red-cockaded woodpecker

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker. Photo courtesy U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Threatened and Endangered Species

  • Hardwood hammocks provide habitat for many threatened and endangered species

Threatened and endangered species residing in tropical hardwood hammocks include numerous trees, shrubs, and vines. Hammock trees currently listed as threatened or endangered include:

  • brittle thatch palm (Thrinax morrissii)
  • buccaneer palm (Pseudophoenix sargentii)
  • cupania (Cupania glabra)
  • Florida thatch palm (Thrinax parvitolia)
  • Krug's holly (Ilex krugiana)
  • lignum-vitae (Guaiacum sanctum)
  • manchineel (Hippomane mancinella)
  • silver thatch palm (Coccothrinax argentata)
  • tree cactus (Cereus robinii)
strap fern

Strap Fern. Photo courtesy South Florida Water Management District

Florida panther

Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). Photo courtesy U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

wood storks

Wood stork (Mycteria americana). Photo © Gerald and Buff Corsi, California Academy of Sciences

hammocks, white-crowned pigeon

White-crowned Pigeon (Columba leucocephala). Photo courtesy U.S. Geological Survey


Animals considered threatened or endangered residing in hammock habitats include:

  • Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi)
  • key deer (Odocoileus virginianus)
  • Key Largo cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus)
  • Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana)
  • Key Vaca raccoon (Procyn lotor auspiciatus)
  • mangrove fox squirrel (Sciurus niger avicennia)
  • red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis)
  • white-crowned pigeon (Columba leucocephala)
  • wood stork (Mycteria americana)

The list above includes species occurring in hammocks located within the Florida Keys as well as those in the Everglades region.

hammocks, key deer

Key Deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Photo courtesy U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

hammocks, red-cockaded woodpecker

Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Photo courtesy U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

hammocks, woodstork

Wood Stork (Mycteria americana). Photo courtesy U.S. Geological Survey


Glossary terms on page:

  • hammock: area that is often higher than the surrounding land with humus rich soil and hardwood trees including oaks, sweetgums, hickories, and palms.
  • tropical: tropical zone lies between 23.5 degrees north and south of the equator, has small seasonal changes in temperature and large seasonal changes in precipitation.
  • endangered species: a species in danger of becoming extinct that is protected by the Endangered Species Act.
  • threatened species: plants or animals likely to become endangered in the near future.