Deep Time Project: A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Tree of Living and Fossil Angiosperms
Last modified: December 9, 2002
Comments and questions: Dr. Doug Soltis

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Classification of Flowering Plants

(APG II, 2002)


This is a revised and updated classification for the families of the flowering plants, including newly adopted orders by APG II (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II, 2002).

*new family placement; †newly recognized order for the APG system; §new family circumscription described in the text. The list reflects a starting date for all flowering plant family names as 4 Aug. 1789 (Jussieu, Genera plantarum). Full citations are available elsewhere (Reveal, 1998-onward).

Amborellaceae Pichon (1948), nom. cons.
Chloranthaceae R.Br. ex Sims (1820), nom. cons.
Nymphaeaceae Salisb. (1805), nom. cons.
[+Cabombaceae Rich. ex A.Rich. (1822), nom. cons.]

†Austrobaileyales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
Austrobaileyaceae (Croizat) Croizat (1943), nom. cons.
§Schisandraceae Blume (1830), nom. cons.
[+Illiciaceae A.C.Sm. (1947), nom. cons.]
Trimeniaceae L.S.Gibbs (1917), nom. cons.

Ceratophyllales Bisch. (1839)
Ceratophyllaceae Gray (1821), nom. cons.

Magnoliids

MONOCOTS

COMMELINIDS

EUDICOTS

CORE EUDICOTS

ROSIDS

EUROSIDS I

EUROSIDS II

ASTERIDS

EUASTERIDS I

EUASTERIDS II

Taxa of Uncertain Position


Amborellaceae Pichon (1948), nom. cons.
Chloranthaceae R.Br. ex Sims (1820), nom. cons.
Nymphaeaceae Salisb. (1805), nom. cons.
[+Cabombaceae Rich. ex A.Rich. (1822), nom. cons.]

†Austrobaileyales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
Austrobaileyaceae (Croizat) Croizat (1943), nom. cons.
§Schisandraceae Blume (1830), nom. cons.
[+Illiciaceae A.C.Sm. (1947), nom. cons.]
Trimeniaceae L.S.Gibbs (1917), nom. cons.

Ceratophyllales Bisch. (1839)
Ceratophyllaceae Gray (1821), nom. cons.

Magnoliids

†Canellales Cronquist (1957)

Canellaceae Mart. (1832), nom. cons.
Winteraceae R.Br. ex Lindl. (1830), nom. cons.

Laurales Perleb (1826)

Atherospermataceae R.Br. (1814)
Calycanthaceae Lindl. (1819), nom. cons.
Gomortegaceae Reiche (1896), nom. cons.
Hernandiaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Lauraceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Monimiaceae Juss. (1809), nom. cons.
Siparunaceae (A.DC.) Schodde (1970)

Magnoliales Bromhead (1838)

Annonaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Degeneriaceae I.W.Bailey & A.C.Sm. (1942), nom. cons.
Eupomatiaceae Endl. (1841), nom. cons.
Himantandraceae Diels (1917), nom. cons.
Magnoliaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Myristicaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.

Piperales Dumort. (1829)

Aristolochiaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
*Hydnoraceae C.Agardh (1821), nom. cons.
Lactoridaceae Engl. (1888), nom. cons.
Piperaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Saururaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.

MONOCOTS

§Petrosaviaceae Hutch. (1934), nom. cons.

Acorales Reveal (1996)

Acoraceae Martynov (1820)

Alismatales Dumort. (1829)

Alismataceae Vent. (1799), nom. cons.
Aponogetonaceae J.Agardh (1858), nom. cons.
Araceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Butomaceae Mirb. (1804), nom. cons.
Cymodoceaceae N.Taylor (1909), nom. cons.
Hydrocharitaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Juncaginaceae Rich. (1808), nom. cons.
Limnocharitaceae Takht. ex Cronquist (1981)
Posidoniaceae Hutch. (1934), nom. cons.
Potamogetonaceae Rchb. (1828), nom. cons.
Ruppiaceae Horan. (1834), nom. cons.
Scheuchzeriaceae F.Rudolphi (1830), nom. cons.
Tofieldiaceae Takht. (1995)
Zosteraceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.

