; pl. 2, fig. 6 (shell).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 142.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “San Juan del Norte, probably on the east coast of Lower California.”  The original label accompanying the holotype bears the inscription “...SE Nicaragua”, which was later scratched over in pencil.  Holotype ANSP 10745.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  The geographic occurrence and the generic affinities of this species remain unknown.

 

 

Eremarionta indioensis (Yates, 1890)

 

Helix (Arionta) carpenteri variety indioesis Yates, 1890; Nautilus, 4: 63.

Sonorella indioesis (Yates).  Bartsch, 1904; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47: 189; pl. 33, fig. 1 (shell).

Micrarionta indioensis (Yates).  Berry, 1922; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 74: 93.-  Willett, 1930; Nautilus, 43: 115.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 246-247; fig. 125 c, f (shell).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 138; fig. 35 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- On the south side of the canyon among granite talus, Indio, Riverside County, California.  Holotype ANSP 62145.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Riverside Co., California south to northwestern México.  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: Cañon de Guadalupe, Sierra Juárez; canyon ca. 16 km S of Cañon de Guadalupe; E side of Sierra Juárez ca. 0.25 mi. above fork of Cañon Carrizo.

 

 

Eremarionta rowelli rowelli (Newcomb, 1865)

 

Helix rowelli Newcomb, 1865; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 3: 181.

Sonorella rowelli (Newcomb).  Bartsch, 1904; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47: 119 (in part).

Micrarionta rowelli (Newcomb).  Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1923; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 75: 99; pl. 3, figs. 6-7.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 228-230; figs. 14 (shell).

Eremarionta rowelli rowelli (Newcomb).  Bequaert & Miller, 1973; Moll. Arid SW: 106-107.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Tinajas Atlas, in Tinajas Atlas Mountains, 26 miles south of Wellton and ca. 45 miles east of the Colorado River, Yuma Co., Arizona (32º18' N, 114º03’ W); 1300 ft. alt. (Bequaert & Miller, 1973).  Holotype Newcomb Collection 27517, Cornell University.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Tinajas Atlas Mountains and the Sierra Pinta in Yuma County, Arizona and in adjacent México.  SONORA: Sierra del Tuseral just south of the International Border, 50 mi. SE of Wellton; Sierra Tinajas Atlas, along  Hwy. 2, 8.9 mi. W of El Puerto.

 

 

Eremarionta rowelli bechteli (Emerson & Jacobson, 1964)

 

Micrarionta (Eremarionta) rowelli bechteli Emerson & Jacobson, 1964; Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 16: Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., 13: 327-328; fig. 5 (shell).

Eremarionta rowelli bechteli (Emerson & Jacobson, 1964).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 139; fig. 35 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  In rock slide, Isla San Esteben, Sonora. Holotype CAS 36377.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Eremarionta ultima (Pilsbry, 1916)

 

Sonorella ultima Pilsbry, 1916; Nautilus, 29: 101-102; pl. 2, figs. 5 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sinaloa.  Holotype ANSP 58124.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Unknown.

 

 

Genus Greggelix Miller, 1972

 

Greggelix Miller, 1972; Nautilus, 85: 128.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix indigena Mabille, 1895.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Endemic to Baja California Sur.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three species are recognized.

 

 

Greggelix indigena (Mabille, 1895)

 

Helix indigena Mabille, 1895; Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris., 8th ser., 7: 64.

Helix digueti Mabille, 1895; Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris., 8th ser., 7: 65.

Greggelix indigena (Mabille).-  Miller, 1972; Nautilus, 85: 128-135; pl. 1, figs. A-F (shell); text-fig. 1 (genitalia).-  Miller, 1981; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 94: 737; text-fig. 2B (shell).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 140; text-fig. 39 (map).

Sonorella loheii lioderma Pilsbry, 1904; Nautilus, 18: 59.-  Pilsbry, 1916; Nautilus, 29: 98-99; pl. 2, fig. 7. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Above 800 m on peaks of the Sierra, throughout most of the central part of the Peninsula of California.  Helix digueti: unspecified.  Sonorella loheii lioderma: near Muleje [Mulegé], Baja California Sur; holotype ANSP 58107.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: San José Comondú; 19 km SW San Miguel Comondú; Mesa de San Alejo, NW of San Javier, Sierra de La Gigante, 800 m alt.; Arroyo de La Purisima, 4.8 km E of San Isidro, along rd. to Caripolé; nr. Mulegé.

 

 

Greggelix loehrii (Gabb, 1868)

 

Helix löhrii Gabb, 1867; Amer. Jour. Conch., 3: 236; pl. 16, fig. 2 (shell).

Sonorella lohrii (Gabb).  Pilsbry, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 561.-  Bartsch, 1904; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 47: 197; pl. 32, fig. 1.-  Pilsbry, 1916; Nautilus, 29: 98; pl. 2, fig. 8.

Sonorella loehrii (Gabb).  Miller, 1972; Nautilus, 85: 128-129.

Greggelix loehrii (Gabb).  Miller, 1981; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 94: 736-737; figs. 2C (shell), fig. 4 (genitalia).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 140-141; text-fig. 39 (map).

Helix steganella Mabille, 1895; Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris., 8th ser., 7: 64. 

Helix invecta Mabille, 1895; Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris., 8th ser., 7: 65. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Helix löhrii: higher table lands from near Moleje [Mulegé], Baja California Sur; holotype ANSP 58106.  Helix steganella: above 800 m on peaks of the Sierra, throughout most of the central part of the Peninsula of California.  Helix invecta: Lower California.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality and San Javier.

 

 

Greggelix punctata Miller, 1981

 

Greggelix punctata Miller, 1981; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 94: 732-737; text-figs. 1 (shell), 3 (genitalia).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 141; text-fig. 39 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Gulf slope of Sierra de la Gigante, southwest of Muleje [Mulegé], 2.9 miles south of El Potrero, along trail from Pie de La Cueta to Guajademi, in rock slide about 1.5 miles from Pie de La Cueta, Baja California Sur; ca. 2450 m alt.  Holotype USNM 792140.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Helminthoglypta Ancey, 1887

 

Helminthoglypta Ancey, 1887; Conchologist’s Exchange, 1: 76.-  Pilsbry, 1895; Man. Conch., 9: 193 (in part).-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 63-69.-  Roth, 1996; Veliger, 39: 32. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix tudiculata Binney, 1843.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southwest Oregon south to Baja California Norte.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three subgenera are recognized (Roth, 1996).  Two occur in México.

 

 

Subgenus Helminthoglypta Ancey, 1887

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southwest Oregon south to Baja California Norte.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Numerous species and subspecies.  One occurs in México.

 

 

Helminthoglypta (Helminthoglypta) tudiculata (Binney, 1843)

 

Helix tudiculata Binney, 1843; Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., 4: 360; pl. 20 (shell).

Helminthoglypta tudiculata (Binney).  Berry, 1928; Jour. Ento. Zool. Pomona Coll., 20: 79.-  Ingles, 1935; Proc. Malac. Soc. Lond., 21: 268; pl. 29, figs. 2-3 (genitalia).-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 70-72; figs. 33a (shell).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 133.

Helix tudiculata var. binneyi Hemphill, 1890, in Binney; Terr. Moll, N. A., 3rd suppl.: 219. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix tudiculata: San Diego, San Diego County, California; types destroyed by fire.  Helix tudiculata var. binneyi: mountains of San Diego County, California; holotype CAS 2481.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California, and adjacent México.  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: nr. Bajia de Todos Santos; Cañada Macho Güero; Punta Banda; San Antonia Canyon, ca. 8 km N of Johnson Ranch; Johnson Ranch.

 

 

Subgenus Charodotes Pilsbry, 1939

 

Charodotes Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 170-171.-  Roth and Hochberg, 1992; Veliger, 35: 339-341.-  Roth, 1996; Veliger, 39: 32.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix traskii Newcomb, 1861.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern California south to Baja California Norte.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  About 16 species are recognized.  Five species and one subspecies occur in México.

 

 

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) coelata (Bartsch, 1916)

 

Epiphragmophora traskii coelata Bartsch, 1916; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 51: 617; pl. 115, figs. 7-9 (shell); pl. 117, fig. 10 (shell).

Helminthoglypta traski coelata (Bartsch).  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 175; figs. 85h (shell).

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) coelata (Bartsch).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 133.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  The Mesa, back of Pacific Beach, San Diego County, California.  Holotype USNM 124747.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Along the coast of San Diego County California south to extreme northwestern México.  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: 11 km S of Tijuana.

 

 

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) hannai hannai Pilsbry, 1927

 

Helminthoglypta hannai Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 16: 165-167; pl. 7, figs. 8-8b (shell); text-fig. 2 (genitalia). 

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) hannai hannai Pilsbry.  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 133.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Pine Ridge, Isla Guadalupe, Baja California Norte; 900 m alt.  Holotype CAS 2561.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from Isla Guadalupe.

 

 

Helminthoglypte (Charodotes) hannai diodon Pilsbry, 1927

 

Helminthoglypte hannai diodon Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 16: 167-168; pl. 10, figs. 23-26 (shell).

Helminthoglypte (Charodotes) hannai diodon Pilsbry.  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 133.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Northeast Anchorage, Isla Guadalupe, Baja California Norte.  Holotype CAS 2562.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) misiona Chase, 1937

 

Helminthoglypta traski misiona Chase, 1937; Nautilus, 51: 60; pl. 4, fig. 2 (shell).-  Pilsbry, Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 174-175; figs. 47 (shell).

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) misiona Chase.  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 134.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  A rockslide near the San Diego-Ensanada highway about 40 miles [64 km] south of Tijuana, Baja California Norte.  Holotype in LACM.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Known only from the vicinity of the type locality.  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: rockslide on S side of valley, seaward side of bridge, La Misión Valley, along Tijuana-Ensanada highway; El Progresso, Sandoval Ranch area, ca. 48 km S of Tijuana.

 

 

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) reederi Miller, 1981

 

Helminthoglypta reederi Miller, 1981; Veliger, 24: 46-48; fig. 1 (genitalia), figs. 2-4 (shell).

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) reederi Miller.  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 134; text-fig. 35 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra San Pedro Mártír, in rock outcrops in a small canyon which crosses the road to the astronomical observatory, at a distance of about 2.5 km below the observatory housing area, Baja Califonia Norte; 2575 m alt.  Holotype CAS 19732.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: Known only from the type locality.

 

 

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) traski coronadoensis (Bartsch, 1916)

 

Epiphragmophora traskii coronadoensis Bartsch, 1916; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 51: 617; pl. 115, figs. 10-12 (shell); pl. 117, fig. 9 (shell).

Helminthoglypta traski coronadoensis (Bartsch).  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 176-177; figs. 85g (shell).

Helminthoglypta (Charodotes) traskii coronadoensis (Bartsch).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 134; text-fig. 35 (shell).

Epiphragmophora traskii chrysoderma Berry, 1920; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 10: 55; pl. 4, figs. 2a-2c (shell). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Epiphragmophora traskii coronadoensis: Ilsa Los Coronados, Baja California Norte; holotype in the USNM.  Epiphragmophora traskii chrysoderma: South Coronado Island, among loose talus on higher portion of south end; holotype in the CAS.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from Isla Los Coronados, and South Coronado Island.

 

 

Genus Herpeteros Berry, 1947

 

Herpeteros, Berry, 1947; Leaflets Malac., 1: 11-12.-  Miller, 1972; Nautilus, 85: 134.  Roth, 1996; Veliger, 39: 33. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Micrarionta (Eremarionta) inglesiana Berry, 1928.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Baja California Norte and Baja California Sur.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Five species are placed in the genus.  Only two are known anatomically.  The taxonomic placements of three are provisional.

 

 

Herpeteros chacei (Willett, 1940)

 

Micrarionta (Eremarionta) chacei Willett, 1940; Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci., 39: 81-82; pl. 12.

