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Archaeology

History

Ecology

  • Environmental Map of Southwest Florida

General Resources

Precolumbian Cultural Chronology for Caloosahatchee Region

Date Period Comment
A.D. 1500-1750 Caloosahatchee V European contact and depopulation; Spanish artifacts and materials
A.D. 1350-1500 Caloosahatchee IV Glades Tooled, Safety Harbor, Pinellas pottery introduced
A.D. 1200-1350 Caloosahatchee III St. Johns Check Stamped, Englewood pottery introduced
A.D. 800-1200 Caloosahatchee IIB Belle Glade Plain pottery ubiquitous; also Belle Glade Red, Glades Red, Pasco and Weeden Island Pottery
A.D. 500-800 Caloosahatchee IIA Substantial shell mounds/midden accumulation; burial mounds appear; Belle Glade Plain pottery introduced; diversification of shell tools
500 B.C.-A.D. 500 Caloosahatchee I Sand Tempered Plain pottery dominant
1200-500 B.C. Terminal Archaic Transitional fiber- and sand-tempered pottery
2000-1200 B.C. Late Archaic Fiber-tempered pottery, steatite
5000-2000 B.C. Middle Archaic Modern estuaries develop; maritime culture emerges; mortuary ponds
6500-5000 B.C. Early Archaic Coastal sites from this period now inundated
8000-6500 B.C. Late Paleo-Indian Early Holocene epoch; Dalton and Bolen points
12000-8000 B.C. Early Paleo-Indian Initial human presence; terminal Pleistocene epoch

Map of Selected Archaeological Sites in Southwest Florida

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Chronology of Spanish Contact with the Calusa

1513 Juan Ponce de León explores Southwest Florida coast
1521 Juan Ponce de León mortally wounded attempting to colonize Southwest Florida
1549 Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda shipwrecked at age 13 and captured by Calusa
1566 Pedro Menéndez de Avilés visits Calusa capital at Mound Key in February, rescuing Fontaneda and others; Fort San Antonio established there in October.
1567-1569 Jesuit missionaries work among Calusa
1569 Fort San Antonio and Jesuit mission withdrawn
1612 Juan Rodriquez de Cartaya visits Calusa capital as emissary of Florida governor
1614 Juan Rodriquez de Cartaya sent to retaliate against Calusa chief for attack on Spanish-allied Mocoso villages near Tampa Bay
1680 Christian Timucuan chief Don Thomas de Medina leads expedition to hostile Calusa frontier
1688 Son of Calusa chief visits Florida governor during visitation of Apalachee province
1689 Calusa chief visits Cuba requesting missionaries
1697 Franciscan friars attempt mission at Calusa capital
1704 Yamassee and Creek Indian slave raids begin to ravage South Florida Indians
1711 Calusa chief with 50 vassals and 220 other South Florida Indians request transport to Cuba and settle near Havana; disease kills most immigrants
1732 Attempted Cuban expedition to transport remaining Calusa by ship to Cuba
1743 Jesuit missionaries visit Calusa and other Indian refugees at present-day Miami
1757-1760 Creek Indian attacks prompt final evacuation of Indian refugees from Key West to Cuba

Map of Historic Indian Groups in South Florida

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Publications of the Southwest Florida Project and Randell Research Center

(last updated March, 2008)

Books, Monographs, Reports, Articles & Videos

Austin, Robert J. 2013 Lithic Acquisition and Use at Pineland. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 657-717. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Austin, Robert J., Ronald J. Farquhar, and Karen J. Walker 2000 Isotope Analysis of Galena from Prehistoric Archaeological Sites in South Florida. Florida Scientist 63:123-131.

Blanchard, Charles E. 1995 New Words, Old Songs: Understanding the Lives of Ancient Peoples in Southwest Florida Through Archaeology, illustrated by Merald Clark. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Brown, Stuart (Director) 1995 The Domain of the Calusa (VHS video, 29 minutes). Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville. Reissued 2007 in DVD format.

Clark, Merald R. 2013 A Mechanical Waterbird Mask from Pineland and the Calusa Masking Tradition. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 621-656. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Cordell, Ann S. 1992 Technological Investigations of Pottery Variability in Southwest Florida. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 105-189. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Cordell, Ann S. 2013 Technological Investigation of Pottery Variability at the Pineland Site Complex. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 383-543. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

deFrance, Susan D. and Karen J. Walker 2013 The Zooarchaeology of Pineland. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Edic, Robert F. 1996 Fisherfolk of Charlotte Harbor, Florida. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Godwin, Carol J. 2013 Auger Surveys of the Pineland Site Complex. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 177-225. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville. 