Asparagales Bromhead (1838)

§Alliaceae Batsch ex Borkh. (1797), nom. cons.
[+Agapanthaceae F.Voigt (1850)]
[+Amaryllidaceae J.St.-Hil. (1805), nom. cons.]
§Asparagaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
[+Agavaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.]
[+Aphyllanthaceae Burnett (1835)]
[+Hesperocallidaceae Traub (1972)]
[+Hyacinthaceae Batsch ex Borkh. (1797)]
[+Laxmanniaceae Bubani (1901-1902)]
[+Ruscaceae Spreng. (1826), nom. cons.]
[+Themidaceae Salisb. (1866)]
Asteliaceae Dumort. (1829)
Blandfordiaceae R.Dahlgren & Clifford (1985)
Boryaceae (Baker) M.W.Chase, Rudall & Conran (1997)
Doryanthaceae R.Dahlgren & Clifford (1985)
Hypoxidaceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
Iridaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Ixioliriaceae Nakai (1943)
Lanariaceae H.Huber ex R.Dahlgren & A.E.vanWyk (1988)
Orchidaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Tecophilaeaceae Leyb. (1862), nom. cons.
§Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
[+Asphodelaceae Juss. (1789)]
[+Hemerocallidaceae R.Br. (1810)]
Xeronemataceae M.W.Chase, Rudall & M.F.Fay (2001)

Dioscoreales Hook.f. (1873)

§Burmanniaceae Blume (1827), nom. cons.
§Dioscoreaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.
*Nartheciaceae Fr. ex Bjurzon (1846)

Liliales Perleb (1826)

Alstroemeriaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Campynemataceae Dumort. (1829)
Colchicaceae DC. (1804), nom. cons.
*Corsiaceae Becc. (1878), nom. cons.
Liliaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Luzuriagaceae Lotsy (1911)
Melanthiaceae Batsch ex Borkh. (1796), nom. cons.
Philesiaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Rhipogonaceae Conran & Clifford (1985)
Smilacaceae Vent. (1799), nom. cons.

Pandanales Lindl. (1833)

Cyclanthaceae Poit. ex A.Rich. (1824), nom. cons.
Pandanaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.
Stemonaceae Caruel (1878), nom. cons.
*Triuridaceae Gardner (1843), nom. cons.
Velloziaceae Hook. (1827), nom. cons.

COMMELINIDS

Dasypogonaceae Dumort. (1829)

Arecales Bromhead (1840)

Arecaceae Schultz Sch. (1832), nom. cons.

Commelinales Dumort. (1829)

Commelinaceae Mirb. (1804), nom. cons.
Haemodoraceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.
*Hanguanaceae Airy Shaw (1964)
Philydraceae Link (1821), nom. cons.
Pontederiaceae Kunth (1816), nom. cons.

Poales Small (1903)

Anarthriaceae D.F.Cutler & Airy Shaw (1965)
*Bromeliaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Centrolepidaceae Endl. (1836), nom. cons.
Cyperaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Ecdeiocoleaceae D.F.Cutler & Airy Shaw (1965)
Eriocaulaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.
Flagellariaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Hydatellaceae U.Hamann (1976)
Joinvilleaceae Toml. & A.C.Sm. (1970)
Juncaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
*Mayacaceae Kunth (1842), nom. cons.
Poaceae (R.Br.) Barnh. (1895), nom. cons.
*Rapateaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Restionaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.
Sparganiaceae Hanin (1811), nom. cons.
§Thurniaceae Engl. (1907), nom. cons.
Typhaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
§Xyridaceae C.Agardh (1823), nom. cons.

