Selected Botanical WWW Sites
These WWW links are useful to our staff for their in work in plant systematics and herbarium collection care. The list is not intended to be comprehensive. For comprehensive indices of botanical/biological sites see the Botanical/Biological Resources Link Directories section.
- UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, is a multidisciplinary research, teaching and extension unit directed to develop environmentally sound techniques for the management of aquatic and natural area weed species and to coordinate aquatic plant research activities within the State of Florida. The site includes an online aquatic plant bibliographic database, drawings, descriptions and photographs of aquatic and invasive plants.
Bibliographies and Library Resources (including on line texts)
- An Analytic Bibliography of On-Line Neo-Latin Texts, by Dana F. Sutton, features a linked index arranged by author of ca. 8951 Latin texts written during the Renaissance and later that are freely available to the general public on the Web. Many of the texts are core to plant systematics and nomenclature research. Many of the publications available in Gallica (see below) are indexed in this site.
- The Aquatic Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS), an online aquatic plant bibliographic database, is provided by the UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
- BibliOrchidea - a comprehensive orchid literature database (ca. 140,000 entries) with citations for most of the existing journal articles, books and preprints on orchids. This bibliographic database is part of the Swiss Orchid Foundation at the Herbarium Jany Renz web site.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library - per site: "Ten major natural history museum libraries, botanical libraries, and research institutions have joined to form the Biodiversity Heritage Library Project. The group is developing a strategy and operational plan to digitize the published literature of biodiversity held in their respective collections."
- Botanicus Digital Library, a freely accessible, Web-based encyclopedia of historic botanical literature from the Missouri Botanical Garden Library.
- Gallica, a site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, offers on line full text versions of more than one thousand historic publications. Many of the documents available are core to plant systematics and nomenclature research. E.g., many works by Alphonse de Candolle are available including, "Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis." and Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, "Flora Brasiliensis." The search page allows quick access to titles and even includes a nice full subject index that includes plant family names and subjects such as "Botanique", "Botanique agricole", and "Botanistes". Some of the Gallica texts are indexed in An Analytic Bibliography of On-Line Neo-Latin Texts (see above).
- Google Book Search, (about... includes full-text for some books) / Google Scholar, provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature.
- Harvard University Libraries
- Index to American Botanical Literature (search page)contains records (21,689 as of Jan. 2000) of recent literature, both from books and journals, dealing with American plants, from Greenland to Antarctica. The Index was established in 1886; published initially in the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club and subsequently in Brittonia. The electronic version includes all those entries published in the Index since 1996, and thus includes botanical literature appearing since late 1995. It is searchable by general category, author, journal, key words or several other options.
- Internet Archive : Text Archive - a massive open-access text archive with a large set of biodiversity/biological sciences-related texts. This is one section of the Internet Archive site which includes texts, audio, moving images, and software as well as archived web pages.
- KBD: Kew Bibliographic Databases combines KR: The Kew Record of Taxonomic Literature, PMBD: the Plant Micromorphological Bibliographic Database and EBBD: the Economic Botany Bibliographic Database into one searchable database. More details on these data sets may be found on the "more about KBD" page.
- LibDex - The Library Index: an excellent index to library catalogues with web-based OPACS. The site includes a search interface and browse interface by country (USA list).
- Literature Useful to the Study of Florida Plants (Note: this is bibliography is not being updated. It will eventually be migrated to the University of Florida Herbarium Library Catalog.
- Marie Selby Botanical Gardens Research Library (search page).
- Missouri Botanical Garden Library - (search page).
- New York Botanical Garden Library, includes an online catalog and link list of electronic resources.
- OCLC FirstSearch on the Web - limited to the students, faculty and staff of the State University System of Florida. If you are connecting from a machine which is not within the domain of one of the SUS institutions, you will be requested to input your 14-digit library patron id for verification.
- Smithsonian Institution Libraries (catalog search).