Hann, John H. 1991 Missions to the Calusa. Introduction by William H. Marquardt, translations by John H. Hann. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Hansinger, Michael J. 1992 Skeletal and Dental Analysis of Burials from the Collier Inn Site, Useppa Island. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 403-409. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Hutchinson, Dale L. 1992 Prehistoric Burials from Buck Key. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 411-422. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Hutchinson, Dale L. 1999 Precolumbian Human Skeletal Remains from Useppa Island. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 139-147. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Hutchinson, Dale L. 2013 Precolumbian Human Skeletal Remains from the Pineland Site Complex. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida SiteComplex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 373-382. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Hutchinson, Dale L., Christopher B. Denise, Hal J. Daniel, and Gerhard W. Kalmus 1997 A Reevaluation of the Cold Water Etiology of External Auditory Exostoses. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 103:417-422.

Hutchinson, Dale L., Lynette Norr, Theresa Schober, Karen Walker, Lee Newsom, and Margaret Scarry 2016  The Calusa and Prehistoric Subsistence in Central and South Gulf Coast Florida. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 41:55-73.

Kendall, Martha 2014 The Plant World of the Calusa: A View from Pineland. Randell Research Center, Popular Series 1. Gainesville, Florida.

Kozuch, Laura 1993 Sharks and Shark Products in Prehistoric South Florida. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 2. University of Florida, Gainesville.

MacMahon, Darcie A. and William H. Marquardt 2004 The Calusa and their Legacy: South Florida People and their Environments. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1984 The Josslyn Island Mound and its Role in the Investigation of Southwest Florida's Past. Department of Anthropology, Miscellaneous Project Report Series 22. Florida State Museum, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1986 The Development of Cultural Complexity in Southwest Florida: Elements of a Critique. Southeastern Archaeology 5: 63-70.

Marquardt, William H. 1987 The Calusa Social Formation in Protohistoric South Florida. In Power Relations and State Formation, edited by T. C. Patterson and C. W. Gailey, pp. 98-116. Archeology Section, American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C.

Marquardt, William H. 1988 Politics and Production Among the Calusa of South Florida. In Hunters and Gatherers. Volume 1: History, Evolution, and Social Change in Hunting and Gathering Societies, pp. 161-188, edited by Tim Ingold, David Riches, and James Woodburn. Explorations in Anthropology, University College, London. Berg Publishers, Ltd.

Marquardt, William H. (editor) 1992 Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa. University of Florida Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. Gainesville, Florida.

Marquardt, William H. 1992 The Calusa Domain: An Introduction. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 1-7. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1992 Recent Archaeological and Paleoenvironmental Investigations in Southwest Florida. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 9-57. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1992 Shell Artifacts from the Caloosahatchee Area. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 191-227. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1992 Calusa Culture and Environment: What Have We Learned? In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 423-436. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1993 Rediscovering the Calusa of South Florida. In Explotación de Recursos Faunísticos en Sistemas Adaptativos Americanos, edited by José Luis Lanata, pp. 39-45. Arqueología Contemporánea, volume 4 (special edition).

Marquardt, William H. 1993 Archaeology on Florida Soil. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Pedo-Archaeology, edited by J. E. Foss, M. E. Timpson, and M. W. Morris, pp. 1-8. University of Tennessee, Agricultural Experiment Station, Special Publication 93-03. Knoxville.

Marquardt, William H. 1994 The Role of Archaeology in Raising Environmental Consciousness: An Example from Southwest Florida. In Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes, edited by C. L. Crumley, pp. 203-221. School of American Research, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Marquardt, William H. 1996 Four Discoveries: Environmental Archaeology in Southwest Florida. In Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology, edited by E. J. Reitz, L. A. Newsom, and S. J. Scudder, pp. 17-32. Plenum Press, New York.

Marquardt, William H. 1996 Unearthing Support for Archaeology. Chronicle of Higher Education 42(no. 39, June 7, 1996):B1-B2.

Marquardt, William H. (editor) 1999 The Archaeology of Useppa Island. University of Florida Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. Gainesville, Florida.