Zingiberales Griseb. (1854)

Cannaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Costaceae Nakai (1941)
Heliconiaceae Nakai (1941)
Lowiaceae Ridl. (1924), nom. cons.
Marantaceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
Musaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Strelitziaceae Hutch. (1934), nom. cons.
Zingiberaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.

EUDICOTS

§Buxaceae Dumort. (1822), nom. cons.
[+Didymelaceae Leandri (1937)]
Sabiaceae Blume (1851), nom. cons.
Trochodendraceae Eichler (1865), nom. cons.
[+Tetracentraceae A.C.Sm. (1945), nom. cons.]

Proteales Dumort. (1829)

Nelumbonaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
§Proteaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
[+Platanaceae T.Lestib. (1826), nom. cons.]

Ranunculales Dumort. (1829)

Berberidaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Circaeasteraceae Hutch. (1926), nom. cons.
[+Kingdoniaceae A.S.Foster ex Airy Shaw (1964)]
Eupteleaceae K.Wilh. (1910), nom. cons.
Lardizabalaceae R.Br. (1821), nom. cons.
Menispermaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Papaveraceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
[+Fumariaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.]
[+Pteridophyllaceae (Murb.) Nakai ex Reveal & Hoogland (1991)]
Ranunculaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.

CORE EUDICOTS

Aextoxicaceae Engl. & Gilg (1920), nom. cons.
Berberidopsidaceae Veldkamp) Takht. (1985)
Dilleniaceae Salisb. (1807), nom. cons.

†Gunnerales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)

§Gunneraceae Meisn. (1842), nom. cons.
[+Myrothamnaceae Nied. (1891), nom. cons.]

Caryophyllales Perleb (1826)

Achatocarpaceae Heimerl (1934), nom. cons.
Aizoaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.
Amaranthaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Ancistrocladaceae Planch. ex Walp. (1851), nom. cons.
Asteropeiaceae (Szyszyl.) Takht. ex Reveal & Hoogland (1990)
*Barbeuiaceae Nakai (1942)
Basellaceae Raf. (1837), nom. cons.
Cactaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Caryophyllaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Didiereaceae Radlk. (1896), nom. cons.
Dioncophyllaceae Airy Shaw (1952), nom. cons.
Droseraceae Salisb. (1808), nom. cons.
Drosophyllaceae Chrtek, Slavíková & Studnicka (1989)
Frankeniaceae Desv. (1817), nom. cons.
*Gisekiaceae Nakai (1942)
Halophytaceae A.Soriano (1984)
Molluginaceae Bartl. (1825), nom. cons.
Nepenthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Nyctaginaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Physenaceae Takht. (1985)
Phytolaccaceae R.Br. (1818), nom. cons.
Plumbaginaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Polygonaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Portulacaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Rhabdodendraceae Prance (1968)
Sarcobataceae Behnke (1997)
Simmondsiaceae Tiegh. (1899)
Stegnospermataceae Nakai (1942)
Tamaricaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.

Santalales Dumort. (1829)

Olacaceae R.Br. (1818), nom. cons.
Opiliaceae Valeton (1886), nom. cons.
Loranthaceae Juss. (1808), nom. cons.
Misodendraceae J. Agardh (1858), nom. cons.
Santalaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.

Saxifragales Dumort. (1829)

Altingiaceae Horan. (1843), nom. cons.
Cercidiphyllaceae Engl. (1907), nom. cons.
Crassulaceae J.St.-Hil. (1805), nom. cons.
Daphniphyllaceae Müll.-Arg. (1869), nom. cons.
Grossulariaceae DC. (1805), nom. cons.
§Haloragaceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
[+Penthoraceae Rydb. ex Britt. (1901), nom. cons.]
[+Tetracarpaeaceae Nakai (1943)]
Hamamelidaceae R.Br. (1818), nom. cons.
§Iteaceae J.Agardh (1858), nom. cons.
[+Pterostemonaceae Small (1905), nom. cons.]
Paeoniaceae Raf. (1815), nom. cons.
Saxifragaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.

