By Danielle Torrent
With an area about the size of Arizona, Ecuador seems small when compared to other South American countries, such as Argentina or Brazil. But what it lacks in land, it makes up in biodiversity.
Deemed one of 17 “megadiverse” countries by Conservation International, Ecuador has the highest concentration of species of any nation, according to the organization’s website. But agricultural expansion, petroleum production and a lack of ecological awareness have hindered conservation efforts.
Hoping to bring attention to plants in danger of extinction, Florida Museum of Natural History researchers helped co-author and revise the second edition of the “Red Book of Endemic Plants of Ecuador” published in March 2012, setting precedents for Ecuador’s vast neighboring countries.
“Ecuador was the first country to have a Red Book devoted to plants,” said co-editor Lorena Endara, a Florida Museum researcher and Ph.D. candidate at the University of Florida who also helped compose the first edition of the “Red Book of Endemic Plants of Ecuador” published in 2000. “Most of the species we evaluated are vulnerable and some are endangered or critically endangered. This is the first step to estimating their conservation status at a regional level.” (more…)
By Danielle Torrent
For Florida Museum of Natural History collection manager Rob Robins, biodiversity is something of a family theme.
With his father a renowned ichthyologist, his mother an ichthyologist who sacrificed career for family and his wife a wildlife biologist, Robins has always been surrounded with the wonders of animal life. As a child, he witnessed marine discoveries made by his father, C. Richard “Dick” Robins and grew up in a home fabled among friends and relatives for the diversity of living creatures cared for there by his parents. Today, his adult life is very much a continuation of what he was introduced to as a child: A workplace filled with a myriad of preserved fishes and a host of living animals waiting for him at home, including many pet snakes and fishes.
As collection manager of the Florida Museum’s ichthyology division, Rob Robins is tasked with identifying, labeling, sorting and storing thousands of marine and freshwater specimens that come through his office in Dickinson Hall. It was an ideal setting for conducting recent research that enabled his father’s monograph on cusk-eels to be published in the Florida Museum of Natural History Bulletin Sept. 11, 2012. His wife, museum volunteer Mary Brown, is also a co-author.
The 60-year study describes eight new species of one of the least-studied groups of cusk-eels – bony fishes distantly related to cod. Although abundant and widespread in the Americas, the fishes in the genus Lepophidium have previously been poorly known to biologists.
By Danielle Torrent
As a University of Florida graduate student, one of Erin Thornton’s first assignments was to identify turkey bones from an ancient Mayan archaeological site in Guatemala.
Determined to please her adviser, Thornton thoroughly examined the features of the bones, which dated to the Late Preclassic period from 300 B.C. to A.D. 100. She decided they were remains of a non-local turkey native to central and northern Mexico, Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo, commonly known as the Mexican Turkey.
But unbeknownst to Thornton at the time, her conclusion defied previous archaeological evidence – the species did not belong in the Maya area during the Late Preclassic period. According to the archaeological record, the Maya did not use the non-local Mexican Turkey until about 1,000 years later.
“To be honest, I was so focused on getting the morphological identifications correct to impress my doctoral adviser that I wasn’t necessarily thinking about what species should or shouldn’t be there in the Late Preclassic,” said Thornton, a research associate at the Florida Museum of Natural History on the UF campus and Trent University Archaeological Research Centre in Canada.
Thornton then consulted the Museum’s resident bird expert, ornithology curator David Steadman, who confirmed the identifications. But they needed additional evidence. So Steadman, Thornton and her adviser, curator of environmental archaeology Kitty Emery, collaborated with DNA analysts to verify the bones belonged to the Mexican Turkey, representing the earliest evidence of the species in the Maya world.
By Danielle Torrent
When it comes to camels, it’s difficult not to think of the Old World depicted through Arabian Nights – Bedouin travelers crossing vast, radiant deserts by day, through dark, star-spotted Arabian nights. But according to the fossil record, the ancestors of modern camels were creatures of the New World.
Based on fossils from the North American Great Plains, the earliest-known camels dwelled in the American savannah about 35 million years ago. It was a time before the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, when the continents of North and South America were still separated by the oceanic waters. But despite the separation of the continents, recent Panama Canal excavations by Florida Museum of Natural History researchers show ancient camels similar to those in North America also thrived in Central America 20 million years ago.
