Figure 1. Phylogenetic
relationships for all the main lineages of vascular plants from
Pryer et al. (2001).
Figure 2. Phylogentic
relatiships of land plants and their closest living relatives- the order
Charales (stoneworts) from Karol et al.
Figure 1. Phylogenetic relationships for all the
main lineages of vascular plants inferred from a maximum-likelihood
(ML) analysis of four combined data sets: chloroplast rbcL, atpB, rps4
and nuclear small-subunit rDNA. A separate unequally weighted maximum-parsimony
(MP) analysis that included a morphological data set provides the same
conclusions. Numbers at nodes and before the slash are ML bootstrap
values 50%; MP bootstrap values 50% appear after the slash
when these same nodes were supported in the MP analysis. A negative
sign (-) indicates a node had less than 50% bootstrap support in one
or the other analysis. The topology is rooted by all "bryophytes",
hence relationships depicted among them are arbitrary. Branches leading
to the three monophyletic clades of vascular plants (lycophytes, seed
plants, and horsetails+ferns) are drawn medium thick. The branch supporting
the Euphyllophytina, with horsetails+ferns as sister group to seed plants,
is the thickest. Wiggled lines (at straight arrows) indicate three areas
of conflict between the ML and MP analyses. Branch lengths are proportional
to number of substitutions/site (scale bar) (Modified from Pryer
et al., 2001).
Figure 2. Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows
that the order Charales (stoneworts) is the closest living relatives
of land plants, with the Coleochaetales sister to the land plant/Charales
lineage. Charophytes (Order Charales) are a group of submerged plants
found in aquatic habitats all over the world (Karol
et al. 2001).
Pryer, K.M., H. Schneider, A.R. Smith,
R. Cranfill, P.G. Wolf, J.S. Hunt, and S.D. Sipes. 2001. Horsetails
and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives
to seed plants. Nature 409: 618-622.
Karol, K.G., R.M. McCourt, M.T. Cimino,
and C.F. Delwiche. 2001. The Closest Living Relatives of Land Plants.
Science 294: 2351-2353.
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