ROSIDS

Aphloiaceae Takht. (1985)
*Geissolomataceae Endl. (1841)
Ixerbaceae Griseb. (1854)
Picramniaceae Fernando & Quinn (1995)
*Strasburgeriaceae Soler. (1908), nom. cons.
*Vitaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.

†Crossosomatales Takht. ex Reveal (1993)

Crossosomataceae Engl. (1897), nom. cons.
Stachyuraceae J.Agardh (1858), nom. cons.
Staphyleaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.

Geraniales Dumort. (1829)

§Melianthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
[+Francoaceae A.Juss. (1832), nom. cons.]
Geraniaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
[+Hypseocharitaceae Wedd. (1861)]
Ledocarpaceae Meyen (1834)
Vivianiaceae Klotzsch (1836)

Myrtales Rchb. (1828)

Alzateaceae S.A.Graham (1985)
Combretaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.
Crypteroniaceae A.DC. (1868), nom. cons.
Heteropyxidaceae Engl. & Gilg (1920), nom. cons.
Lythraceae J.St.-Hil. (1805), nom. cons.
§Melastomataceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
[+Memecylaceae DC. (1827), nom. cons.]
Myrtaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Oliniaceae Arn. (1839), nom. cons.
Onagraceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Penaeaceae Sweet ex Guill. (1828), nom. cons.
Psiloxylaceae Croizat (1960)
Rhynchocalycaceae L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs (1985)
Vochysiaceae A.St.-Hil. (1820), nom. cons.

EUROSIDS I

§*Zygophyllaceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
[+Krameriaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.]
Huaceae A.Chev. (1947)

†Celastrales Baskerville (1839)

§Celastraceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
†Lepidobotryaceae J.Léonard (1950), nom. cons.
Parnassiaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.
[+Lepuropetalaceae Nakai (1943)]

Cucurbitales Dumort. (1829)

Anisophylleaceae Ridl. (1922)
Begoniaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Coriariaceae DC. (1824), nom. cons.
Corynocarpaceae Engl. (1897), nom. cons.
Cucurbitaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Datiscaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Tetramelaceae Airy Shaw (1964)

Fabales Bromhead (1838)

Fabaceae Lindl. (1836), nom. cons.
Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link (1809), nom. cons.
Quillajaceae D.Don (1831)
Surianaceae Arn. (1834), nom. cons.

Fagales Engl. (1892)

Betulaceae Gray (1821), nom. cons.
Casuarinaceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
Fagaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
§Juglandaceae DC. ex Perleb (1818), nom. cons.
[+Rhoipteleaceae Hand.-Mazz. (1932), nom. cons.]
Myricaceae A.Rich. ex Kunth (1817), nom. cons.
Nothofagaceae Kuprian (1962)
Ticodendraceae Gómez-Laur. & L.D.Gómez (1991)

Malpighiales Mart. (1835)

§Achariaceae Harms (1897), nom. cons.
Balanopaceae Benth. & Hook.f. (1880), nom. cons.
*Bonnetiaceae (Bartl.) L.Beauv. ex Nakai (1948)
Caryocaraceae Voigt (1845), nom. cons.
§Chrysobalanaceae R.Br. (1818), nom. cons.
[+Dichapetalaceae Baill. (1886), nom. cons.]
[+Euphroniaceae Marc.-Berti (1989)]
[+Trigoniaceae Endl. (1841), nom. cons.]
§Clusiaceae Lindl. (1836), nom. cons.
*Ctenolophonaceae (H.Winkl.) Exell & Mendonça (1951)
*Elatinaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
§Euphorbiaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Goupiaceae Miers (1862)
Humiriaceae A.Juss. (1829), nom. cons.
§Hypericaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Irvingiaceae (Engl.) Exell & Mendonça (1951), nom. cons.
*Ixonanthaceae Planch. ex Miq. (1858), nom. cons.
Lacistemataceae Mart. (1826), nom. cons.
§Linaceae DC. ex Perleb (1818), nom. cons.
*Lophopyxidaceae (Engl.) H.Pfeiff. (1951)
Malpighiaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
§Ochnaceae DC. (1811), nom. cons.
[+Medusagynaceae Engl. & Gilg (1924), nom. cons.]
[+Quiinaceae Choisy ex Engl. (1888), nom. cons.]
Pandaceae Engl. & Gilg (1912-1913), nom. cons.
§Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel (1806), nom. cons.
[+Malesherbiaceae D.Don (1827), nom. cons.]
[+Turneraceae Kunth ex DC. (1828), nom. cons.]
*Peridiscaceae Kuhlm. (1950), nom. cons.
§Picrodendraceae Small (1917), nom. cons.
§Phyllanthaceae Martynov (1820)
* Podostemaceae Rich. ex C. Agardh (1822), nom. cons
Putranjivaceae Endl. (1841)
§Rhizophoraceae Pers. (1807), nom. cons.
[+Erythroxylaceae Kunth (1822), nom. cons.]
§Salicaceae Mirb. (1815), nom. cons.
Violaceae Batsch (1802), nom. cons.