- University of Florida Libraries Catalog (previous version of catalog)
- WebLuis is the Florida Center for Library Automation's gateway page to the library catalogs for each of the state university libraries and to a search page for the combined catalog of the State University Libraries of Florida. The WebLUIS home page contains links to the catalogs, databases and gateway services of the libraries of the State University System of Florida. The gateway services include links to many bibliographic databases such as First Search (that includes Current Contents, Biosis, Agricola, etc.); WorldCat, and Library of Congress. Some of these databases have restricted availability (you may need to be logged in through a UF network to access some of them).
Botanical/Biological Resources - Link Directories
Botanist Information and Addresses, Botanical/Museum Societies and Associations
- The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.
- American Society of Plant Taxonomists - the site offers information on the society, its publications (Systematic Botany, Systematic Botany Monographs, the ASPT Newsletter, the latter in online form), meetings, and a membership directory with keyword and country browsable indices and a free-form query interface.
- Association of Systematic Collections - see National Science Collections Alliance
- Botanical Society of America
- Collection Managers Online - list of collection managers coordinated by Jane Mygatt and hosted by the University of New Mexico Herbarium.
- Index of Botanists at Harvard University Herbaria includes Botanical authors and collectors.
- International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT)
- The Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections.
- National Science Collections Alliance -(formerly Association of Systematic Collections) - includes members directory, newsletter, publications, annual meeting info., databases, government and policy, bioinformatics, databases (links), conference and events info., employment opportunities and links of interest.
Collecting Permits and Legal Issues
Collection Conservation, Care and Management
Cultivated/Ornamental/Landscape Plants - Florida Nurseries
Economic Botany (incl. Ethnobotany, Edible, and Useful Plants; see also Poisonous Plants)
Floras, Atlases, Checklists
Florida Botanical/Biological Resources
- Florida Biotic Information Consortium
- Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
- Florida Native Plant Society
- IFAS Assessment of the Status of Non-Native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas - developed by the UF/IFAS Invasive Plants Working Group so that Extension faculty could provide consistent recommendations concerning the use of non-native plants.
- Institute for Regional Conservation (IRC) includes information on South Florida biodiversity, ecosystems and species in three main sections: "Floristic Inventory of South Florida," "FISF Database," and "Restoring South Florida's Native Plant Heritage".
- Linking Florida's Natural Heritage (LFNH) - a project to electronically link diverse information resources throughout the state of Florida into a virtual library on Florida ecology.
- Notes on Florida's Endangered and Threatened Plants by Richard E. Weaver and Patti J. Anderson. Contribution No. 38, 5th ed., 2010. Bureau of Entomology, Nematology & Plant Pathology, Botany Section, Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL.
- University of South Florida / Institute for Systematic Botany
Geographic Information, Gazeteers and Mapping Software
- The Alexandria Digital Library is a distributed digital library with collections of georeferenced materials. A searchable gazeteer server is provided.
- Fuzzyg: The Fuzzy Gazetteer - allows for variations in spelling to assist in geographical name searches.
- The Generic Mapping Tools - per web site, "an open source collection of ~60 tools for manipulating geographic and Cartesian data sets (including filtering, trend fitting, gridding, projecting, etc.) and producing Encapsulated PostScript File (EPS) illustrations ranging from simple x-y plots via contour maps to artificially illuminated surfaces and 3-D perspective views."
- Geocoder.US - find the latitude and longitude of any U.S. address.
- GeoNames - a searchable geographical database with over eight million geographical names which returns latitude and longitude coordinates and displays via Google maps.
- The GEOnet Names Server (GNS) provides access to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's database of foreign geographic feature names. Map and text-based searches are available. (See: The U.S.G.S. Geographic Names Information System for U.S. geographic names.)
- Geographic.Org - provides country details and administrative divisions information (province, state, department, etc.).
- Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names - provides hierarchy, latitude and longitude for place names.
- Google Maps provides world maps with layers of roads and businesses plus satellite imagery.
- Bing Maps provides world maps with layers of roads and businesses plus satellite imagery.
- Map Library, a project of the Map Maker Trust, provides public domain map data concerning administrative boundaries in developing countries (currently in Africa and Central America).