Sonorelix (Herpeteros) chacei (Willett).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 139; text-fig. 38 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Lower end of El Tigre Canyon, about 9 miles [14.4 km] north of Ensanada, Baja California Norte. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Herpeteros evermanni (Pilsbry, 1927)

 

Micrarionta evermanni Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th ser., 14:182-183; pl. 12, figs. 4-6 (shell).-  Bequaert & Miller, 1973; Moll. Arid SW: 110.

Sonorelix (Herpeteros) evermanni (Pilsbry).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 140; text-fig. 38 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Turtle Bay [Bajia Tortugas], Baja California Norte.  Holotype CAS 2618.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Herpeteros inglesiana (Berry, 1928)

 

Micrarionta (Eremarionta) inglesiana Berry, 1928; Jour. Ent. Zool. Pomona Coll., 20: 76-79; pl. 2, figs. 10-18.

Sonorelix (Herpeteros) inglesiana (Berry).  Berry, 1947; Leaflets Malacol., 1: 11-12.-  Miller, 1972; Nautilus, 85: 134.-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 139; text-fig. 38 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  On moist north slope of the Red Rock [Peña Colorado] under rocks, about 3 miles [4.8 km] from the sea and 0.5 miles [0.8 km] from Hamilton Ranch, west of Santo Domingo, Baja California Norte.  Holotype in the SBMNH.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from the vicinity of the type locality.

 

 


Herpeteros merrilli (Bartsch, 1904)

 

Sonorella merrilli Bartsch, 1904; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47: 192-193; pl. 32, figs. 5 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1916; Nautilus, 29: 102.

Sonorelix (Herpeteros) merrilli (Bartsch).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 140; text-fig. 38 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Below San Quintin, Baja California Norte.  Holotype USNM 125260.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Herpeteros peninsularis (Pilsbry, 1916)

 

Sonorella peninsularis Pilsbry, 1916; Nautilus, 29: 100-101; pl. 2, fig. 4 (shell).

Micrarionta peninsularis (Pilsbry).  Hanna, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 12: 503-504; pl. 8, figs. 14-15; pl. 11, fig. 1 (shell).

Sonorelix (Herpeteros) peninsularis (Pilsbry).  Miller, 1972; Nautilus, 85: 134; text-fig. 3 (genitalia).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 140; text-fig. 38 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Trinidad”, on the west coast near [60 km south of] San Borga [Borja], Baja Califonia Norte (Hanna, 1927: 503).  Holotype ANSP 58127.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Widely distributed in the south half of BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE, and extreme northern BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR.

 

 

Genus Martirelix Miller, 1982

 

Martirelix Miller, 1982; Veliger, 24: 345.-  Roth, 1996; Veliger, 39: 33.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Gregghelix babrakzaii Miller, 1982.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Known only from Baja California Norte.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized.

 

 

Martirelix babrakzaii (Miller, 1982)

 

Greggelix babrakzaii Miller, 1982; Veliger, 24: 345-348; figs. 1-2 (genitalia), figs. 3-5 (shell).-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 141; text-fig. 39 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cañon Diablito, about 1 km up canyon from its mouth, east slope of the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California Norte; 700 m alt. (31º05.1 N, 115º23.5’ W).  Holotype CAS 025103.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from the vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Martirelix huertai (Miller and Roth, 1990)

 

Greggelix huertai Miller and Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 102-104; figs. 5-7 (shell), text-figs. 8 (genitalia), 39 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cerro de La Mina de San José, in rock piles on north side of entrance to the mine; Baja California Norte; 1300 m alt. (28º42.5' N, 113º34.7' W).  Holotype SBMNH 35113.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Micrarionta Ancey, 1880

 

Micrarionta Ancey, 1880; Le Naturaliste, 1: 334.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 201-204.-  Pearce, 1990; Malac. Rev., 23: 1-37. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix facta Newcomb, 1864.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Islands off southern California; Guadalupe Island, Baja California Norte.

/

  TAXONOMY.-  Eleven species are recognized.  One occurs in México.

 

 

Micrarionta guadalupiana (Dall, 1898)

 

Epiphragmophora (Micrarionata) guadelupiana Dall, in Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1898; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 68-70; pl. 1, fig. 11 (genitalia).-  Dall, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 101-102; pl. 8, figs. 14, 15.

Micrarionta guadalupiana (Dall).  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 17: 163-165; pl. 8, figs. 1-1a, 3-3a (genitalia), 3b (jaw); text-figs. 1 (shell).  (Name ammended to guadalupiana.)  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 134.-  Pearce, 1990; Malac. Rev., 23: 7.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Isla Guadalupe, Baja California Norte.  Holotype USNM 129999.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: confined to Isla Guadalupe.

 

 

Genus Xerarionta Pilsbry, 1913

 

Xerarionta Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 382.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 214.-  Miller, 1981; Veliger, 24: 46. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Arionta veitchi Tryon, 1866 (= Helix canescens Adams and Reeve, 1848).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southwestern California south to Baja California Sur, México.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two subgenera are recognized (Roth, 1996: 32).

 

 

Subgenus Xerarionta Pilsbry, 1913

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southwestern California south to Baja California Sur, México.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Seven species and four subspecies.  Three species and three subspecies occur in México.

 

 

Xerarionta (Xerarionta) areolata (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Helix areolata “Sowerby” Pfeiffer, 1845; Zeitschr. für Malak., 2: 145.-  Fischer and Crosse, 1872; Miss. Sci. Mex., I: 262; pl. 11, fig. 4 (shell). 

Epiphragmophora (Micrarionta) areolata (Sowerby).  Pilsbry, 1898; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 69, 70; pl. 1, figs. 5-6 (genitalia).

Epiphragmophora areolata (Sowerby).  Dall, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 100.

Micrarionta areolata (‘Sowerby’ Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 390-391; pl. 16, figs. 25-33 (shell); text-figs. 2a-d (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th ser., 16: 180-182; pl. 6, fig. 10 (pallial organs); pl. 9, figs. 1-1b (genitalia); pl. 11, figs. 1-5 (shell). -  Miller, 1972; Nautilus, 85: 134; pl. 2, fig. 4 (genitalia).

Xerarionta areolata (Pfeiffer, 1845).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 136; fig. 36 (map).

Helix areolata var. albida Hemphill, 1890; Cat. N. A. shells. (Nomum nudum)

Helix areolata var. examinata Cooper, 1892; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 3: 216; pl. 14, fig. 7. 

Micrarionta areolata examinata Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 392.

Micrarionta areolata var. arida Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 391; pl. 16, figs. 39-41 (shell).-  H. B. Baker, 1963; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 115: 248.

Micarionta areolata var. scammoni Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 392; pl. 16, figs. 34-36.-  H. B. Baker, 1963; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 114: 249. 

Micrarionta aspersa var. aspersa Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 392; pl. 16, figs. 37-38 (shell).-  H. B. Baker, 1963; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 115: 248. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix areolata: California; restricted to Magdalena Bay, Baja Califonia Sur (Pilsbry, 1913: 319).  Helix areolata var. examinata: Espirito Santo Island, Baja California Sur.  Micrarionta areolata var. arida: Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur; lectotype ANSP 76208a (H. B. Baker, 1963: 249).  Micarionta areolata var. scammoni: Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur; lectotype ANSP 10302a (H. B. Baker, 1963: 249).  Micrarionta aspersa var. aspersa: Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur; lectotype ANSP 10265a (H. B. Baker, 1963: 249).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Smith, et al (1990: 136) list numerous localities for extant populations along the Pacific Coast.  Known as a fossil from central and eastern regions.

 

 

Xerarionta (Xerarionta) levis levis (Pfeiffer, 1845)

 

Helix levis Pfeiffer, 1845; Zeitschr. f. Malak., 2: 152.  Syst. Conch. Cab., Helix: 249; pl. 36, fig. 17 (type).

Epiphragmophora levis (Pfeiffer).  Dall, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 100.

Micrarionta levis (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 387-389; pl. 16, figs. 42-45, 48-52 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th ser., 16: 179-180.

Xerarionta levis levis (Pfeiffer).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 136-138; text-fig. 37 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  California; restricted to Puerto San Bartolomé, Baja California Norte (Pilsbry, 1919: 288).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE; known from numerous localities along the Pacific Coast.

 

 

Xerarionta (Xerarionta) levis canescens (Adams and Reeve, 1848)

 

Helix canescens Adams and Reeve, 1848; Voy. Samarang: 62; pl. 16, figs. 10 (shell).

Micrarionta veatchii canescens (Adams and Reeve).  Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 386-387; text-fig. 1 (shell).

Micrarionta canescens (Adams and Reeve).  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 16: 178; pl. 11, figs. 6-10 (shell).

Xerarionta levis canescens (Adams and Reeve).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 138; fig. 37 (map).

Helix veitchii ‘Newcomb’ Tryon, 1866; Amer. Jour. Conch., 2: 316; pl. 22, fig. 19 (shell).- Tryon, 1867; Amer. Jour. Conch., 3: 162.-  Stearns, 1867; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 3: 328. 

Epiphragmophora (Miscarionta) veitchii (Newcomb).  Pilsbry and Vanatta, 1898; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 69; pl. 1, figs. 2-3 (genitalia).

Micrarionta veatchii (‘Newc.’ Tryon).  Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 384-386; pl. 15, figs. 1-16 (shell).

Micrarionta canescens veatchii (‘Newc.’ Tryon).  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th ser., 16: 178-179; pl. 11, figs. 11-15 (shell).

Helix areolata var. cedroensis Hemphill, 1890; Cat. N. A. shells.  (A nomem nudum.)

Epiphragmophora leucanthea Dall, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 99; pl. 8, figs. 18, 20 (shell). 

Micrarionta levis globosa Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 389; pl. 16, figs. 46-47 (shell).-  H. B. Baker, 1963; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 115: 248. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix canescens: “Africa”.  Helix veitchii: “Cerros” Island, Baja California Norte.  Epiphragmophora leucanthea: east side of “Cerros” Island, Baja California Norte; syntypes USNM 107627.  Micrarionta levis globosa: Cerdo Island, Baja California Norte; lectotype ANSP 10304 (H. B. Baker, 1963: 248).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: numerous localities on Isla Cedros.  BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: Isla Navidad.

 

 

Xerarionta (Xerarionta) levis crassula (Dall, 1900)

 

Epiphragmophora crassula Dall, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 100-101; pl. 8, fig. 3 (shell).

Micrarionta levis crassula (Dall).  Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 389; pl. 16, figs. 49, 50 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 4th ser., 16: 180; pl. 10, figs. 17-22.

Xerarionta levis crassula (Dall).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc.. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 138; text-fig. 37 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Isla Navidad, Baja California Sur.  Holotype in the USNM.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR: living colonies are known only from Isla Navidad; sub-fossil on Isla San Geronimo.

 

 

Xerarionta (Xerarionta) pandorae (Forbes, 1850)

 

Helix pandorae Forbes, 1850; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.: 55; pl. 9, figs. 3-3b (shell).

Epiphragmophora pandorae (Forbes).  Dall, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 101.

Micrarionta pandorae (Forbes).  Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 382-384; pl. 15, figs. 17-23 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 16: 179; pl. 10, figs. 1-16.

Xerarionta pandorae (Forbes).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 138; text-fig. 37 (map).

Helix demascensis Gould, 1856; Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 6: 11.-  Johnson, 1964; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 239: 65; pl. 36, fig. 2 (shell). 

Epiphragmophora (Micrarionta) pandorae bonitosensis Pilsbry, 1898; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 70; pl. 1, figs. 4-5 (genitalia).-  Pilsbry, 1913; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 384; pl. 15, fig. 17. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Helix pandorae: unknown.  Helix demascensis: desert region east of California; lectotype Cornell Univ. Paleo. Coll. 27244.  Epiphragmophora (Micrarionta) pandorae bonitosensis: Las Bonitos Island, off Lower California; holotype ANSP 66092a.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: Isla San Benito.