Oxalidales Heintze (1927)

§Brunelliaceae Engl. (1897), nom. cons.
Cephalotaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Connaraceae R.Br. (1818), nom. cons.
Cunoniaceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
§Elaeocarpaceae Juss. ex DC. (1816), nom. cons.
Oxalidaceae R.Br. (1818), nom. cons.

Rosales Perleb (1826)

Barbeyaceae Rendle (1916), nom. cons.
§Cannabaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.
Dirachmaceae Hutch. (1959)
Elaeagnaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Moraceae Link (1831), nom. cons.
Rhamnaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Rosaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Ulmaceae Mirb. (1815), nom. cons.
§Urticaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.

EUROSIDS II

Tapisciaceae (Pax) Takht. (1987)

Brassicales Bromhead (1838)

Akaniaceae Stapf (1912), nom. cons.
[+Bretschneideraceae Engl. & Gilg (1924), nom. cons.]
Bataceae Perleb (1838), nom. cons.
Brassicaceae Burnett (1835), nom. cons.
Caricaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Emblingiaceae Airy Shaw (1964)
Gyrostemonaceae Endl. (1841), nom. cons.
Koeberliniaceae Engl. (1895), nom. cons.
Limnanthaceae R.Br. (1833), nom. cons.
Moringaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.
Pentadiplandraceae Hutch. & Dalziel (1928)
Resedaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Salvadoraceae Lindl. (1836), nom. cons.
Setchellanthaceae Iltis (1999)
Tovariaceae Pax (1891), nom. cons.
Tropaeolaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.

Malvales Dumort. (1829)

§Bixaceae Kunth (1822), nom. cons.
[+Diegodendraceae Capuron (1964)]
[+Cochlospermaceae Planch. (1847), nom. cons.]
Cistaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Dipterocarpaceae Blume (1825), nom. cons.
Malvaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Muntingiaceae C.Bayer, M.W.Chase & M.F.Fay (1998)
Neuradaceae Link (1831), nom. cons.
Sarcolaenaceae Caruel (1881), nom. cons.
Sphaerosepalaceae (Warb.) Tiegh. ex Bullock (1959)
§Thymelaeaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.

Sapindales Dumort. (1829)

Anacardiaceae R.Br. (1818), nom. cons.
Biebersteiniaceae Endl. (1841)
Burseraceae Kunth (1824), nom. cons.
Kirkiaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1967)
Meliaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
§Nitrariaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
[+Peganaceae (Engl.) Tieghm. ex Takht. (1987)]
[+Tetradiclidaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1986)]
Rutaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Sapindaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Simaroubaceae DC. (1811), nom. cons.

ASTERIDS

*Paracryphiaceae Airy Shaw (1964)

Cornales Dumort. (1829)

Cornaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
[+Nyssaceae Juss. ex Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.]
Curtisiaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1987)
Grubbiaceae Endl. (1839), nom. cons.
Hydrangeaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Hydrostachyaceae (Tul.) Engl. (1894), nom. cons.
Loasaceae Juss. (1804), nom. cons.