- MapQuest provides world maps with layers of roads and businesses plus satellite imagery.
- MapServer - an Open Source development environment for building spatially-enabled internet applications.
- The U.S.G.S. Geographic Names Information System is a massive data set of names and other features of the United States developed by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic
Names (BGN). (See: the GEOnet Names Server (GNS) for foreign geographic names.)
- Herbarium News - information about activities that are of interest to the herbarium community. The printed version has been discontinued and the online version hosted by Missouri Botanical Garden has vanished.
- Index Herbariorum: the online form (with only U.S. institutions) of the official directory of herbaria in the world (search form)
Herbarium Collections - Specimen and Type Specimen Catalogs
Hundreds of herbaria have on line collection information and databases. The list below is only a small selection. The Index Herbariorum search form includes URL links for many herbaria.
- BISH - Bishop Museum's Botany Herbarium Pacificum page.
- C - Natural History Museum of Denmark.
- California, USA - Consortium of California Herbaria -
CHSC, DAV, IRVC, JEPS, RSA, SBBG, UCR, UCSB, UCSC, UC.
- CAS - California Academy of Sciences, Botany Department (database search links).
- F - Field Museum of Natural History, Plants and Fungi - Botany Collections Database.
- FSU - Godfrey Herbarium, Florida State University - specimen database search.
- FTG - Fairchild Tropical Herbarium - includes specimen images.
- "HUH" (A, AMES, GH, NEBC) - Harvard University Herbaria - specimen catalog (mostly type specimens) | databases page.
- MO - Missouri Botanical Garden offers specimen, floristic and nomenclatural databases, through TROPICOS - the web interface to Missouri Botanical Garden's nomenclatural database and associated authority files for vascular plants and bryophytes. Search screens available include: nomenclatural/scientific name, specimens, references, and images.
- Nationaal Herbarium Nederland - AMD, L, U and WAG - Databases; note: WAG has it's own web pages also.
- NY - The New York Botanical Garden Steere Herbarium
- virtual herbarium specimen catalog (search page).
- Digital Imaging Project information.
- Renz, BBG and BIB - Swiss Orchid Foundation at the Herbarium Jany Renz - includes images of 26,000 herbarium specimens, 6,000 slides and 3,500 hand-coloured drawings from the library of Jany Renz plus the comprehensive orchid literature database, BibliOrchidea.
- S - Swedish Museum of Natural History - the collections page links to descriptons and search screens for its collections and databases, including: The Nordic Herbarium, The Regnellian Herbarium, The General Herbarium, The Linnean Herbarium, the Swartz Herbarium and the Botanical type collection.
- TEX, LL - University of Texas at Austin, Plant Resources Center - databases (including Flora of Texas Database, Mexican Vascular Plant Database / Conabio and Type Database).
- UC, JEPS - University of California, Berkeley, University and Jepson Herbarium - Consortium of California Herbaria database.
- US - Smithsonian Institution Botany Collections
search of the Botany Collections on line catalog
U.S. National Herbarium type specimen register
Catalog of Botanical Illustrations
- USF - University of South Florida Herbarium - specimen database search.
Molecular (DNA) Databases
Plant Families: Descriptions and Information
Plant Families and Special Plant Groups
Descriptions and Information (By Family or Special Plant Group)
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families - includes the accepted scientific names and synonyms of selected plant families, 151 as of Dec 2010 (list), as per experts in the groups.
- Agavaceae (Agave) - The Agave Pages - has a large photo gallery, subsection on Caribbean agaves, info on nomenclature, and articles.
- Amaryllidaceae (Crinum) - The Genus Crinum (Amaryllidaceae) - includes descriptions and pictures of species and cultivars, A Systematic Review of the Genus Crinum by L.S. Hannibal, plus links.
- Araceae - International Aroid Society, Inc. (The Genera of Araceae)
- Arecaceae - International Palm Society - includes an excellent photo gallery.
- Asteraceae - Global Composite Checklist.