 

 

Subgenus Plesarionta Pilsbry, 1939

 

Plesarionta Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 212.-  Miller, 1981; Veliger, 24: 46.-  Roth, 1996; Veliger, 39: 32. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix stearnsiana Gabb, 1867.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Pacific coastal zone of Baja California Norte and southern California.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized.

 

 

Xerarionta (Plesarionta) orcutti (Dall, 1900)

 

Epiphragmophora orcutti Dall, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 104-105; pl. 8, fig. 19 (shell).

Epiphragmophora traski tularensis ‘Hemphill’ Pilsbry, 1895; Nautilus, 9: 82-83. (A nomum nudum; non Arionta tudiculata tularensis Hemphill, 1892.)

Epiphragmophora traski tularica Bartsch, 1916; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 51: 615; pl. 116, figs. 1-3.

Plesarionta orcutti (Dall).  Roth, 1982; Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci., 81: 101-105; figs. 1-6.-  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci.; 47: 134-135; fig. 36 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Rosario Mesas, Baja California Norte. Holotype in the USNM. 

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.  BAJA CALIFONIA NORTE: mesa about 2.4 km N of El Rosario; El Rosario, 30 m alt.

 

 

Xerarionta (Plesarionta) stearnsiana (Gabb, 1868)

 

Helix stearnsiana Gabb, 1867; Amer. Jour. Conch., 3: 235; pl. 16, fig. 1 (shell).-  Binney, 1969; Land & Fr. W. Sh. N. Amer., 1: 177; fig. 310 (shell).-  Fischer and Crosse, 1872; Miss. Sci. Mex., 1: 248; pl. 11, figs. 5-5a (shell).

Epiphragmophora (Micrarionta) stearnsiana (Gabb).  Pilsbry, 1898; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 70; pl. 1, figs. 8-10 (genitalia).

Micrarionta stearnsiana (Gabb).  Hanna, 1925;  Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 14: 247.-  Berry, 1928; Jour. Entom. Zool. Pomona Coll., 20: 75-76; pl. 1, figs. 1-9 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 16: 178.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 212-213; figs. 107a-f (shell), 102A (genitalia).

Plesarionta stearnsiana (Gabb).  Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990; Calif. Acad. Sci., 47: 135-136; fig. 36 (map).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San Tomás to a little beyond [El] Rosario, Baja California Norte.  Lectotype ANSP 10831 (Pilsbry, 1939).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  San Diego Co., California south to Baja California Norte.  BAJA CALIFORNIA NORTE: Numerous localities along Pacific Coast south to El Rosario (Smith, Miller, Christensen & Roth, 1990); La Zonja, Sierra San Pedro Martír.

 

 

 

Subfamily SONORELLINAE Pilsbry, 1939

 

 

Genus Sonorella Pilsbry, 1900

 

Sonorella Pilsbry, 1900; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 556.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 267-273.-  Bequaert & Miller, 1973: 110-112.

Masculus Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 377. 

Sonoranax Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 391. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Sonorella: Epiphragmophora hachitana Dall, 1895.  Masculus: Sonorella viridis Pilsbry, 1905.  Sonoranax: Sonorella dalli Bartsch, 1904).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Arid southwestern United States in Arizona, New México and Texas south to Chihuahua and Sonora, México.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two subgenera are recognized, Sonorella s. s. and Sonoranax (Roth, 1996: 32).  Only the former occurs in México.  Twenty species and one subspecies are reported from Mexico.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) burgessi Naranjo-Garcia, 1988

 

Sonorella burgessi Naranjo-Garcia, 1988; Veliger, 31: 80-82; fig. 1 (shell), fig. 2 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra el Viejo, at base of northeast facing limestone cliff on ridge southwest of canyon junction where road from west turns north, ca. 7 km east of El Plomito, Sonora; 640 m alt. (30º19’ N 112º20’ W).  Holotype SBMNH 34933.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) cananea Naranjo-Garcia, 1988

 

Sonorella cananea Naranjo-Garcia, 1988; S. W. Nat., 33: 81-84; figs. 1 (shell), 2 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra Elenita, in igneous rock slide along right bank of creek approximately 0.1 mi. (0.16 km) southeast of Highway 2, along arroyo "El Quince", which crosses Highway 2 at 2.1 mi. (approximately 3.38 km) west of Puerto Cananea, a pass approximately 8 mi. (approximately 12.88 km) west of Cananea, Sonora (31º00.5' N, 110º24.0' W).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known from the Sierra Elenita and two localities in the Sierra Mariquita.  SONORA: Sierra Mariquita, 31º03.5' N, 110º02.0' W and 31º02.0' N, 110º22.4' W.

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) goldmani Bartsch, 1904

 

Sonorella goldmani Bartsch, 1904; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47: 192; pl. 32, fig. 6.-  Bequaert & Miller, 1973; Moll. Arid SW: 125.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mountains near Lake Santa Maria, Chihuahua.  Holotype: USNM 174933.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) hachitana hachitana (Dall, 1895)

 

Epiphragmophora hachitana Dall, 1895; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18: 2.-  Dall, 1896; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 19: 338-339 (in part).

Sonorella hachitana (Dall).  Pilsbry, 1901; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 556.-  Bartsch, 1904; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47: 190; pl. 31, fig. 2 (shell); pl. 29 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1905; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 257 (in part).-  Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1915; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 327; pl. 5, figs. 4-4b (shell); text-fig. 2 (genitalia).-  Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1923; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 65.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 273-275; figs. 143 (shell), 144 (genitalia).-  Bequaert & Miller, 1973; Moll. Arid SW: 125.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Big Hatchet Peak, Big Hatchet Mountains, Hidalgo Co., New México.  Holotype USNM 130004.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Known only from the Big Hatchet Mountains, in  New México.  Bequaret and Miller (1973: 125) report this species from Sonora without giving a specific locality.  Presumably this is also in the Sierra Hacheta Grande.  Other subspecies occur in New México and Texas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) madreana Naranjo-Garcia, 1989

 

Sonorella madreana Naranjo-Garcia, 1989; Veliger, 32: 87; fig. 4A (shell), fig. 5 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra Las Minitas, ca. 2 km southeast of Rancho Jucaral buildings, Sonora; 1400 m alt. (31º11.1’ N, 109º04.7’ W).  Holotype SBMNH 34952.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) magdalenensis (Stearns, 1890)

 

Helix magdalenensis Stearns, 1890; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 13: 207-208; pl. 15, figs. 7, 11, 13 (shell).

Sonorella magdalenensis (Stearns).  Bequaert & Miller, 1973; Moll. Arid. SW: 121-122.

Sonorella tumamocensis Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1915; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 401; pl. 10, figs. 4-4b (shell), pl. 13, figs. 5, 8 (genitalia).-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 344-345; fig. 214 (shell). 

Sonorella sitiens arida Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1915; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 409; pl. 8, figs. 6-6b (shell). 

Sonorella arida Pilsbry & Ferriss.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 341-344; figs. 209-210, 212-213 (shell), 211 (genitalia).

Sonorella hinkleyi Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1919; Nautilus, 33: 19.-  Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1923; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 75: 87; pl. 3, figs. 1, 4 (shell); pl. 8, fig. 7 (genitalia). 

Sonorella hinkleyi fraterna Ferriss, 1919; Nautilus, 33: 38 (A nomum nudum).

Sonorella hinkleyi tumacacori Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1919; Nautilus, 33: 19. 

Sonorella cayetanensis Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1919; Nautilus, 33: 19.

Sonorella hinkleyi cayetanensis Pilsbry & Ferriss.  Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1923; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 75: pl. 3, fig. 5 (shell); text-fig. 9 (genitalia).

Sonorella linearis Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1923; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 75: 68; pl. 1, fig. 12 (shell). 

Sonorella tumamocensis linearis Pilsbry & Ferriss.  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 345-346; figs. 215 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix magdalenensisi: restricted to Sierra Magdalena, ca. 1 mi. north of Magdalena; 3650 ft. alt. (Bequaert & Miller, 1973); holotype USNM.  Sonorella tumamocensis: Tumamoc Hill at west city limits of Tucson, Arizona; 2750 ft. alt.; holotype ANSP  112245.  Sonorella sitiens arida: south end of Cerro Colorado, ca. 2 mi. from Cerro Colorado Mine, Pima County, Arizona; holotype ANSP 112160.  Sonorella hinkleyi: San Cayetana Mountains on southern most peak [Mt. Shibell], 2 mi. above Calabasa, Santa Cruz County, Arizona; holotype ANSP 43735.  Sonorella cayetanensis: from near the top to rather low on the highest peak of the Cayetano Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, fide Pilsbry, 1939; holotype ANSP 43737.  Sonorella linearis: North end of Santa Rita Mountains on west side of saddle overlooking Helvetia, Pima County, Arizona; holotype ANSP 130996.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Southeastern Arizona south to 29º25' N.  SONORA: Sierra Pajaritos ca. 24 mi. by rd. E of Ures, 3000 ft. alt.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) mearnsi Bartsch, 1904

 

Sonorella mearnsi Bartsch, 1904; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47: 194-195; pl. 32, fig. 2 (shell).-  Bequaert & Miller, 1973; Moll. Arid SW: 125.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra San José, Sonora, about four miles south of the Arizona border and a few miles east of the Rio San Pedro.  Holotype USNM 130003.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) mormonorum mormonorum Pilsbry, 1948

 

Sonorella mormonorum Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 271 (A nomum nudum.).-  Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 196-198; pl. 13, fig. 6 (shell); text fig. 5A (genitalia).-  Miller, 1967; Nautilus, 81: 3; text-fig. C (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Canyon on the Rio Piedras Verdes 3 1/2 miles above Colonia Juaraz, in talus of cliffs on south side of River, Chihuahua; 5200 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 166160.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) mormonorum huasabensis Miller, 1967

 

Sonorella mormonum huasabensis Miller, 1967; Nautilus, 81: 2-3; pl. 1, figs. a-c (shell); text-figs. A, B, F (genitalia).

.