“We’re discovering this fabulous new diversity of animals that lived in Central America that we didn’t even know about before,” said Florida Museum vertebrate paleontology curator Bruce MacFadden, co-principal investigator on the National Science Foundation grant funding the Panama Canal project. “Prior to this discovery, they [ancient camels] were unknown south of Mexico.”
By Danielle Torrent
On the Hawaiian Islands, where isolated, vulnerable pieces of land are surrounded by thousands of miles of ocean, habitat destruction is something of a catchphrase.
It is well known how the arrival of humans about 1,000 years ago drastically changed the ecosystem with the introduction of invasive plants and animals. It has led to stricter policies for releasing non-native pets, increased regulations at trade ports and the emergence of restoration ecology, in which scientists strive to re-create a more native environment.
But within areas seemingly overcome by invasive plants and animals, one Florida Museum of Natural History lepidopterist discovered three new native moth species.
“The mountains in Hawaii look really beautiful, but most of the plants in the lowlands are not supposed to be there,” said Akito Kawahara, assistant curator of Lepidoptera at the Florida Museum, who led a study published in the February 2012 edition of ZooKeys. “If you think about that, it’s really shocking to find some rare, endemic species in an area where these are not typically supposed to be found.”
Kawahara described new species of an unusual genus commonly known as fancy case caterpillars. Similar to how snails carry a shell, the caterpillars wear different ornate “cases” throughout the larval stage of development.
By Danielle Torrent
These days, climate change is a hot topic.
What will happen as temperatures rise more rapidly than humans have documented in modern history? Will birds and mammals flock or will they be able to acclimate? Who will become extinct?
In recent years, scientists have strived to understand the atmosphere’s balance of greenhouse gases to create models that predict rapid climate change, a process humans have accelerated with deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. Scientists at the Florida Museum of Natural History and anthropology department on the University of Florida campus explored the issue by studying an extreme short-term global warming event known as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum that occurred about 56 million years ago.
During this 175,000-year climate event, increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and oceans caused average global temperatures to rise 10 to 20 degrees.
“The PETM is really important because it marks the beginning for the first appearance of several major groups of mammals, including crown-group primates (ancestors of modern primates) and the first even- and odd-toed modern ungulates (mammals with hooves),” said associate curator of vertebrate paleontology Jonathan Bloch, co-author of a study published in Science Feb. 24, 2012, that correlates temperature with mammalian body size. “This sets the scene for the entire diversity of animals we see on the planet today.”
The study shows how mammals responded to past climate change: As temperatures increased, their body size decreased.
Researchers focused on the evolution of Sifrhippus, the earliest-known horse, which first appeared in the North American fossil record during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. By analyzing the size and isotopes of fossils collected in Wyoming’s Bighorn Basin, researchers traced the evolution of Sifrhippus from an estimated 12-pound animal that shrank during a 130,000-year period about 30 percent to 8.5 pounds, and then increased to about 15 pounds during the next 45,000 years.
“Horses started out small, about the size of a small dog like a miniature schnauzer,” Bloch said. “What’s surprising is that after they first appeared, they then became even smaller and then dramatically increased in size, and that exactly corresponds to the global warming event, followed by cooling. It had been known that mammals were small during that time and that it was warm, but we hadn’t understood that temperature specifically was driving the evolution of body size.”
By Francis E. “Jack” Putz
That sea levels are rising is hardly new news–they have been doing so since the end of the last major glaciation some 18,000 years ago. The current rate of rise, a little more than a tenth of an inch per year, is also not that unusual–6,000–8,000 years ago the seas were often rising 10 times faster. What is different today and the reason for concern is that back then in response to rapidly rising waters, coastal dwelling Floridians just picked up and moved uphill, leaving their villages, burrows, nests and rooted parents behind. Today it is not so easy to move uphill, for humans nor the rest of the biota, but move we must.
The effects of sea level rise are often difficult to differentiate from the myriad of other drivers of coastal change, but the expanses of dead trees looming over Gulf Coast marshes is compelling evidence. The story unfolds very clearly in Yankeetown’s Withlacoochee Gulf Preserve (www.withlacoocheegulfpreserve.com) where saltwater intrusion due to over pumping from the aquifer is not the confounding factor that it is near large cities. The comparatively small tidal fluxes in the Gulf also help in differentiation of the signal of sea level rise from the noise of tides. Another advantage of the Yankeetown marshes and coastal forests is that they are perched atop a stable limestone platform and not on subsiding mucks like in the Mississippi Delta. Finally, as a study site or the destination for an outing, Withlacoochee Gulf Preserve is startlingly beautiful.