Marquardt, William H. 1999 An Introduction to Useppa Island. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 1-22. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1999 Useppa Island in the Archaic and Caloosahatchee Periods. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 77-98. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1999 The Recent History of Useppa Island. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 195-223. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1999 The Road Less Traveled: Excerpts from an Interview with Garfield Beckstead. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 225-240. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 1999 The Archaeology of Useppa Island: A Summary. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 241-253. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. 2001 The Emergence and Demise of the Calusa. In Societies in Eclipse: Archaeology of the Eastern Woodlands Indians, A. D. 1400-1700, edited by D. Brose, C. W. Cowan, and R. Mainfort, pp. 157-171. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Marquardt, William H. 2004 Obituary: Charles Joslyn Wilson. The Florida Anthropologist 56:301-302.

Marquardt, William H. (compiler) 2001 Randell Research Center at Pineland Five-Year Strategic Plan July 1, 2001 - June 30, 2006. Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida.

Marquardt, William H. 2004 Calusa. In Handbook of North American Indians, volume 14: Southeast, edited by R. D. Fogelson, pp. 204-212. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

Marquardt, William H. 2013 The Pineland Site Complex: Theoretical and Cultural Contexts. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, ca. A.D. 50-1710, edited by W. H. Marquardt and K. J. Walker, pp. 1-22. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville. 

Marquardt, William H. 2008 Three Places in the Domain of the Calusa. In American Indian Places: A Historical Guidebook, edited by F. H. Kennedy, p. 90. Houghton-Mifflin, New York.

Marquardt, William H. 2008 The Calusa of Southwest Florida. In Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia, volume 1: Northeast and Southeast, edited by F. P. McManamon, L. S. Cordell, K. G. Lightfoot, and G. R. Milner. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Marquardt, William H. 2010 Mounds, Middens, and Rapid Climate Change during the Archaic-Woodland Transition in the Southeastern United States. In Trend, Tradition, and Turmoil: What Happened to the Southeastern Archaic? edited by D. H. Thomas and M. C. Sanger, pp. 253-271. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History vol. 93. New York.

Marquardt, William H. 2010  Shell Mounds in the Southeast: Middens, Monuments, Temple Mounds, Rings, or Works? American Antiquity 75(3):551-570.

Marquardt, William H. 2014  Tracking the Calusa: A Retrospective. Southeastern Archaeology 33:1-24.

Marquardt, William H. 2014  Foreword. In The Plant World of the Calusa: A View from Pineland, by Martha Kendall. Randell Research Center, Popular Series 1. Gainesville, Florida.

Marquardt, William H. and Karen J. Walker 2001 Pineland: A Coastal Wet Site in Southwest Florida. In Enduring Records: The Environmental and Cultural Heritage of Wetlands, edited by B. Purdy, pp. 48-60. Oxbow Books, London.

Marquardt, William H. and Karen J. Walker 2012  Southwest Florida During the Mississippi Period. In Late Prehistoric Florida: Archaeology at the Edge of the Mississippian World, edited by K. Ashley and N. M. White, pp. 29-61. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Marquardt, William H. and Karen J. Walker 2013  The Pineland Site Complex: An Environmental and Cultural History. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, ca. A.D. 50-1710, edited by W. H. Marquardt and K. J. Walker, pp. 793-907. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Newsom, Lee A. and C. Margaret Scarry 2013 Homegardens and Mangrove Swamps: Pineland Archaeobotanical Research. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 253-304. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Newsom, Lee A., Robin C. Brown, and Wendy Natt 2013 Pineland Cordage and Modified Wood: Material-Technological Aspects of Plant Use. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida SiteComplex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by W. H. Marquardt and K. J. Walker, pp. 585-620. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Newsom, Lee A., S. David Webb, and James S. Dunbar 1993 History and Geographic Distribution of Cucurbita pepo Gourds in Florida. Journal of Ethnobiology 13:75-97.

Palov, Maria Z. 1999 Useppa's Cuban Fishing Community. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 149-169. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Patton, Robert B. 2000 The Charlotte Harbor Mounds Survey, Phase II: Report of Investigations. v + 207 pp. Report submitted to Bureau of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State.