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  In northwest facing rockslides about five miles east of Huasabas, along the road from Huasabas to Bavispe, Sonora; ca. 3600 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 312763.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) nelsoni Bartsch, 1904

 

Sonorella nelsoni Bartsch, 1904; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 47: 191-192; pl. 31, fig. 3 (shell).-  Bequaert & Miller, 1973: Moll. Arid SW: 125.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mountains near Lake Santa Maria, Chihuahua.  Holotype USNM 174934.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) nixoni Miller, 1967

 

Sonorella nixoni Miller, 1967; Nautilus, 80: 116-117; pl. 6, figs. G-I (shell); pl. 7, figs. G-I (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  La Angustura, Sonora, in rocks just south of the main road at the village, overlooking the west rim of La Angustura Dam on the Rio Bavispe, Sonora; 3100 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 310361.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Known only from the vicinity of the type locality.  SONORA: rockslide on mountain south of road from El Tajo to La Anustura, 8.4 mi. from El Tajo, 4600 ft. alt;  Pilares de Nacozari, ca. 1 mi. E of Nacozari; 4200 ft. alt.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) pennelli Pilsbry, 1948

 

Sonorella pennelli Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 271 (A nomum nudum).-  Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 195-196; pl. 13, fig. 5 (shell); text-fig. 5B (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra de La Breña, a steep rock slide above the road from Pearson [Mata Ortiz] to Pacheco, Chihuahua; 7000 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 164081.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

  REMARKS.-  Named for Dr. Francis W. Pennell.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) perhirsuta Miller, 1967

 

Sonorella perhirsuta Miller, 1967; Nautilus, 81: 4-6; pl. 1, figs. D-F (shell); text-figs. D, E, H (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  In granite rock piles in a ravine on the north-east face of the high peak, in mountains between Moctezuma and Huasabas, about 2 miles north of the Moctezuma-Huasabas road at a point 16.6 road miles east of Moctezuma, Sonora; 4650 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 312765.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) pratti Naranjo-Garcia, 1988

 

Sonorella pratti Naranjo-Garcia, 1988; Veliger, 31: 82-83; figs. 3 (shell), 4 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra El Viejo, in north-facing limestone rockpile at base of cliffs, at mouth of large central canyon, running westerly, at point 9.5 road miles (15.2 km) north and 4.5 road miles (7.2 km) east of El Plomito, Sonora (30º20’ N, 112º20.8’ W); 500 m alt.  Holotype SBMNH 34936.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) rothi Naranjo-Garcia, 1988

 

Sonorella rothi Naranjo-Garcia, 1988; Veliger, 31: 83-84; fig. 5 (shell), fig. 6 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Northwest end of Sierra Pico, in igneous rocks at base of cliffs, along road from El Plomito to Puerto Libertad, 14.9 miles (23.8 km) from El Plomito, Sonora; 365 m alt. (30º00.5’ N, 112º27’ N).  Holotype  SBMNH 34934.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) sasabe Naranjo-Garcia, 1989

 

Sonorella sasabe Naranjo-Garcia, 1989; Veliger, 32: 86-87; figs. 1B (shell), 3 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra Pozo Verde, on east flank of Cerro El Sasabe, 4 km south of Sasabe on road to Altar, Sonora; 1050 m alt. (31º26.3’ N, 111º33.8’ W).  Holotype SBMNH 34954.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) seri Naranjo-Garcia, 1988

 

Sonorella seri Naranjo-Garcia, 1988; Veliger, 31: 84-85; fig. 7 (shell), fig. 8 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra El Viejo, in north-facing limestone piles at north end of range, Sonora; 550 m alt. (30º24.1 N, 112º22.5 W).  Holotype SBMNH 34935.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) sitiens montezuma Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1919

 

Sonorella sitiens montezuma Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1919; Nautilus, 33: 20.-  Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1923; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 75: 79; pl. 2, fig. 8; pl. 6, fig. 10.-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 351-352; fig. 221 (genitalia), fig. 222 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  South end of Huachuca Mountains in a deep double gulch west of last rock fronted mountain on south side of Montezuma Canyon, Cochis Co., Arizona.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Huachuca Mountains and Patagonia Mountains in southern Arizona, and in México.  SONORA:  Sierra Pajaritos, 25 mi. E of Ures (29º25' N, 110º10' W), 3300 ft. alt.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) torreonica Naranjo-Garcia, 1989

 

Sonorella torreonica Naranjo-Garcia, 1989; Veliger, 32: 85-86; fig. 1A (shell), fig. 2 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra El Torreón 17 road miles (27 km) southeast of Magdalena, on road to Cucurpe, Sonora; 1050 m alt. (30º27.8’ N, 110º48.5’ W).  Holotype SBMNH 34951.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) walkeri walkeri Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1915

 

Sonorella walkeri Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1915; Proc. Acad Nat. Sci. Phila.: 395; pl. 9, figs. 4-4b (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1939; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 286-289; fig. 156 (shell), fig. 157 (1-3, 5-5a) (genitalia).

Sonorella walkeri walkeri Pilsbry.  Bequaert & Miller, 1973: Moll. Arid SW: 115.

Sonorella montana Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1919; Nautilus, 33: 19.

Sonorella walkeri montana Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1923; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 75: 68; pl. 1, fig. 11 (shell); text-fig. 1 (genitalia).

Sonorella walkeri aguacalientensis Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1923; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 75: 68.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sonorella walkeri: Walnut Branch, Agua Caliente Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona; holotype ANSP 112164.  Sonorella montana: Montana Mine, Montana Peak, in Bear Canyon, Pajarito Mountains, Santa Cruz Co., Arizona; holotype ANSP 43724.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known from the Santa Rita Mountains and the Pajarito Mountains, which extend across the International Border from Arizona into Sonora.

 

 

Sonorella (Sonorella) walteri Naranjo-Garcia, 1989

 

Sonorella walteri Naranjo-Garcia, 1989; Veliger, 32: 87-88; fig. 4B (shell), fig. 6 (genitalia).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cerro Gallardo, in north facing rheolite rock piles below cliffs, ca. 1.5 km south of Rancho Gallardo buildings, Sonora; 1500 m alt. (31º17.8’ N, 109º23.4’ W).  Holotype SBMNH 34953.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SONORA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

FAMILY XANTHONICHIDAE Strebel & Pfeffer, 1880

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  The Neotropical realm.  Within the study area the family is widely distributed from Panama north to Tamaulipas, Mexico on the east coast, and to Sonora on the west coast.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The Xanthonichidae includes the following ten Mexican and Central American genera.  Nordsieck, 1997 and Schileyko, 1998, proposed various subfamilies and tribes to accommodate the genera.  The phylogeny and suprageneric taxonomy of the Middle American helicids is controversial, because anatomical data are not available for many of the species, and the proposed classifications do not allow for convergent evolution within reproductive anatomies, as surely has happened in several instances.  The classification of the Xanthonichidae requires further investigations (Miller & Naranjo-Garcia, 1991). 

 

 

Subfamily Leptariontinae Nordsieck, 1997

 

 

Genus Leptarionta Fischer & Crosse, 1872

 

Leptarionta Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 253.-  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad, Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 136-137.-  Zilch, 1960: 651.  

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix bicincta Pfeiffer, 1841.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Central Veracruz south to Chiapas, Tabasco, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Eight species and six subspecies are recognized.  Leptarionta maxwillsmithi is included because it occurs in an immediate adjacent region in Colombia.  A Peruvian species, Leptarionta woytkowskii Weyrauch, 1960, appears to be an Helicina.

 

 

 

Leptarionta adela (Angas, 1878)

 

Helix adela Angas, 1878; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 72; pl. 5, figs. 8-10 (shell).

Helix (Oxychona) adela Angas.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 158.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 625.

Oxychona adela (Angas, 1878).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 189.

 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Navarro, [Prov. Cartago], Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COASTA RICA, Prov. Cartago: Azahar, 1500 m alt. (Von Martens, 1901).

 

 

Leptarionta altispira (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix (Oxychona) altispira Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 156-157; pl. 9, figs. 10, 10a, 10b (shell).

Oxychona altispira (Von Martens, 1892).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 191.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Leptarionta bicincta (Pfeiffer, 1941)

 

Helix bicincta Pfeiffer, 1841; Symbolae Hist. Helic., 1: 38.

Helix (Leptarionata) bicincta Pfeiffer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 253; pl. 10, figs. 7, 7a (shell).-  Tryon, 1888; Man. Conch., 4: 75-76; pl. 19, fig. 78 (shell).

Corasia bicincta (Pfeiffer).  Strebel, 1880: 51; pl. 13, fig. 17 (juvenile shell).

Helix (Oxychona) bicincta (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 157.-  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 191.

Leptarionta bicincta (Pfeiffer, 1941).  Zilch, 1960: 651; fig. 2279 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: Juquila; Panistlahuaca (Von Martens, 1892).  VERACRUZ: Soledad between Cordoba and Orizaba (Von Martens, 1892). 

 

 

Leptarionta costaricensis (Roth, 1856)

 

Helix costaricensis Roth, in Pfeiffer, 1856; Novitates Conchologicae, 1: 78; pl. 21, figs. 15-17.

Helix boucardi Angas, 1878; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 72; pl. 5, figs. 5-7 (shell).-  Angas, 1879; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 476.

Helix costaricensis var. steiniana Ancey, 1890; Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 7: 155.

Helix costaricensis var. virginea Ancey, 1890; Bull. Soc. Malac. France, 7: 156.

Helix (Oxychona) costaricensis (Roth).  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 134-135; pl. 18, figs. 23-25; pl. 60, figs. 1-9 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 158.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 626.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Cartago: Navarro; Cachí; Valle de Tuís (Von Martens, 1901).  Prov. Limon: Cabecar (Von Martens, 1892); Puente de Tierra, on the road to Sarapiqui; Santa Clara, 250 m alt.; between Mokri and Ukatschka; between Mokri and Uiskar; Alta Talamanca (Von Martens, 1901).

 

 

 

Leptarionta guillarmodi (Shuttleworth, 1852)

 

Helix guillarmodi Shuttleworth, 1852.  Mitt. Naturf. Ges. Bern: 199. 

Helix (Corasia) guillarmodi Shuttleworth.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 296; pl. 10, figs. 8, 8a (shell).

Corasia guillarmodi (Shuttleworth).  Strebel, 1880: 50.

Helix (Oxychona) guillarmodi Shuttleworth.  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 133-134; pl. 57, figs. 32, 33 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 158-159.

Leptarionta guillarmodi (Shuttleworth).  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 187-189; pl. 14, fig. 7 (foot); text-figs. 13a (reproductive system), fig. 13b, 13c (radula), fig. 13d (jaw).-  Neubert & Gosteli, 2003; Contributions to Natural History, 1: 27-28; pl. 13, fig. 3.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordoba, Veracruz.  Syntypes: Naturhistorisches Museum Bern 19080/3 (Neubert & Gosteli, 2003: 27-28).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Córdoba; Toxpam, nr. Cordoba; Cerro de Palmas, nr. Cordoba (Von Martens, 1892); Las Tortolas, in limestone foothills ca. 2 km N of Cordoba (Pilsbry, 1927).

 

 

 

Leptarionta maxwellsmithi Pilsby, 1930

 

Leptarionta maxwellsmithi Pilsbry, 1930; Nautilus, 43: 116-117; text-figs. 1 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Acandí, Dept. Chocó, Colombia.  Holotype ANSP 150243.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COLOMBIA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Leptarionta trigonostoma trigonostoma (Pfeiffer, 1844)

 

Helix trigonostoma Pfeiffer, 1844; in Phillipi, Abbildungen neuer Conch., 1: 154; pl. 4, fig. 8 (shell).

Helix (Geotrochus) trigonostoma Pfeiffer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 291; pl. 11, fig. 6 (shell).

Helix (Oxychona) trigonostoma Pfeiffer.  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 132-133; pl. 14, figs. 1-4 (shell); pl. 15, figs. 1, 2 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 154.

Leptarionta trigonostoma (Pfeiffer).  Bequaert, 1957: 223-224.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Dept. Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS (von Marten, 1892).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Senahu (von Marten, 1892).  Dept. Chimaltenango: Yepocapa (Bequaert, 1957).  Dept. Petén (Von Martens, 1892).  Dept. Solola: Finca Montequina, Atitlan (Bequaert, 1957). CHIAPAS: Laguna Ocotal, 950 m alt.; El Censo to Laguna Ocotal, 700-1000 m alt.; Monte Libano to El Censo, 600-700 m alt. (Bequaert, 1957).  TABASCO. 

 

 

 

Leptarionta trigonostoma elevatoconica (Fischer & Crosse, 1872)

 

Helix trigonostoma var. elevato-conica Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 291; pl. 11, fig. 6a (shell).

Helix (Oxychona) trigonostoma var. elevatoconica Fischer & Crosse.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 154.

Oxychona trigonostoma elevatoconica (Fischer & Crosse).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 190.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mountains of the Dept. Vera Paz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Coban.  Dept. Guatemala: nr. Cd. Guatemala, 5000 ft. alt. (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

 

Leptarionta trigonostoma freytagiana (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix trigonostoma var. freytagiana Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 155; pl. 9, figs. 8, 8a, 9, 9a (shell).

Oxychona trigonostoma freytagiana (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 191.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  HONDURAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Leptarionta trigonostoma intermedia (Fischer & Crosse, 1872)

 

Helix trigonostoma var. intermedia Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 291; pl. 11, fig. 6b (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 155, pl. 9, figs. 1, 1a (shell).