Ericales Dumort. (1829)

Actinidiaceae Gilg & Werderm. (1825), nom. cons.
Balsaminaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Clethraceae Klotzsch (1851), nom. cons.
Cyrillaceae Endl. (1841), nom. cons.
Diapensiaceae Lindl. (1836), nom. cons.
§Ebenaceae Gürke (1891), nom. cons.
Ericaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Fouquieriaceae DC. (1828), nom. cons.
Lecythidaceae A.Rich. (1825), nom. cons.
Maesaceae (A.DC.) Anderb., B.Ståhl & Källersjö (2000a)
Marcgraviaceae Juss. ex DC. (1816), nom. cons.
§Myrsinaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.
Polemoniaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
§Primulaceae Batsch ex Borkh. (1797), nom. cons.
Roridulaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Sapotaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Sarraceniaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
§Styracaceae DC. & Spreng. (1821), nom. cons.
Symplocaceae Desf. (1820), nom. cons.
Pentaphylacaceae Engl. (1897), nom. cons.
[+Ternstroemiaceae Mirb. ex DC. (1816)]
[+Sladeniaceae Airy Shaw (1964)]
§Tetrameristaceae Hutch. (1959)
[+Pellicieraceae (Triana & Planch.) L.Beauvis. ex Bullock (1959)]
Theaceae Mirb. ex Ker Gawl. (1816), nom. cons.
§Theophrastaceae Link (1829), nom. cons.

EUASTERIDS I

Boraginaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
§*Icacinaceae (Benth.) Miers (1851), nom. cons.
*Oncothecaceae Kobuski ex Airy Shaw (1964)
Vahliaceae Dandy (1959)

Garryales Lindl. (1846)

Eucommiaceae Engl. (1909), nom. cons.
§Garryaceae Lindl. (1834), nom. cons.
[+Aucubaceae J.Agardh (1858)]

Gentianales Lindl. (1833)

Apocynaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Gelsemiaceae (G.Don) Struwe & V. Albert (1995)
Gentianaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Loganiaceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
Rubiaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.

Lamiales Bromhead (1838)

Acanthaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Avicenniaceae Endl. (1841), nom. cons.
Bignoniaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Byblidaceae (Engl. & Gilg) Domin (1922), nom. cons.
Calceolariaceae (D. Don) Olmstead (2001)
*Carlemanniaceae Airy Shaw (1964)
Gesneriaceae Rich. & Juss. ex DC. (1816), nom. cons.
Lamiaceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.
Lentibulariaceae Rich. (1808), nom. cons.
*Martyniaceae Horan. (1847), nom. cons.
Nesogenaceae Marais (1981)
Oleaceae Hoffmanns. & Link (1809), nom. cons.
§Orobanchaceae Vent. (1799), nom. cons.
Paulowniaceae Nakai (1949)
Pedaliaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.
Phrymaceae Schauer (1847), nom. cons.
§Plantaginaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
*Plocospermataceae Hutch. (1973)
Schlegeliaceae (A.H.Gentry) Reveal (1996)
§Scrophulariaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Stilbaceae Kunth (1831), nom. cons.
Tetrachondraceae Wettst. (1924)
Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil. (1805), nom. cons.

Solanales Dumort. (1829)

Convolvulaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Hydroleaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
§Montiniaceae Nakai (1943), nom. cons.
Solanaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Sphenocleaceae (Lindl.) Baskerville (1839), nom. cons.