Patton, Robert B. 2013 Use of Bone at the Pineland Site Complex, A.D. 50-1500. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 719-740. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Patton, Robert B. 2013 The Temporal Contexts of Precolumbian Shell Artifacts from Southwest Florida: A Case Study of Pineland. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 545-584. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Quitmyer, Irvy R. 2013 Precolumbian Site Seasonality and Harvest of Estuarine Resources at the Pineland Site Complex. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 349-372. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Quitmyer, Irvy R. and Douglas S. Jones 1992 Calendars of the Coast: Seasonal Growth Increment Patterns in Shells of Modern and Archaeological Southern Quahogs, Mercenaria campechiensis, from Charlotte Harbor, Florida. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 247-264. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Quitmyer, Irvy R. and Melissa A. Massaro 1999 Seasonality and Subsistence in a Southwest Florida Estuary: A Faunal Analysis of Precolumbian Useppa Island. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 99-128. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Russo, Michael 1991 Final Report on Horr's Island: The Archaeology of Archaic and Glades Settlement and Subsistence Patterns (with chapters by Ann Cordell, Lee Newsom, and Sylvia Scudder). Report submitted to Key Marco Developments by the Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida. Copy on file, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.

Scarry, C. Margaret 1999 Precolumbian Use of Plants on Useppa Island. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 129-137. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Scarry, C. Margaret and Lee A. Newsom 1992 Archaeological Research in the Calusa Heartland. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 375-401. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Scudder, Sylvia, John E. Foss, and Mary E. Collins 1996 Soil Science and Archaeology. Advances in Agronomy 57:1-76.

Scudder, Sylvia 2013 Soils and Landscapes: Archaeopedology at the Pineland Site. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 227-252. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Shepard, Herschel, George Luer, William Marquardt, John Martin, Carol Pooser, and Karen Walker 1996 An Action Plan for the Randell Research Center at Pineland. Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Thompson, Victor D., William H. Marquardt, and Karen J. Walker 2014  A Remote Sensing Perspective on Shoreline Modification, Canal Construction, and Household Trajectories at Pineland along Florida’s Southwestern Gulf Coast. Archaeological Prospection 21:59-73.

Torrence, Corbett McP. 1999 The Archaic Period on Useppa Island: Excavations on Calusa Ridge. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 23-76. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Torrence, Corbett McP. 2013 A Topographic Reconstruction of the Pineland Site Complex as it Appeared in 1896. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 155-175. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Torrence, Corbett McP., Samuel Chapman, and William H. Marquardt 1994 Topographic Mapping and Archaeological Reconnaissance of Mound Key State Archaeological Site (8LL2), Estero Bay, Florida. viii + 46 pp. Report submitted to Koreshan Unity Alliance, Inc. by Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville.

Torrence, Corbett McP. and William H. Marquardt 1998 Phase I Reconnaissance Survey of the Upland Portions of Buck Key Owned by Mariner Properties Development, Inc. Report submitted to Mariner Properties Development, Inc. (ix + 43 pp., 19 figures, 3 tables, 3 appendixes)

Torrence, Corbett McP., Theresa M. Schober, and William H. Marquardt 1999 Phase I Reconnaissance Survey of a Portion of Buck Key Owned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Report submitted to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (vi + 32 pp., 6 figures, 3 tables, 3 appendixes)

Upchurch, Sam B., Pliny Jewell IV, and Eric DeHaven 1992 Stratigraphy of Indian "Mounds" in the Charlotte Harbor Area, Florida: Sea-Level Rise and Paleoenvironments. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 59-103. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, Karen J. 1992 Bone Artifacts from Josslyn Island, Buck Key Shell Midden, and Cash Mound: A Preliminary Assessment for the Caloosahatchee Area. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 229-246. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, Karen J. 1992 The Zooarchaeology of Charlotte Harbor's Prehistoric Maritime Adaptation: Spatial and Temporal Perspectives. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 265-366. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, Karen J. 1993 Paleoenvironments and Prehistoric Aboriginal Foodways of Charlotte Harbor, Florida. In Explotación de Recursos Faunísticos en Sistemas Adaptativos Americanos, edited by J. L. Lanata, pp. 47-56. Arqueología Contemporánea, volume 4 (special edition).

Walker, Karen J. 1999 Archaeology of Useppa Island's Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Calusa Ridge and Collier Inn Middens. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 171-194. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, Karen J. 2000 Historical Ecology of the Southeastern Longleaf and Slash Pine Flatwoods: A Southwest Florida Perspective. Journal of Ethnobiology 20:269-299.

Walker, Karen J. 2000 A Cooling Episode in Southwest Florida During the Sixth and Seventh Centuries A. D. In The Years Without Summer: Tracing A. D. 536 and its Aftermath, edited by J. Gunn, pp. 119-127. Archaeopress, Oxford, England.

Walker, Karen J. 2000 The Material Culture of Precolumbian Fishing: Artifacts and Fish Remains from Coastal Southwest Florida. Southeastern Archaeology 19:24-45.