Oxychona trigonostoma intermedia (Fischer & Crosse).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 190.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  San Agustín, Dept. San Marcos, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Senahu (Von Martens, 1892).  Dept. Quetzaltenango: Cerro Zunil (Von Martens, 1892).  Dept. San Marcos: San Agustín.

 

 

 

Leptarionta trigonostoma salleana (Pfeiffer, 1849)

 

Helix salleana Pfeiffer, 1849; Mon. Heliceorum Vivntium, 3: 173.

Helix trigonostoma var. salleana Pfeiffer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 291.

Helix trigonostoma var. obscura Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 291; pl. 11, fig. 6d (shell).

Helix (Oxychona) trigonostoma var. salleana Pfeiffer.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 154.

Leptarionta trigonostoma salleana (Pfeiffer).  Thompson, 1957; Nautilus, 70: 101.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Along the Rio San Juan, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Izabal: Sierra del Mico, south of the Golfo Dulce (Von Martens, 1992).  Dept. San Marcos: San Agustín (Von Martens, 1892).  TABASCO: 0.5-1.0 mi. E of Taepa (Thompson, 1957).

 

 

 

Leptinaria trigonostoma stolliana (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix trigonostoma var. stolliana Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 155; pl. 9, figs. 2, 2a-7, 7a (shell), 11, 12 (animal).

Oxychona trigonostoma stolliana (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 191; pl. 45, figs. 9, 10 (live animal).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not designated.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Escuintla: Buenavista; Miramar; Hacienda Helvetia; Hacienda San Francisco (Von Martens, 1892).  Dept. Quetzaltenango: Cerro Zunil (Von Martens, 1892).  Dept. Retalhuleu: El Reposo (Von Martens, 1892).  Dept. San Marcos: San Agustín (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

 

Leptarionta venusta venusta Gude, 1903

 

Leptarionta venusta venusta Gude, 1903; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 5: 263; pl. 7, figs. 8-11 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 73; text-fig. 4 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiriquí, Panama.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Leptarionta venusta albata Rehder, 1942

 

Leptarionta venusta albata Rehder, 1942: 352; figs. 4-6, 7-9 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiriquí Prov., Panama.  Holotype USNM 536030.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Leptarionta zhorquinensisis (Angas, 1879)

 

Helix zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 475; pl. 40, fig. 1 (shell).

Helix (Oxychona) zhorquinensis Angas.  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Con., 5: 133; pl. 60, fig. 12.-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 157.

Oxychona zhorquinensis (Angas).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 190.

Leptarionta zhorquinensis (Angas).  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 127

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Along the Zhorquin River, Costa Rica.

 

  DISTRIBUION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. Limón: Monkey Point (Pilsbry, 1926).

 

 

 

 

Genus Tryonigens Pilsbry, 1927

 

Tryonigens Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 189-191.-  Solem, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (611): 12.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix remondi Tryon, 1862.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Coastal western Mexico from Sonora south to Colima.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized.

 

 

 

Tryonigens remondi (Tryon, 1863)

 

Helix remondi Tryon, 1863; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 281.

Arionta remondi (Tryon).  Tryon, 1866; Amer. Jour. Conch., 2: 318, 325; pl. 22, fig. 18 (shell).-  Tryon, 1868; Amer. Jour. Conch., 4: 240.

Helix verrilli Ancey, 1887; Conchologist’s Exchange, 2: 63.

Helix trypanomphala var. remondi Tryon.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 143.

Tryonigens remondi (Tryon).  Pilsbry, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 191; text-fig. 14a (tail), fig. 14b (radula), fig. 14c (reproductive anatomy).-  Solem, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (610): 12-13.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Helix remondi: Sinaloa; holotype ANSP 58122.  Helix verrilli: Ventanas, Durango.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: Rio Mayo, Guasaremos (Solem, 1959).  COLIMA: Manzanillo (Pilsbry, 1927).  DURANGO: Ventanas.  GUERRERO: Agua de Obispo (Solem, 1959).  JALISCO: Sayul (Von Martens, 1892); Puebla de Santa Catarina (Solem, 1959). MICHOACÁN: Cerro Guzman, Coalcoman (Solem, 1959).  NAYARIT: Tepic; Rio Tepic, 5 mi. below Tepic (Solem, 1959).  SINALOA: Mazatlan; Rosario; Panuco, 1800 ft. alt. (Solem, 1959).  SONORA: Guaymas (Tryon, 1866).

 

 

 

Subfamily LYSINOINAE Hoffmann, 1928

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single genus is placed in this subfamily.

 

 

Genus Lysinoe H. Adams & A. Adams, 1855

 

Lysinoe H. Adams & A. Adams, 1855; Genera of Recent Mollusca (2): 203.-  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 191-192.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix ghiesbreghti Nyst, 1841.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Chiapas, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras.  A species from Jalisco is included in the genus, but it’s phylogenetic affinities are questionable.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Four species and six subspecies are recognized.

 

 

Lysinoe eximia eximia (Pfeiffer, 1844)

 

Helix eximia Pfeiffer, 1844; in Philippi, Abbildungen neuer Conchyl., 1: 153; pl. 5, fig. 6 (shell).

Helix (Odonture) eximia Pfeiffer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 242-245; pl. 11, figs. 3, 3a, 3d (shell); 206-210; pl. 13. fig. 7 (jaw), figs. 8, 9 (radula), figs. 10, 11 (reproductive anatomy) fig. 13 (nervous system).

Odontura eximia (Pfeifer).  Strebel, 1880: 36.

Helix (Lysinoe) eximia Pfeiffer.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 149-150.

Lysinoe eximia (Pfeiffer).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 192; pl. 60, fig. 9 (jaw).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not given.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Coban.  Dept. Huehuetenango: upper Cholhuitz; nr. San Martin, ca. 6000 ft. alt. (Von Martens, 1892).  Dept. Sacatepequez: Dueñas (Fischer & Crosse, 1872).

 

 

Lysinoe eximia stolli (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix (Odonture) eximia Pfeiffer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1873; Miss. Sci. Mex., I: 242; pl. 11, figs. 3b, 3c (shell).

Helix (Lysinoe) eximia var. stolli Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 149-150.

Lysinoe exmia stolli (Martens).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 192.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Vera Paz”, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti ghiesbreghti (Nyst, 1841)

 

Helix ghiesbreghti Nyst, 1841; Bull. Acad. Bruxelles, 7: 343; fig. 2 (shell).

Helix (Odontura) ghiesbreghti Nyst.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 245, pl. 10, fig. 9 (shell); 206-210 (anatomy); pl. 13, fig. 1 (jaw), figs. 2, 3, 4, 5 (radula), fig. 6 (reproductive anatomy).

Odontura ghiesbreghti (Nyst).  Strebel, 1872: 37.

Helix (Lysinoe) ghiesbrghti Nyst.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 150-152; pl. 8, figs. 3, 3a, 4 (shell).

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti (Nyst).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 192; pl. 60, fig. 8 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Coban.  Dept. Baja Verapaz: Purulha.  CHIAPAS.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Five additional subspecies have been described. 

 

 

 

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti bizonata (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix (Odontura) ghiesbreght var. δ Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 245, 247.

Helix (Lysinoe) ghiesbreghti var. bizonata Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 151.

Lysenoe ghiesbreghti bizona (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 192.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordierra de San Marcos, Honduras; ca. 2660 m alt.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Honduras: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti fulvostraminea (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix (Odontura) ghiesbreghti var. γ Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 245; pl. 10, fig. 9a (living animal).

Helix (Lysinoe) ghiesbreghti var. fulvo-straminea Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 151.

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti fulvostraminea (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 192.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Toliman, in the hills above San Lucas, near Lago de Atitlán, Dept. Solola, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti rFLMNHozonata (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix (Odontura) ghiesbreghti var. β Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 247.

Helix (Lysinoe) ghiesbreghti var. rFLMNHo-zonata Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 151.

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti rFLMNHozonata (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 192.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Not given.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA (?).

 

 

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti subaurantia (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix (Lysinoe) ghiesbreghti var. subaurantia Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 151; pl. 8, figs. 1, 1a-1d (shell).

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti subaurantia (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 192.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Purula [Purulha}, Dept. Baja Verapaz, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Baja Verapaz: Purulha.  Dept. Quetzaltenango: Cerro Zunil (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

 

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti strubelli (Von Martens, 1892)

 

Helix (Lysinoe) ghiesbreghti var. strubelli Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 151; pl. 8, fig. 2 (shell).

Lysinoe ghiesbreghti strubelli (Von Martens).  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 192.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cabo Gracias a Dios, Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Lysinoe sebastiana (Dall, 1897)

 

Helix (Lysinoe) sebastiana Dall, 1897: 73-74.

Lysinoe sebastiana (Dall).  Solem, 1955; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (566): 43-44; pl. 3, figs. 7-9.-  Solem, 1956: 140.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Near San Sebastian, Jalisco, Mexico.  Holotype in the USNM.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  JALISCO: Sierra Autlán, ca. 20 mi. SSE of Autlán, Jalisco (Solem, 1955).

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The generic affinities of this species need to be verified anatomically.

 

 

 

Lysinoe starretti Thompson, 1963

 

Lysinoe staretti Thompson, 1963; Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 76: 27-31; pl. 1, figs. 1-4 (shell); text-figs. 1 A, B (radula, jaw); text-figs. 1, C-D, a-f (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Hacienda Monte Cristo, Metapan, Dept. Santa Ana, El Salvador; 2200 m alt.  Holotype UMMZ 195327.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  EL SALVADOR: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Subfamily TRICHODISCININAE Schileyko, 1998

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-   Mexico from Sinaloa on the Pacific coast, and to Tamaulipas on the east coast south to Panama.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Three genera are included.  The subfamily Miraveralliinae Schileyko, 1998, is a synonym.  

 

 

 

Genus Averellia Ancey, 1887

 

Coelospira Ancey, 1886; Conch. Exchange, 1: 20 (not Coelospira Hall, 1864: Brachiopoda).

Averellia Ancey, 1887; Conch. Exchange, 1: 54.  Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 197, 198.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix mac-neili Crosse, 1873.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Costa Rica and northwestern Panama.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized.

 

 

 

Averelllia macneili (Crosse, 1873)

 

Helix mac-neili Crosse, 1873; Jour. de Conchyl., 21: 67.-  Crosse, 1874; Jour. de Conchyl., 22: 71; pl. 2, fig. 3 (shell).

Helix (Averellia) macneili (Crosse).  Pilsbry, 1889; Man. Conch., 5: 96; pl. 49, figs. 59-61 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 137-138.-  Von Martens, 1901; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 623.

Epiphragmophora (Averellia) macneili (Crosse).  Pilsbry, 1895; Man. Conch., 9: 197.

Averelllia macneili (Crosse).  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 73.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiriquí Lagoon, Costa Rica [Panama].

 

  DISRIBUTION RECORDS.-  PANAMA, Prov. Bocas del Toro: drift of San San Creek.  Prov. Chiriquí: Chiriquí Lagoon (Pilsbry, 1926).  COSTA RICA, Prov. Cartago: Tuís, 600 m alt. (Von Martens, 1901).  Prov. Limon: coastal region and lower foothills from Parismina to the hills of Zhorquin (Von Martens, 1892).  Prov. Puntarenas: Alto de Mano Tigre, 690 m alt.; Terraba (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

Genus Miraverellia Baker, 1922

 

Miraverellia Baker, 1922; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (106): 60.-  Solem, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (611): 1-2.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix sumichrasti Crosse & Fischer, 1872.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Mexico in the states of Chiapas, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Michoacán and Veracruz.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Four species are recognized.