- Bulbs - International Bulb Society, Gallery of the World's Bulbs
- Bromeliaceae - Bromeliad Society International
- Carnivorous Plants - Carnivorous Plants Database - a database with nomemclature synopsis, pictures, FAQs on carnivorous plants, links to carnivorous plant societies, a plant trading post and links to other carnivorous plant pages.
- Conifers - American Conifer Society - World Conifer Database
- Cycadaceae - The Cycad Society - includes an excellent photo gallery.
- Cycadales - The Cycad Pages, web access to a botanical database developed from The World List of Cycads, with a page for every known cycad.
- Fabaceae - International Legume Database & Information Service - offers a searchable database through Legume Web with nomenclature and references.
- Gymnosperms - The Gymnosperm Database.
- Melastomataceae - Melastomataceae of the World by Darin S. Penneys of California Academy of Sciences.
- Melastomataceae - Melastomataceae.Net (MelNet) - a site with information on the Biodiversity of Melastomataceae. The MelNames section is an excellent synonymized database of names of Melastomataceae.
- Onagraceae - Onagraceae, the Evening Primrose Family website by Warren L. Wagner and Peter C. Hoch - includes phylogeny, classification and a bibliography.
- Orchidaceae - The American Orchid Society OrchidWeb
- Orchidaceae - Swiss Orchid Foundation at the Herbarium Jany Renz - includes images of 26,000 herbarium specimens, 6,000 slides and 3,500 hand-coloured drawings from the library of Jany Renz plus the comprehensive orchid literature database, BibliOrchidea.
- Poaceae - Catalogue of New World Grasses.
- Poaceae - GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.
- Poaceae - Grasses of Palm Beach and Martin Counties, Florida - by John Bradford, George Rogers and June Wilkinson, provides keys, species descriptions and excellent photographs of grass species in the delimited area. The site also includes a glossary and a discussion of grass biology.
- Poaceae - Manual of Grasses for North America (and Flora North America North of Mexico, volumes 24 and 25).
- Theaceae (Camellia) - American Camellia Society
- The Biota of North America Program, of the North Carolina Botanical Garden, no longer provides online plant species name data. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, a CD-ROM published in August, 1999, is now available from the North Carolina Botanical Garden. This CD-ROM includes updated plant species names data which were published in the second edition of the two-volume work, A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. There is an online index available at http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm (developed at Texas A&M University by Hugh D. Wilson).
- Conserved and rejected plant names: proposals and disposals - a search engine and index to the scientific plant names proposed for conservation or rejection since the first proposals in 1892.
- The Gray Herbarium Index formerly presented by the Harvard University Herbaria is now incorporated into the International Plant Names Index (IPNI). It includes scientific names and place of publication of New World plants published after the first edition of Index Kewensis. IPNI includes Index Kewensis, the Australian Plant Name Index and additional nomenclatural resources.
- The GRIN Taxonomy database (40,000 taxa, 13,000 genera) provides the structure and nomenclature for the accessions of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) of the U.S. Agricultural Research Service. The database specializes in cultivated and economic plants and their relatives. Information on scientific and common names, classification, distribution, references, and economic impacts are provided. There are a variety of queries available (simple query). This site is available in English, French, German, Portuguese and Spanish.
- Index Nominum Genericorum (ING) - a database of all validly published generic names of plants (including fungi).
- Index Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Vascularium - Alphabetical Listing by Family of Validly Published Suprageneric Names: an index of all valid and legitimate extant vascular plant names above the rank of genus. Also available: Alphabetical Listing by Genera of Validly Published Suprageneric Names
- International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Vienna Code, 2006, English version) ((Saint Louis Code, 2000, English version).
- International Plant Names Index - a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of all seed plants. IPNI is the product of a collaboration between The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, The Harvard University Herbaria, and the Australian National Herbarium. Searches include: Plant names, Authors, Publications and Collectors. The data in the IPNI comes from three sources: the Index Kewensis (IK), the Gray Card Index (GCI) and the Australian Plant Names Index (APNI).