Walker, Karen J. 2003 An Illustrated Guide to Trunk Vertebrae of cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) and Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) in Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 44(1):91-100.

Walker, Karen J. 2013 The Pineland Site Complex: Environmental Contexts. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, ca. A.D. 50-1710, edited by W. H. Marquardt and K. J. Walker, pp. 23-52. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, Karen J.  and William H. Marquardt 2013 Excavations and Chronostratigraphy at Southwest Florida's Pineland Site Complex: 1988-1995. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 53-154. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville. 

Walker, Karen J. and William H. Marquardt (editors) 2013 The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, Karen J. and William H. Marquardt 2013 The Pineland Site Complex. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville. 

Walker, Karen J. and William H. Marquardt 2013 Environmental and Cultural Change at the Pineland Site Complex. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Walker, Karen J., Frank W. Stapor Jr., and William H. Marquardt 1994 Episodic Sea Levels and Human Occupation at Southwest Florida's Wightman Site. The Florida Anthropologist 47:161-179.

Walker, Karen J., Frank W. Stapor Jr., and William H. Marquardt 1995 Archaeological Evidence for a 1750-1450 BP Higher-Than-Present Sea Level Along Florida's Gulf Coast. In Holocene Cycles: Climate, Sea Levels, and Sedimentation, edited by C. W. Finkl, Jr., pp. 205-218.

Wallace, Jennifer A. 2013 The 1995 Excavations of Caloosahatchee II Deposits at Pineland's Old Mound and Randell Complex Mound 1. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, A. D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 741-766. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Wang, T., D. Surge, and K.J. Walker 2011 Isotopic evidence for climate change during the Vandal Minimum from Ariopsis felis otoliths and Mercenaria campechiensis shells, southwest Florida, USA. The Holocene 21:1-11.

Wang, T., D. Surge, and K.J. Walker (2012) Seasonal change across the Roman Warm Period/Vandal Minimum transition using isotope sclerochronology in archaeological shells and otoliths, southwest Florida, USA. Quaternary International 307.

White, Susan L. 1999 Technological Investigations of the Aboriginal Pottery Excavated from Test Pit I-3, Useppa Island. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 95-96. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

White, Susan L. 1999 Technological Investigation of a Sample of Post-Contact European Ceramics from Operation H, Useppa Island. In The Archaeology of Useppa Island, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 166-168. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 3. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Wing, Elizabeth S. and Irvy R. Quitmyer 1992 A Modern Midden Experiment. In Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, edited by W. H. Marquardt, pp. 367-373. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 1. University of Florida, Gainesville.

Worth, John E. 2004 Report on Cuban Fishing Industry Documents Reviewed and discovered in the Archivo Nacional de Cuba in Havana, April 2004. Report submitted to Paul F. Miller, Jr. and the Useppa Island Historical Society, April 30, 2004.

Worth, John E. 2013 Pineland During the Spanish Period. In The Archaeology of Pineland: A Coastal Southwest Florida Site Complex, ca. A.D. 50-1700, edited by K. J. Walker and W. H. Marquardt, pp. 767-792. Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph 4. University of Florida, Gainesville.

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Theses & Dissertations

Clark, Merald R. 1995 Faces and Figureheads: The Masks of Prehistoric South Florida. M. A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Godwin, Carol J. 2002 Auger Surveys of the Pineland Site Complex. M. A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Mitchell, Scott 1991 An Analysis of Surface Wear and Morphological variation in Relation to Possible Function: The Bone Points of the Caloosahatchee Region. Honors thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Patton, Robert B. 1994 The Temporal Contexts of Prehistoric Shell Artifacts from Southwest Florida: A Case Study of the Pineland Site Complex. M. A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Patton, Robert B. 2001 Spatial Structure and Process of Nonagricultural Production: Settlement Patterns and Political Development in Precolumbian Southwest Florida. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Russo, Michael 1991 Archaic Sedentism on the Florida Coast: A Case Study from Horr's Island. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Torrence, Corbett McP. 1996 From Objects to the Cultural System: A Middle Archaic Columella Extraction Site on Useppa Island. M. A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

White, Susan L. 1995 The Prehistoric Ceramics of Galt Island (8LL27): A Technological Analysis. M. A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Wallace, Jennifer A. 1998 The Caloosahatchee IIA and IIB Subperiods at the Pineland Site: Results from 1995 Excavations at Old and Randell Mounds. M. A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville.

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