 

 

Miraverellia inflata (Thompson, 1859)

 

Averellia (Miraverellia) inflata Thompson, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (610): 1-8; pl. 1 (shell); text-fig. 1A (pallial organs), figs. 1B, 1C (jaw), fig. 1D (radula); text-fig. 2 (reproductive anatomy).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  El Fuente, south slope of Volcán San Martín, Sierra de las Tuxtlas, Veracruz; 1170 m alt.  Holotype UMMZ 196002.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Miraverellia sargi (Crosse & Fischer, 1872)

 

Helix sargi Crosse & Fischer, 1872; Jour. de Conchyl., 20: 146-147.-  Von Martens, 1874; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 648.

Helix (Aglaia) sargi Crosse & Fischer.  Crosse & Fischer, 1873; Jour. de Conchyl., 21; 277-278; pl. 9, fig. 2 (shell).-  Fischer & Crosse, 1902: 664; pl. 71, figs. 6, 6a, 6b (shell).

Helix (Trichodiscina) sargi Crosse & Fischer.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 157.

Trichodiscina sargi (Crosse & Fischer).  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34: 50.

Averellia (Miraverellia) sargi (Crosse & Fischer, 1872).  Solem, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (611): 2-3; pl. 1, figs. 13-15 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tamahú, [Dept. Alta Verapaz], Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Alta Verapaz: Tamahú; Coban (Von Martens, 1892); Chejel (Hinkley, 1920).

 

 

 

Miraverellia sumichrasti (Crosse & Fischer, 1872)

 

Helix sumichrasti Crosse & Fischer, 1872; Jour. de Conchyl., 20: 146.

Helix (Trichia) sumichrasti Crosse & Fischer, 1873; Jour. de Conchyl., 21: 265; pl. 9, figs. 4, 4a (shell).-  Fischer & Crosse, 1902, 2: 664-665; pl. 71, figs. 7a, 7b (shell).

Helix (Trichodiscina) sumichrasti Crosse & Fischer.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 137.

Averellia (Miraverllia) sumichrasti (Crosse & Fischer).  Baker, 1922; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (106): 58-60; pl. 17, fig. 8 (radula), fig. 10 (jaw).-  Solem, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (611): 3-4; pl. 1, figs. 7, 8, 9 (shell).

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  [Santiago] Laollaga, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca (16.58º N, 95.2º W) (Solem, 1959).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: Laollaga.

 

  REMARKS.-  Records by Solem (1959) from Veracruz and Michoacán are doubtful.

 

 

 

Miraverellia verdensis (Dall, 1910)

 

Epiphragmophora (Trichodiscina) verdensis Dall, 1910; Nautilus, 24: 35-36 (not illustrated).

Averellia (Miraverellia) sumichrasti (Crosse & Fischer). Solem, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (611): 3-4 (in part). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Near the hot springs, along the Rio Verde, Oaxaca.  Further restricted to Rio Verde, Oaxaca (17.057º N, 94.751º W) (Solem, 1959).  Holotype USNM 212318.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Genus Trichodiscina Von Martens, 1892

 

Trichodiscus Strebel, 1880: 32 (not Trichodiscus Ehrenberg, 1830, Protozoa).

Trichodiscina Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 133.-  Pérez & López, 2002: 187-188.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix coactiliata Férussac, 1838.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Venezuela north through Central America to Tamaulipas and Sinaloa in Mexico.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Six species and one subspecies are recognized.  Trchodiscina crinita Fulton, 1917, is a Thysanophora, sub-genus Setidiscus.

 

 

 

Trichodiscina coactiliata (Férussac, 1838)

 

Helix coactiliata Deshayes, 1839, in Férussac, Hist. Nat. Moll. Terrestres, 1: 18; pl. 72, figs. 1-5 (shell).

Helix (patula) coactiliata (Férussac).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 234.

Trichodiscus coactiliata (Férussac).  Strebel, 1880: 34.

Patula coactiliata (Férussac).  Pilsbry, 1889; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, 43: 314.

Helix (Trichodiscina) coactiliata (Férussac).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 133-135,

Epiphragmophora coactiliata (Férussac).  Pilsbry, 1895; Man. Conch., 9: 191.-  Fluck, 1905; Nautilus, 19: 78.

Averellia (Trichodiscina) coactiliata (Férussac).  Hinkley, 1907; Nautilus, 21: 71.-  Baker, 1922; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (106): 57-58; pl. 27, fig. 7 (radula), fig. 9 (jaw).-   Baker, 1926; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (167): 22.-  Pilsbry, 1926; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 78: 73.-  Bequaert & Clench, 1933; Pub. Carnegie Inst. Wash., (431): 531.-  Bequaert & Clench, 1936; Pub. Canegie Inst. Wash., (457): 64.-  Richards, 1937; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc., 77: 252.-  Richards, 1938: 172.-  Morrison, 1946; Smiths. Misc. Coll., 106: 44.-  Haas, 1949; Nautilus, 62: 138.-  Harry, 1950; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (524): 11.-  Bequaert, 1957: 224.-  Basch, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (612): 11.-  Haas & Solem, 1966; Nautilus, 73: 131.-  Thompson, 1967; Bull. Fla. Sta. Mus., 11: 253.

Trichodiscina coactiliata (Ferussac).  Pérez & López, 2002: 188-190.

Helix nystiana Pfeiffer, 1845; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 130.

Helix bridgesi Tryon, 1866; Amer. Jour. Conch., 2: 303; pl. 20, figs. 9, 10 (shell).

Helix parkeri Tryon, 1867; Amer. Jour. Conch., 3: 106.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix coactiliata: not given.  Helix nystiana: Realejo, Nicaragua.  Helix bridgesi: Nicaragua.  Helix parkeri: Nicaragua.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Eastern Mexico from Tamaulipas south through Central America to Trinidad and Venezuela (Baker, 1926).  PANAMA, Pearl Islands: San José Island (Morrison, 1946).  Prov. Los Santos: Tonosí (Pilsbry, 1926).  NICARAGUA, Pacific versant, common (Pérez & López, 2002).  Dept. Chinandega: Realejo (Von Martens, 1892).  Reg. Aut. Atlantico Norte: Weilawas Hill, nr. Wani (Fluck, 1905).  HONDURAS, Roatan Island: between Coden Hole and French Harbor; North Side; West End (Richards, 1938).  BELIZE, Rio Frio Cave (Haas & Solem, 1966).  GUATEMALA, Dept. Escuintla: Zapote (Haas, 1949).  Dept. Izabal: nr. Livingston.  Dept. Petén: Tikal National Park (Basch, 1959).  CAMPECHE: 5.1 mi. NNE of Dzibalchen; 3.6 mi. S of Hopelchen; 6.1 mi. E of Seyaplaya; 7.2 mi. S of Pixtun; 10.2 mi. E of Escarcega; 19.2 mi. E of Silvituc (Thompson, 1967).  CHIAPAS: Laguna Ocotal, 950 m alt.; El Real, 600 m alt. (Bequaert, 1957).  QUINTANA ROO: Cozumel Island, 3 mi. N of San Miguel (Richards, 1937); Chetumal (Haas & Solem, 1966); 4.0 mi. E of Xpujil, Campeche (Thompson, 1967).  TAMAULIPAS: Tampico (Hinkley, 1907).  VERACRUZ: Coatotolapam (Baker, 1922).  YUCATAN: Tablas; Labna (Pilsbry, 1891); Chichen Itza (Bequaert & Clench, 1933); Xtolok Cenote, nr. Chichen Itza (Bequaert & Clench, 1936); 8 mi. NW of Chichen Itza (Harry, 1950).

 

 

Trichodiscina cordovana (Pfeiffer, 1858)

 

Helix cordovana Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 318. 

Helix (Patula) coactiata var. cordovana Pfeiffer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 234; pl. 12, figs. 4, 4a, 4b, 4c (shell).

Trichodiscus cordovana Strebel, 1880: 32; pl. 3, fig. 5 (shell); pl. 11, figs. 1 (radula), fig. 10 (jaw), fig. 17 (pallial organs).-  Tryon, 1887; Man. Conch., 3: 49; pl. 5, figs. 99-1 (shell).

Helix (Trichodiscina) cordovana (Pfeiffer).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 135.

Averellia (Trichodiscina) cordovana (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1927; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 79: 242-243; pl. 20, figs. 53, 54, 56, 57 (reproductive anatomy); fig. 55 (pallial organs).

Trichodiscina cordovana (Dall).  Correa-Sandoval, 1993; Rev. Biol. Trop., 41: 675.-  Correa-Sandoval, Gutierrez & Reza, 1998: 17.-  Correa-Sandoval, 1999: 9.  Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002; Acta Zool. Mex., (86): 238.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Tuspan [Tuxpam], south of Tampico, Veracruz.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUERRERO: Omilteme (Von Martens, 1892).  NUEVO LEON: Santiago (Correa-Sandoval, 1993).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: numerous localities (Correa-Sandoval, et al. 1998).  TAMAULIPAS: numerous localities in southern part of state (Correa-Sandoval & Castro, 2002).  VERACRUZ: Nacimiento de Quilate, Cerro de Espadilla, Rancho Guerrero, all in the vicinity of Misantla; numerous localities in the vicinity of Jalapa; hacienda Mirador; Soledad; Almolonga; Cordoba (Von Martens, 1892); km 234, 1 km SE of Tuxpam (20°49’11” N, 97°30’00” W); La Ordeña, Papantla (20°29’43” N, 97°18’27” W); Ruinas El Tajín (20°26’29” N, 97°22’30” W) (Correa-Sandoval, 1999).

 

 

Trichodiscina hinkleyi Pilsbry, 1919

 

Trichodiscina hinkleyi Pilsbry, 1919: 217; text-fig. 5 (shell).

Averellia hiinkleyi (Pilsbry).  Hinkley, 1920; Nautilus, 34:43, 48.

 

 TYPE LOCALITY.-  Livingston, [Dept. Izabal], Guatemala.  Holotype ANSP 107533.

 

 DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  GUATEMALA, Dept. Izabal: mountains of Rio Cavech, and those back of Cavech Village; across the Rio Dulcey from Livingston, Jocola (Hinkley, 1920).

 

 

 

Trichodiscina oajacensis (Kock, 1842)

 

Helix oajacensis Kock, in Pfeiffer, 1842; Symbolae ad Historiam Heliciorum, 2: 35.

Helix (Discus) oajacensis Kock.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 237.

Trichodiscus oajacensis (Kock).  Strebel, 1880: 35.-  Tryon, 1887; Man. Conch., 3: 50; pl. 5, figs. 6, 7 (shell).

Epiphragmophora (Trichodiscina) oajacensis (Kock).  Pilsbry, 1895; Man. Conch., 9: 199.

Helix (Trichodiscina) oajacensis (Kock).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 136-137. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Oaxaca.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Trichodiscina sinaloa Pilsbry, 1954

 

Trichodiscina sinaloa Pilsbry, 1954; Nautilus, 67: 81; text-fig. 2.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Drift of the Rio Fuerte, San Blas, Sinaloa.  Holotype ANSP 166601.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SINALOA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Trichodiscina suturalis suturalis (Pfeiffer, 1846)

 

Helix suturalis Pfeiffer, 1846; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 37.-  Reeve, 1851; Conch. Icon., Helix: pl. 61, fig. 301 (shell); pl. 110, fig. 626 (shell).

Helix (Patula) coactiliata var. γ suturalis Pfeiffer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 234.

Helix (Trichodiscus) suturalis Pfeiffer.  Tryon, 1887; Man. Conch., 3: 49; pl. 5, fig. 3 (shell).

Helix (Trichodiscina) suturalis Pfeiffer.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 136.

Averellia (Trichodiscina) suturalis (Pfeiffer).  Baker, 1922; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (106): 58.