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is developed by six federal agencies working together seeks to populate its database with currently valid scientific names and classification of organisms, with a primary focus on the organisms of North America and the marine environment. The site includes data on numerous groups of organisms, including North American vascular plants.
- International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI) provides a database of plant databases and is developing a Global Plant Checklist for which a Provisional Global Plant Checklist is operational.
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families - includes the accepted scientific names and synonyms of selected plant families, 151 as of Dec 2010 (list), as per experts in the groups.
- The Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project
- Mansfeld's World Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (names query) - based on Hanelt, P. & Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (Eds.) 2001: Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. 1-6: 3716 pp.
- Missouri Botanical Garden offers specimen, floristic and nomenclatural databases, through TROPICOS - the web interface to Missouri Botanical Garden's nomenclatural database and associated authority files for vascular plants and bryophytes. Search screens available include: nomenclatural/scientific name, specimens, references, and images.
- Names in Current Use for Extant Plant Genera (NCU-3)
- The Plant List : a working list of all plant species "aims to be comprehensive for species of Vascular plant (flowering plants, conifers, ferns and their allies) and of Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts)." The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanical Garden and others are collaborating by combining multiple checklist data sets. The site includes browse and search facilities.
- PLANTS Database home page, coordinated by the USDA National Resource Conservation Center, includes a search field form (common name, scientific name and symbol) on the home page. Search results include: characteristics, checklists & searches, culturally significant, excluded and anomalous names, fact sheets, invasive & noxious, phylogenetic, threatened & endangered, wetland indicator status, ESIS, phosphorus index, plant materials and vegSpec information.
- Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) (formerly the Taxonomic Database Working Group) - develops standards and protocols for sharing biodiversity data.
- Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature - a full listing of all validly published (and thus both legitimate and illegimate) family names and names recognized by James L. Reveal.
- Bryophytes and Lichens
- The Index of Mosses Database is now integrated into TROPICOS, the Missouri Botanical Garden's specimen, floristic and nomenclatural databases. Search screens available include: nomenclatural/scientific name, specimens, references, and images. Downloadable authority files are available via the Index of Mosses web page.
- Internet Resources for Bryologists and Lichenologists - provided by the The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc..
- A Cumulative Checklist for the Lichen-forming, Lichenicolous and Allied Fungi of the Continental United States and Canada
- Field oriented keys to the Florida lichens, December 12, 2015 Version. by Roger Rosentreter, Ann M. DeBolt and Barry Kaminsky.
- Lichens of North America and Lichens Home Page include thousands of lichen photos, most by Sylvia and Stephen Sharnoff. Many of the photos are used in the book, "Lichens of North America," by Dr. Irwin M. Brodo.
- Lichens - Parmeliaceae: Searchable List of Names in the Parmelioid Genera is now featured on the U.S. National Herbarium's lichen page.
- NPLichen: A Database of Lichens in the U.S. National Parks
- Biota2: The Biodiversity Database Manager
- BRAHMS - Botanical Research And Herbarium Management System database software for botanical research and collection management. It provides comprehensive support with the management of names, collection curation and taxonomic research.
- DeltaAccess : "a SQL interface to DELTA, the Description Language for Taxonomy, implemented in Microsoft Access 97, 2000, and 2002 (= XP)." Note: some links from this site do not work such as the "short overview of DeltaAcess" and the "User guide and documentation". The implication being that this software is no longer being maintained. See Lucid, below.
- Herbaria@Home - a Web-based method for cataloging herbarium specimens where volunteers may participate by viewing specimen images and entering the data via the Website.
- KE EMu - electronic museum management system, providing solutions for: museums, art galleries, historical societies, herbaria and botanic gardens.
- Lucid - interactive key software... "a flexible and powerful knowledge management tool that helps users make an identification or diagnosis."
- Specify - Biodiversity Collections Management Software.
- Preserving and Digitizing Collections Images: Linking Collections Images and Databases for Public Access - a joint project of the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Institute of Museum and Library Services.
- Also see: University of Florida Herbarium (FLAS) : Herbarium Management : Computers, Databases and the Web