EUASTERIDS II

Bruniaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Columelliaceae D.Don (1828), nom. cons.
[+Desfontainiaceae Endl. (1841), nom. cons.]
Eremosynaceae Dandy (1959)
Escalloniaceae R.Br. ex Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Polyosmaceae Blume (1851)
Sphenostemonaceae P.Royen & Airy Shaw (1972)
Tribelaceae Airy Shaw (1964)

Apiales Nakai (1930)

Apiaceae Lindl. (1836), nom. cons.
Araliaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
Aralidiaceae Philipson & B.C.Stone (1980)
Griseliniaceae J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. ex A.Cunn. (1839)
Melanophyllaceae Takht. ex Airy Shaw (1972)
Pennantiaceae J.Agardh (1858)
Pittosporaceae R.Br. (1814), nom. cons.
Torricelliaceae Hu (1934)

Aquifoliales Senft (1856)

Aquifoliaceae DC. ex A.Rich. (1828), nom. cons.
*§Cardiopteridaceae Blume (1847), nom. cons.
Helwingiaceae Decne. (1836)
Phyllonomaceae Small (1905)
Stemonuraceae (M. Roem.) Kårehed (2001)

Asterales Lindl. (1833)

Alseuosmiaceae Airy Shaw (1964)
Argophyllaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1987)
Asteraceae Martynov (1820), nom. cons.
Calyceraceae R.Br. ex Rich. (1820), nom. cons.
§Campanulaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
[+Lobeliaceae Juss. ex Bonpl. (1813), nom. cons.]
Donatiaceae B.Chandler (1911), nom. cons.
Goodeniaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.
Menyanthaceae Bercht. & J.Presl (1820), nom. cons.
Pentaphragmataceae J.Agardh (1858), nom. cons.
Phellinaceae (Loes.) Takht. (1967)
§Rousseaceae DC. (1839)
Stylidiaceae R.Br. (1810), nom. cons.

Dipsacales Dumort. (1829)

*Adoxaceae E.Mey. (1839), nom. cons.
§Caprifoliaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.
[+Diervillaceae (Raf.) Pyck (1998)]
[+Dipsacaceae Juss. (1789), nom. cons.]
[+Linnaeaceae (Raf.) Backlund (1998)]
[+Morinaceae Raf. (1820)]
[+Triplostegiaceae A.E. Bobrov ex Airy Shaw (1964)]
[+Valerianaceae Batsch (1802), nom. cons.]

Taxa of Uncertain Position

If an unplaced genus is the type of a family name, that name is given for information purposes.

Aneulophus Benth.
Balanophoraceae Rich. (1822), nom. cons.
Centroplacus Pierre
Cynomorium L. [Cynomoriaceae Lindl. (1833), nom. cons.]
Cytinus L. [Cytinaceae A.Rich. (1824)]
Dipentodon Dunn [Dipentodontaceae Merr. (1941), nom. cons.]
Gumillea Ruiz & Pav.
Hoplestigma Pierre [Hoplestigmataceae Engl. & Gilg (1924), nom. cons.]
Leptaulus Benth.
Medusandra Brenan [Medusandraceae Brenan (1952), nom. cons.]
Metteniusa H.Karst. [Metteniusaceae H.Karst. ex Schnizl. (1860-1870)]
Mitrastemon Makino [Mitrastemonaceae Makino (1911), nom. cons.]
Pottingeria Prain [Pottingeriaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1987)]
Rafflesiaceae Dumort. (1829), nom. cons.
Soyauxia Oliv.
Trichostephanus Gilg

Reference: APG II, 2002. Bot.J. Linn. Soc., in press. This paper was compiled by Birgitta Bremer, Kåre Bremer, Mark W. Chase, James L. Reveal, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis and Peter F. Stevens, equally responsible and listed here in alphabetical order only, with contributions from Arne A. Anderberg, Michael F. Fay, Peter Goldblatt, Walter S. Judd, Mari Källersjö, Jesper Kårehed, Kathleen A. Kron, Johannes Lundberg, Daniel L. Nickrent, Richard G. Olmstead, Bengt Oxelman, James E. Rodman, Paula J. Rudall, Vincent Savolainen, Kenneth J. Sytsma, Michelle van der Bank, Kenneth Wurdack, Jenny Q.-Y. Xiang and Sue Zmarzty (in alphabetical order).


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