Averellia suturalis (Pfeiffer).  Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1937: 28.-  Thompson, 1957; Nautilus, 70: 101.-  Thompson, 1967c: 254.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Honduras.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  HONDURAS.  GUATEMALA (Goodrich & van der Schalie, 1937).  Dept. Baja Verapaz: San Gerónimo, nr. Salama.  Dept. Petén: San Luis (Von Martens, 1892).  CAMPECHE: 5.1 mi. NNW of Dzibalchen; 19.2 mi. E of Silvituc (Thompson, 1967c).  QUINTANA ROO: 4.0 mi. E of Xpujil, Campeche; 2.3 mi. SSE of Xiatil (Thompson, 1967c).  TABASCO: 0.5-1.0 mi. E of Teapa (Thompson, 1957).  VERACRUZ: Cuatotolapam (Baker, 1922).

 

 

 

Trichodiscina suturalis pressula (Morelet, 1851)

 

Helix pressula Morelet, 1851; Test. Noviss., II: 8.

Helix (Patula) pressula Morelet.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 236; pl. 12, figs. 5-5c (shell).

Trichodiscus pressula (Morelet).  Strebel, 1880: 34. 

Helix (Trichodiscus) pressula Morelet.  Tryon, 1887; Man. Conch., 3: 50; pl. 5, figs. 4, 5 (shell).

Helix (Trichodiscina) suturalis var. pressula Morelet.  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 136; pl. 7, figs. 4, 4a, 4b (shell).

Averellia pressula (Morelet).  Haas, 1949; Nautilus, 62: 137. 

Helix almonte Tristram, 1863; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 411.

Helix almonteana “Tristram”, Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 231.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Istapa, near San José, Dept. Escuintla, Guatemala.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  COSTA RICA, Prov. San Jose: Uruca.  GUATEMALA, Dept. Baja Verapaz: Purulha.  Dept. Chimaltenango: Finca Montserrat, W slope of Volcán Acatenango (Haas, 1949).  Dept. Guatemala: limestone mountain La Pedrera N of Cd. Guatemala.  Dept. Quetzaltenango: Las Mercedes (Von Martens, 1892).

 

 

 

Subfamily XANTHONYCHINAE Strebel & Pfeffer, 1880

 

Xanthonicinae Strebel & Pfeffer, 1880: 25.

Metastracini Nordseick, 1978; Arch. für Molluskenkunde, 118: 22-23.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Mexico and Central America.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Four genera are recognized.

 

 

 

Genus Cryptostracon Binney, 1879

 

Cryptostracon Binney, 1879; Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 1: 258.-  Pilsbry, 1900; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 4: 27-28.-  Cuezzo, 1997; Amer. Malac. Bull., 14: 7.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Cryptostracon gabbi Binney, 1879.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Costa Rica.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized.

 

 

 

Cryptostracon corcovadensis Cuezzo, 1997

 

Cryptostracon corcovadensis Cuezzo, 1997; Amer. Malac. Bull., 14: 2-8; fig. 1 (animal), fig. 2 (viscera), figs. 3, 4 (shell), fig. 5 (pallial organs), figs. 6-10 (reproductive anatomy), figs. 11-14 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Costa Rica, Puntarenas Prov., Corcovado National Park, Estacion Sirena, along Rio Los Patos; 10 m alt.  Holotype UCR-INBIO  648087.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

 

Cryptostracon gabbi Binney, 1879

 

Cryptostracon gabbi Binney, 1879;  Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 1: 258; pl. 11, fig 1.-  Von Martens, 1897: 244.-  Baker, 1963; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, 115: 248.-  Cuezzo, 1997;  Amer. Malac. Bull., 14: 108.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Flanks of Pico Blanco, 5000-7000 ft. elevation.  Lectotype ANSP 246310 (Baker, 1963: 248).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  COSTA RICA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

 

Genus Metastracon Pilsbry 1900

 

Metastracon Pilsbry, 1900; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 4: 24-26.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Metastracon mima Pilsbry, 1900.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Michoacán, Mexico.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized.

 

 

 

Metastracon mima Pilsbry, 1900

 

Metastracon mima Pilsbry, 1900; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 4: 27; pl. 3, fig. 1 (animal), figs. 2, 3 (kidney), fig. 4 (retractor muscles), figs. 5, 6, 7 (shell), fig. 8 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 9 (jaw), fig. 10 (radula), fig. 11 (digestive system).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Morelia, Michoacán.  Holotype ANSP 77245.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.  MICHOACÁN: Morelia; Uruapan (Pilsbry, 1900).

 

 

 

Genus Semiconchula Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000

 

Semiconchula Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000; Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 128: 156.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Semiconchula custepecana Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized.

 

 

 

Semiconchula breedlovei Naranjo-Garcia, 2003

 

Semiconchula breedlovei Naranjo-Garcia, 2003; Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 54: 225-230.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas, west of San Cristobal de Las Casas; steep, heavily wooded slope near the summit of Mukta vits (Cerro Huitepec).  Holotype CAS 77540.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.—  CHIAPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Semiconchula custepecana Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000

 

Semiconchula custepecana Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000.  Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 128: 153-161; figs. 1 (shell), fig. 2 (animal), fig. 3 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 4 (radula).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas, north side of Sierra Madre de Chiapas, east bank of Rio Custepec, ca. 4 km north by road from Finca Custepec toward Jaltenango, ca. 15º45'45" N, 92º57'45" W; elev. ca. 1040 m.  Among riparian vegetation.  Holotype Coleccion Nacional de Molluscos, Universidad Nacional Autonomo de Mexico 326.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  CHIAPAS: known from four localities within 10 km of the type locality.

 

 

 

Genus Xanthonyx Crosse & Fischer, 1867

 

Xanthonyx Crosse & Fischer, 1867; Jour. de Conchyl., 15: 223.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 192.-  Strebel, 1880: 26.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Vitrina sumichrasti Brot, 1867.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Eastern Mexico from San Luis Potosi south to Chiapas.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Five species are recognized.

 

 

 

Xanthonyx chiapensis (Pfeiffer, 1956)

 

Simpulopsis chiapensis Pfeiffer, 1956; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 377.-  Reeve, 13, (Simpulopsis): pl. 1, fig. 1 (shell).

Xanthonyx chiapensis (Pfeiffer).  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 203.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Chiapas.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHAIPAS: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Xanthonyx cordovanus (Pfeiffer, 1856)

 

Simpulopsis cordovanus Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 319; pl. 25, figs. 15, 16 (shell).

Xanthonyx cordovanus (Pfeiffer).  Crosse & Fischer, 1867: Jour. de Conchyl., 15: 225.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 200; pl. 10, figs. 3, 3a (shell).-  Strebel, 1880: 27; pl. 2, figs. 1f-1g; pl. 9, fig. 14 (radula), fig. 21 (jaw); pl. 10, fig. 7 (embryonic shell), 7A-7B (animal), fig 7C (pallial organs), fig. 7D (buccal mass), fig. 7E (foot), fig. 7F, 7G (reproductive anatomy).-  Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000, Arch. für Mollusk., 128: 160.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordoba, Veracruz.  Syntypes BMNH 1992132 (Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000: 160).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  VERACRUZ: Cordoba; San Antonio de Monte, between Jalapa and Misantla (Strebel, 1880).

 

 

Xanthonyx potosiana Dall, 1905

 

Xanthonyx potosiana Dall, 1905; Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 48: 190; pl. 44, figs. 1, 2, 7 (shell).

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Alvarez Mountains, San Luís Potosí, Mexico; 7900 ft. alt.  Holotype USNM 110396.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: known only from the type locality.

 

 

 

Xanthonyx salleanus (Pfeifffer, 1856)

 

Simpulopsis salleana Pfeiffer, 1856; Proc. Zool. Soc. London: 319; pl. 25, figs. 15, 16 (shell).

Xanthonyx salleanus (Pfeiffer).-  Crosse & Fischer, 1867; Jour. de Conchyl., 15: 225.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1972: 199; pl. 10, figs. 2, 2a (shell).-  Strebel, 1880: 26; pl. 2, figs. 1a-e (shell); pl. 10, fig. 8 (embryonic whorls).-  Von Martens, 1897: 343.-  Pilsbry, 1900; Proc. Malac. Soc. London, 4: 27-28; pl. 3, 12 (animal), fig. 13 (pallial organs), fig. 14 (reproductive anatomy), fig. 15 (retractor muscles).-  Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000, Arch. für Mollusk., 128: 160.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Cordoba, Veracruz.  Syntypes BMNH 1992131 (Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000: 160).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  OAXACA (Von Martens, 1897).  VERACRUZ: Cordoba; Pacho, nr. Jalapa (Strebel, 1880).

    

 

Xanthonyx sumichrasti (Brot, 1867)

 

Vitrina sumichrasti Brot, 1867; Jour. de Conchyl., 15: 70; pl. 4, fig. 2 (shell).

Xanthonyx sumichrasti (Brot).  Crosse & Fischer, 1867; Jour. de Conchyl., 15: 214; pl. 10, figs. 1-4 (anatomy).-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872: 201; pl. 9, figs. 14-19 (anatomy).-  Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000; Arch. für Mollusk., 128: 160.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Mexico.  Holotype Museum d’Historie Naturelle de Geneve 993/213 (Naranjo-Garcia, Polaco & Pearce, 2000: 160).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  MEXICO: without nearer indication of locality.

 

 

 

Family POLYGYRIDAE Pilsbry, 1895

 

Subfamily POLYGYRINAE Pilsbry, 1895

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Temperate North America south to northern Central America.  One species has been widely introduced to other tropical and subtropical regions.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Emberton (1995) lists twelve genera belonging to this subfamily.

 

 

Genus Ashmunella Pilsbry & Cockerell, 1899

 

Ashmunella Pilsbry & Cockerell, 1899; Nautilus, 12: 107.-  Pilsbry & Cockerell, 1899; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 51: 188.-  Ancey & Mordoch, 1901; Jour. Malac., 8: 73.-  Pilsbry, 1905; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila: 223.-  Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 61: 503.-  Pilsbry & Ferriss; 1910; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 62: 95.-  Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1917; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 69: 88.-  Pilsbry, 1940; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 912-918.-  Bequaert  & Clench, 1973: Moll. Arid S.W.: 37-40, 130-135.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Polygyra miorhyssa Dall, 1898 (Pilsbry, 1905: 223.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Western Texas, New México and southeastern Arizona south into Chihuahua.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Numerous species.  Five occur in México.

 

 

Ashmunella intricata Pilsbry, 1948

 

Ashmunella intricata Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 203; pl. 13, fig. 4 (shell). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Mountain side about 4 1/2 miles southeast of Pearson [Mata Ortíz], among stones at the base of a cliff, Chihuahua;  6200 ft. alt.  Holotype ANSP 166324.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Ashmunella juarazensis Pilsbry, 1948

 

Ashmunella juarazensis Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 200-202; pl. 13, fig. 2 (shell), text-fig. 6C-D (genitalia). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  South side of the Rio Piedas Verdes 3 1/2 miles above Colonia Juaréz, Chihuahua; 5200 ft. alt.   Holotype ANSP 166161.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the immediate vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Ashmunella meridionalis Pilsbry, 1948

 

Ashmunella meridionalis Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 199-200; pl. 13, fig. 3 (shell), text figs. 6E-I (genitalia). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “Barranca Colorado”, 21 miles south of Miñeca, Chihuahua.  Holotype ANSP 164084.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the vicinity of the type locality.

 

 

Ashmunella milesi Reeder, 1993

 

Ashmunella milesi Reeder, 1993; Veliger, 36: 69-71; figs. 1-4 (shell), 5 (genitalia). 

 

 TYPE LOCALITY.-  Northern Sonora, México, west of Cananea; south-facing talus slope along road to microwave tower, Sierra Mariquita, ca. 2000 m alt.; 31º2.0' N, 110º22.4' W.  Holotype SBMNH 35609.

 

 DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Ashmunella montivaga Pilsbry, 1948

 

Ashmunella montivaga Pilsbry, 1948; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 100: 202-203; pl. 13, fig. 1 (shell), text-fig. 5A-B (genitalia). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Sierra de La Breña, in a rock slide above the road from Colonia Juaréz and Pearson [Mata Ortiz] to Pacheco, Chihuahua; 700 ft. alt.  Holotype: ANSP 166158.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  CHIHUAHUA: known only from the type locality

 

 

 

Genus Erectidens Pilsbry, 1953

 

Erectidens trichalis Pilsbry, 1953; Nautilus, 67: 47.-  Bogan, 1992; Malac. Rev., 25: 131-133.

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Erectidens trichalis Pilsbry, 1953.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Known only from river drift along the Rio Maurisco, about 25 km south of Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A single species is recognized.  It is known only from the holotype.  Pilsbry (1953b: 46) tentatively placed Erectidens in the Polygyridae. Other authors placed it in other families without the benefit of examining additional material (Bogan, 1992: 131).

 

 

Erectidens trichalis Pilsbry, 1953

 

Erectidens trichalis Pilsbry, 1953; Nautilus, 67: 47; figs. 1-2 (shell).-  Bogan, 1992; Malac. Rev., 25: 131-133; figs. 1a-1b (shell). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Rio Maurisco near its junction with the Rio Carrizo to form the Rio Ramós; the Rio Maurisco is a short stream on the eastern slope of the Sierra Madre Oriental about 25 km south of Monterrey, Nuevo León, México.  Holotype ANSP 164748.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NUEVO LEÓN: known only from the type locality.

 

 

Genus Giffordius Pilsbry, 1930

 

Giffordius Pilsbry, 1930; Nautilus, 43: 143.-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 249. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Giffordius pichoti Pilsbry, 1930.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Old Providence Island, Colombia.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Two species are recognized.

 

 

Giffordius pinchoti Pilsbry, 1930

 

Giffordius pinchoti Pilsbry, 1930; Nautilus, 43: 143.-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 249-251; pl. 15, figs. 5-5c (shell); text-fig. 9 (anatomy). 

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.- Valley opening west, north of High Peak, Old Providence Island.  Holotype ANSP 150865.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Known only from Old Providence Island.

 

 

Giffordius corneliae Pilsbry, 1930

 

Giffordius corneliae Pilsbry, 1930; Nautilus, 43: 143.-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 251-252; pl. 15, figs. 6-6a (shell). 

 

   TYPE LOCALITY.-  Valley opening west, north of High Peak, Old Providence Island.  Holotype ANSP 150864.

 

   DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Known only from Old Providence Island.

 

 

 

Genus Polygyra Say, 1818

 

Polygyra Say, 1818: Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1: 276.-  W. G. Binney, 1878: 262.-  Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 311.-  Pilsbry, 1940; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 578-582.-  Emberton, 1995; Malacologia, 37: 89. 

Cyclodoma Swainson, 1840; Treatise on Malacology: 193. 

Ulostoma Albers, 1856; Die Heliceen: 95. 

Anchistoma H. and A. Adams, 1855; Genera of Recent Mollusca, 2: 205.  (Name ammended to Angistoma; Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 311.)

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Polygyra: Helix septemvolva Say, 1818 (Hermannsen, 1847: 317).  Cyclodoma: Helix septemvolva Say, 1818 (Pilsbry, 1930).  Ulostoma: Helix septemvolva Say, 1818 (Pilsbry, 1930).  Anchistoma: Helix septemvolva Say, 1818 (Pilsbry, 1930).

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  The southeastern United States south throughout most of México to Guatemala and Belize.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  A recent analysis of the phylogeny of the Polygyridae recognized within the clade “Polygyri” seven subclades of unequal value (Emberton 1995).  Each of these subclades was elevated to generic rank. Polygyri equals Polygyra plus Praticolella and Giffordius.  The remaining five genera recognized by Emberton were treated in previous classifications as subgenera or sections within Polygyra.  The phylogeny proposed by Emberton produced a new understanding of group relationships, but the proposed name changes result in taxonomic inflation without producing clear advantages over previous nomenclatorial systems.  For purposes of this document Giffordius, Praticolella, Polygyra are recognized as separate genera. 

 

     Six subgenera are recognized.  Four occur in México.  Two others, Lobosculum, and Daedalochila are extralimital. 

 

 

Subgenus Polygyra Say, 1818

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  The Bahama Islands, Bermuda, Cuba and the coastal zone of the southeastern United States south to Yucatan, México.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Four species are recognized.  One occurs in México.

 

 

Polygyra (Polygyra) cereolus cereolus (Muhlfeld, 1818)

 

Helix cereolus Muhlfeld, 1818; Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, Megazin, 8: 11; pl. 2, figs. 18a-18b (shell).

Polygyra cereolus cereolus (Muhlfeld).-  W. G. Binney, 1878; Terr. Moll. N. Amer., 5: 283; fig. 181.-  Vanatta, 1912; Nautilus, 26: 16-21, 31-34.-  Pilsbry, 1940; Land Moll. N. Amer., I: 582-586; fig. 379 (shell).

Helix cereolus var. laminifera W. G. Binney, 1858; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 200 (nomum nudum).

Helix carpenteriana Bland, 1860; Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. N. Y., 7: 138. 

Polygyra cereolus carpenteriana (Bland). Pilsbry, 1894; Man. Conch., 9: 73.-  Bequaert & Clench, 1933; Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash., (431): 531.-  Harry, 1950; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 534: 7, 8.-  Rehder, 1966; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 79: 289.

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix cereolus: restricted to Key West, Florida (Pilsbry, 1940: 584).  Helix carpenteriana: Key Biscayne, Dade Co., Florida.  Lectotype ANSP 10972 (Pilsbry, 1940: 586).

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Florida and eastern México. QUINTANA ROO: Puerto Morelos; Isla Mujeres.  YUCATAN: 1.7 km SSE Puerto Telchac (FLMNH 19190); Progreso; 5.3 km S Progreso (FLMNH 19189).  SAN LUÍS POTOSÍ: Laguna Media Luna, 10 km SSW of Rio Verde (FLMNH 151961, FLMNH 189664).

 

 

Subgenus Acutidens Pilsbry, 1956

 

Acutidens Pilsbry, 1956; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 108: 26. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Helix (Polygyra) acute-dentata W. G. Binney, 1858.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Coastal regions of Sinaloa, México.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  The subgenus contains a single species.

 

 

Polygyra (Acutidens) acutedentata (W. G. Binney, 1858)

 

Helix (Polygyra) acute-dentata W. G. Binney, 1858; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (for 1857), 9: 183.

Helix acutedentata Binney.  W. G. Binney, 1869; Land and Fresh Water Shells of N. Amer., 1: 103; fig. 179.

Polygyra acutedentata (Binney).  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 172.-  Pilsbry, 1956; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 108: 26-27; pl. 2, figs. 6-6a (shell).

Daedalocheila acutidentata (Binney).  Emberton, 1995; Malacologia, 37: 91.

Helix (Polygyra) loisa W. B. Binney, 1858; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (for 1857), 9: 183.

Helix acutedentata var. quinquedentata Fischer & Crosse, 1872; Miss. Sci. Mex., I: 289.

Helix acutedentata var. minor Fischer & Crosse, 1872; Miss. Sci. Mex., I: 289. 

Helix unguifera Mousson, 1883; Jour. Conchyl., 31: 216, pl. 9, fig.-  Fischer & Crosse, 1892; Miss. Sci. Mex, II: 665; pl. 71; figs. 11-11b.-  Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer.: 172, 627. (A nomum nudum.)

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  Helix acuta-dentata: Mazatlán, Sinaloa; holotype ANSP 33449.  Helix loisa: Mazatlán, Sinaloa;  holotype: ANSP 33450.  Helix acutedentata var. quinquedentata: not given.  Helix acutedentata var. minor: along streams at Mazatlán, Sinaloa.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  SINALOA: known only from the vicinity of the type locality; highway ca. 4 km N of Mazatlán; ca. 10 km N of Mazatlán.

 

 

Subgenus Linisia Pilsbry, 1930

 

Linisia Pilsbry, 1930; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 82: 315.-  Pratt, 1981; Unpubl. thesis: 57.-  Emberton, 1995; Malacologia, 37: 90. 

Erymodon Pilsbry, 1956; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 108: 20.-  Solem, 1959; Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., (611):  10-12. 

Monophysis Pilsbry, 1956; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 108: 25. 

Solidens Pilsbry, 1956; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 108: 27. 

 

  TYPE SPECIES.-  Linisia: Helix (Polygyra) anilis Gabb, 1865.  Erymodon: Helix ventrosula Pfeiffer, 1845.  Monophysis: Helix (Polygyra) behri Gabb, 1865.  Solidens: Helix (Polygyra) anilis Gabb, 1865.

 

  DISTRIBUTION.-  Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana south throughout most of México to the Dept. Petén, Guatemala, and Belize.

 

  TAXONOMY.-  Twenty-four species and five subspecies are recognized.  All occur or are presumed to occur in México and adjacent Central America.

 

 

Polygyra (Linisia) albicostulata Pilsbry, 1896

 

Polygyra albicostulata Pilsbry, 1896; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.: 18-19; pl. 2, figs. 4-6 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1956; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 108: 25; pl. 2, fig 5 (shell).

Linisia albicostulata (Pilsbry).  Emberton, 1995; Malacologia, 37: 90.

 

  TYPE LOCALITY.-  “México”.  Holotype presumed to be in the ANSP.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  NAYARÍT. Drift debris of the Rio Grande de Santiago at Yago.

 

 

Polygyra (Linisia) anilis (Gabb, 1865)

 

Helix anilis Gabb, 1865; Amer. Jour. Conch., 1: 209; pl. 19, figs. 1-4 (shell).-  Fischer & Crosse, 1872; Miss. Sci. Mex., I: 269.

Polygyra analis (Gabb).  Tryon, 1867; Amer. Jour. Conch., 3: 158, 176; pl. 7, figs. 17-18 (shell).-  Von Martens, 1892; Biol. Cent. Amer., I: 172.-  Pilsbry, 1956; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 108: 27; pl. 2, figs. 7-7a (shell).

Linisia anlis (Gabb). Emberton, 1995; Malacologia, 37: 90.

Helix solidens Mabille, 1895; Bull. Soc. Philomath. Paris, (8), 7: 65. 

 

  TYPE LOCALITIES.-  Helix anilis: Near Guaymas, Sonora;  lectotype: ANSP 33447a (H. B. Baker, 1963: 241).  Helix solidens: south of the village of Guaymas, Sonora.

 

  DISTRIBUTION RECORDS.-  Coastal lowland of Sonora.  SONORA: nr. Ortiz Station; Pitahaya; numerous places along hwy. from Cameja to Navojoa.

 

 

Polygyra (Linisia) ariadnae (Pfeiffer, 1848)

 

Helix ariadnae Pfeiffer, 1848; Zeitschr. f. Malak., 120.-  Pfeiffer, in Martini & Chemnitz, Syst. Conch. Cab., (2 ed.), Helix, I: 372; pl. 65, figs. 29-31 (shell).-  Binney & Bland, 1869; Land and freshwater shells N. A., 1: 104; figs. 180 (shell). 

Helix (Polygyra) texasiana Pfeiffer.  Fischer & Crosse, 1872; Miss. Sci. Mex., I: 287; pl. 12, figs. 8-8c.

Polygyra ariadnae (Pfeiffer).  Binney, 1869; Terr. Air-breath. Moll. N. A., V: 280; fig. 179.-  Binney, 1985; Man. Amer. Land Moll.: 376; fig. 11 (shell).-  Strebel, 1880; Beitrag., IV: 50; pl. 3, fig. 3 (shell).-  Pilsbry, 1928; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.